Friday, 25 June 2021

June 25, 2021

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Gail McGonigal!

1,180 years ago
841


War
In the decisive battle of the Carolingian Civil War, divisionist forces commanded by Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated imperialist forces led by King Lothar I of Italy and King Pippin II of Aquitaine in the Battle of Fontenoy-en-Puisaye in eastern France.

730 years ago
1291


Died on this date
Eleanor of Provence, 68 (?)
. Queen consort of England, 1236-1272. Eleanor, a daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence, married King Henry III of England on January 14, 1236, and was crowned later that day. She was devoted to her husband but was unpopular with Londoners because of the large retinue of relatives that she brought with her from France. Queen Eleanor served as regent in 1253 when King Henry was in Gascony. The couple had five children, the eldest of whom acceded to the throne as King Edward I upon the death of his father. Eleanor remained as queen dowager, and raised several of her grandchildren.

280 years ago
1741


Europeana
Maria Theresa was crowned Queen of Hungary in St. Martin's Cathedral, Pressburg (now Bratislava).

260 years ago
1761


Diplomacy
Mi’kmaq Indians of Shediac, Pokemouche and Miramichi agreed to the 1760 Treaty of Peace and Friendship, as a renewal of the agreements of 1725 and 1749, re-affirming Mi’kmaq hunting and fishing rights.

160 years ago
1861


Died on this date
Abdülmecid, 38
. Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, 1839-1861. Abdülmecid acceded to the throne upon the death of his father Mahmud II. His reign was characterized by the rise of nationalist movements within the empire; Sultan Abdülmecid attempted to integrate non-Muslims and non-Turks into Ottoman society, but he was unsuccessful. He died of tuberculosis and was succeeded by his younger half-brother Abdülaziz.

125 years ago
1896


Died on this date
Samuel Leonard Tilley, 78
. Canadian politician. Sir Samuel, a native of Gagetown New Brunswick, was a Conservative who served as Premier of New Brunswick (1861-1865), and was a Father of Confederation, being credited with coming up with the term Dominion of Canada. He served in the cabinet of Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald (1867-1873), and was Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick (1873-1878, 1885-1893). Sir Samuel died in Saint John.

120 years ago
1901


Born on this date
H. Roe Bartle
. U.S. politician. Harold Roe Bartle, a Democrat, was an executive with the Boy Scouts, and served on the boards of directors of various businesses and charities before serving as Mayor of Kansas City, Missouri (1956-1963). As Mayor, he oversaw social and political reforms; the Dallas Texans of the American Football League moved to Kansas City in 1963 and were renamed the Chiefs, which was Mr. Bartle's nickname. Mr. Bartle stood 6' 4" and weighed more than 200 pounds as a young man; he gained weight in later years until he may have weighed 375 pounds. Mr. Bartle died of diabetes and heart disease on May 9, 1974 at the age of 72.

110 years ago
1911


Born on this date
William Howard Stein
. U.S. biochemist. Dr. Stein shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Stanford Moore "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule." Dr. Stein died on February 2, 1980 at the age of 68.

100 years ago
1921


Born on this date
Celia Franca
. U.K.- born Canadian dancer. Miss Franca, born Celia Franks, was a successful ballerina with the Sadler's Wells company before she moved to