Tuesday, 9 January 2018

January 9, 2018

525 years ago

While sailing near what is now the Dominican Republic, Christopher Columbus saw three manatees and mistook them for mermaids.

230 years ago

Connecticut entered the Union as the 5th state to ratify the Constitution.

225 years ago

Jean-Pierre Blanchard became the first person to fly a balloon in the United States, departing Philadelphia and landing in Deptford Township, New Jersey.

160 years ago

Died on this date
Anson Jones, 58
. 4th President of the Republic of Texas, 1844-1846. Dr. Jones was a physician who served in the Texas Senate from 1839-1841 and as Texas Secretary of State from 1841-1844, when he succeeded Sam Houston as President. Dr. Jones was the last President of Texas, an is sometimes called the "Father of Annexation," as he was in office when Texas was annexed by the United States. He was reportedly bitter about not being elected by the state legislature to represent Texas in the United States Senate, and fatally shot himself, 11 days before his 59th birthday.

The Hamilton Times newspaper in Hamilton, Ontario published its first edition; it lasted until 1920.

140 years ago

Born on this date
John B. Watson
. U.S. psychologist. Dr. Watson was the father of behaviourism, emphasizing behaviour rather than mental processes, teaching that behaviours are responses to certain stimuli, or a consequence of the individual's history, especially reward and punishment. Dr. Watson's best-known book was Psychological Care of Infant and Child (1928). His own results in child-rearing were less than successful: his daughter by his first wife attempted suicide, and both sons by his second wife attempted suicide, with one of them succeeding. Dr. Watson died on September 25, 1958 at the age of 80.

Died on this date
Victor Emmanuel II, 57
. King of Sardinia-Piedmont, 1849-1861; King of Italy, 1861-1878. Victor Emmanuel II succeeded his father Charles Albert as King of Sardinia-Piedmont, and held that title until becoming the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century. He was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church after fighting against papal troops in 1860, but King Victor Emmanuel met with Pope Pius IX's envoys in Rome, and the excommunication was reversed just before the king died. He was succeeded by his son Umberto I.

125 years ago

Born on this date
Edwin Baker
. Canadian soldier and educator. Colonel Baker lost the sight in both eyes while serving with the Sixth Field Company, Canadian Engineers during World War I in 1915. He and six others co-founded the Canadian National Institute for the Blind in 1918. Colonel Baker served as the CNIB's vice president from 1918-1920 and managing director and general secretary from 1920-1962. He died on April 7, 1968 at the age of 75.

110 years ago

The University of Saskatchewan was inaugurated.

Stanley Cup
Ottawa Victorias 3 @ Montreal Wanderers 9 (First game of 2-game total goals challenge series)

Ernie Russell scored 4 goals, Pud Glass 3, and Art Ross 2 as the defending champion Wanderers routed the Victorias of the Federal Amateur Hockey League at Montreal Arena. Eddie Roberts, Robert Harrison, and Jack Fraser scored for Ottawa. Mr. Roberts broke his collarbone.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Alma Ziegler
. U.S. baseball player. Miss Ziegler was a second baseman and pitcher with the Milwaukee (1944) and Grand Rapids (1945-1954) Chicks of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, batting .173 with 3 home runs and 239 runs batted in in 1,154 games, while posting a pitching record of 60-34 with an earned run average of 1.94. She played on AAGPBL championship teams in 1944 and 1947. Miss Ziegler died on May 30, 2005 at the age of 87.

Died on this date
Charles-Émile Reynaud, 73
. French inventor. Mr. Reynaud invented the Praxinoscope, an animation device patented in 1877. He was responsible for the first animated films to be projected onto a screen when his Pantomimes Lumineuses premiered on 28 October 1892 in Paris. Mr. Reynaud's Théâtre Optique system, patented in 1888, was also notable as the first known instance of film perforations being used. Mr. Reynaud's technology was superseded by the Cinematograph, and he died in poverty.

U.S. 10th Cavalry soldiers won a skirmish against a small group of Yaqui Indians in the Battle of Bear Valley, Arizona, one of the last battles in the American Indian Wars.

75 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): White Christmas--Bing Crosby (11th week at #1)

The Japanese-controlled Chinese government in Nanking declared war on the U.S.A. and U.K. Russian troops recaptured 12 more points in the lower Don offensive, 6 southwest of Stalingrad, and 4 in the Caucasus. Major General Carl Spaatz assumed command of the Allied Air Force in French North Africa.

Brazil extended military conscription to all 18-year-olds and naturalized citizens.

Politics and government
Jamal Ulshi succeeded Husni Bey Brazzi as Prime Minister of Syria.

The Lockheed Constellation made its first flight, from Burbank to Edwards Air Force Base, California. Eddie Allen, on loan from Boeing, was pilot, with Milo Beckham of Lockheed as co-pilot.

70 years ago

Syrian forces crossing into Palestine from Lebanon attacked the Jewish settlements of Kfar Szold and Dan in the Upper Galilee, killing two Jews before being repulsed by British forces.

The United Nations Palestine Committee held its first meeting at Lake Success, electing Karel Lisicky of Czechoslovakia chairman.

Poland's Foreign Ministry issued a list of objectives for 1948 emphasizing stronger ties with other Slav states.

The U.S. Navy transferred 4 submarines and 11 other ships to Turkey, and promised to train Turkish submarine crews, under the Truman Doctrine aid program.

Politics and government
Lebanon banned all Communist activity.

Economics and finance
China's Nationalist government announced a record budget of 96 trillion Chinese dollars ($427 million) for the first half of 1948.

In an attempt to restrict the expansion of credit, the U.S. Federal Reserve Board raised the rediscount rate from 1%-1 1/2% in 9 of 12 Federal Reserve banks.

60 years ago

Died on this date
Grigory Petrovsky, 79
. U.S.S.R. politician. Mr. Petrovsky was Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Ukraine from 1919-1938. He participated in signing the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and was one of the officials responsible for implementing collectivization and the subsequent Ukrainian famine of 1932-33. Mr. Petrovsky was forced out of office by Soviet dictator Josef Stalin during the purges of 1938, but was spared execution.

Elmer "Trigger" Burke, 40. U.S. criminal. Mr. Burke was a hit man who was executed in the electric chair at Sing Sing Prison, New York for the July 12, 1952 murder of longshoreman Edward "Poochy" Walsh, who was attempting to prevent Mr. Burke from extorting protection money from the bartender.

Algerian nationalists blew up rail lines near Conde Smedou, delaying the first shipment of Saharan oil to the Mediterranean port of Philippeville.

In notes to U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and 14 other heads of government, U.S.S.R. Premier Nikolai Bulganin called for a summit conference of North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Warsaw Pact, and selected neutralist states.

Politics and government
In his annual State of the Union address to Congress, U.S. President Eisenhower outlined a program of "imperative" steps to ensure America's safety through strength and to build "a genuine speech."

In an attempt to placate his armed forces, Venezuelan President General Marcos Pérez Jiménez dismissed Interior Minister Laureano Vallenilla Lanz and secret police chief Pedro Estrada, accused of torturing political prisoners.

United Hatters, Cap and Millinery Workers called a nationwide strike--their first in 25 years--in the United States, in a wage dispute.

Cincinnati 118 Seton Hall 54 @ New York

Oscar Robertson scored 56 points to lead the Bearcats over the Pirates before 4,615 fans at Madison Square Garden.

Frank "Pop" Ivy resigned as head coach of the Edmonton Eskimos of the Western Interprovincial Football Union to take the same position with the National Football League's Chicago Cardinals. In four seasons in Edmonton, he compiled a record of 61 wins and 18 losses, and led the team to Grey Cup championships in his first three years. Mr. Ivy was returning to the team with which he'd played as an end from 1940-1942 and 1945-1947.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Switzerland (Swiss Hitparade): Monja--Roland W. (2nd week at #1)

On television tonight
The Invaders, starring Roy Thinnes, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Counter-Attack

Wojeck, starring John Vernon, on CBC
Tonight's episode: Swing Low, Sweet Chariot: Part 2

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Olga!

The Surveyor 7 space probe made a soft landing on the Moon, two days after launch from Cape Kennedy, Florida. It was the last of America's unmanned explorations of the Moon's surface; it photographed and analyzed the lunar surface, revealing earth-type basalt and volcanic rock, supporting the theory that the moon was born either with or from the earth.

Four U.S. sailors who had deserted in Japan in 1967 because of their objection to the Vietnam War were given asylum by Sweden on "humanitarian grounds." Other American servicemen, reportedly deserters from Army camps in West Germany, were also reported to be seeking political asylum in Sweden.

Politics and government
Senator John Gorton was elected leader of the Liberal Party of Australia, defeating External Affairs Minister Paul Hasluck 51-30 on the second ballot. On the first ballot, Sen. Holt received 35 votes to 24 for Mr. Hasluck, 16 for Les Bury, and 6 for Billy Snedden. The vote was necessitated by the December 17, 1967 disappearance and presumed drowning of Prime Minister Harold Holt. Country Party leader John McEwen served as a caretaker Prime Minister of the Liberal-Country coalition government until Sen. Gorton's election as party leader. Sen. Gorton took office as Prime Minister the day after assuming the Liberal Party leadership.

Nine children and four adults were killed in a tenement fire in Brooklyn, New York.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Mull of Kintyre--Wings (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): UFO--Pink Lady (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Credo--Elsa Baeza (2nd week at #1)

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Italy: La Bamba--Los Lobos (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): When I Fall in Love--Rick Astley

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): China in Your Hand--T'Pau

#1 single in France (SNEP): Étienne--Guesch Patti (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Fairytale of New York--The Pogues featuring Kirsty MacColl (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Always on My Mind--Pet Shop Boys

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Always on My Mind--Pet Shop Boys (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): So Emotional--Whitney Houston

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Cash Box): Faith--George Michael (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Canada (RPM): Faith--George Michael (4th week at #1)

Married on this date
The Earl of St. Andrews, 17th in line to the throne, married Sylvana Tomaselli in a private ceremony in Leith, Scotland. Miss Tomaselli, from Toronto, became tne first Canadian to marry into the Royal Family; because she was a Roman Catholic, the Earl was automatically dropped from the line of succession.

AFC Divisional playoff
Indianapolis 21 @ Cleveland 38

Bernie Kosar completed 20 of 31 passes for 229 yards and 3 touchdowns and Earnest Byner rushed for 122 yards and a touchdown and caught 4 passes for 36 yards and a touchdown as the Browns defeated the Colts before 79,372 fans at Cleveland Stadium.

NFC Divisional playoff
Minnesota 36 @ San Francisco 24

Anthony Carter caught 10 passes for 227 yards and the Vikings scored 17 points in the 2nd quarter to take a 20-3 halftime lead as they upset the #1-seed 49ers before 63,008 fans at Candlestick Park.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): I Will Always Love You--Whitney Houston (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Italy: Dur dur d'être bébé!--Jordy (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Dur dur d'être bébé!--Jordy (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (VRT): I Will Always Love You--Whitney Houston

#1 single in France (SNEP): Dur dur d'être bébé!--Jordy (13th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): I Will Always Love You--Whitney Houston (5th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Chart Information Network): I Will Always Love You--Whitney Houston (6th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): I Will Always Love You--Whitney Houston (7th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Cash Box): I Will Always Love You--Whitney Houston (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Canada (RPM): I Will Always Love You--Whitney Houston (4th week at #1)

Died on this date
Paul Hasluck, 87
. Governor-General of Australia, 1969-1974. Sir Paul, a Liberal, represented Curtin in the Australian Parliament from 1949-1969 and was a cabinet minister from 1951-1969 before being appointed Governor-General.

AFC Divisional playoff
Buffalo 24 @ Pittsburgh 3

The Bills forced 4 turnovers and recorded 7 quarterback sacks as they defeated the Steelers before 60,407 fans at Three Rivers Stadium.

NFC Divisional playoff
Washington 13 @ San Francisco 20

Steve Young passed for 227 yards and 3 touchdowns before 64,991 fans at Candlestick Park as the 49ers overcame 4 turnovers to end the Redskins' reign as Super Bowl champions.

20 years ago

Died on this date
Kenichi Fukui, 79
. Japanese chemist. Professor Fukui became the first Asian to win a Nobel Prize in Chemistry when he and Roald Hoffmann shared the 1981 Prize "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions."

Wayne Gretzky was named the best player in National Hockey League history by a panel of The Hockey News voters.

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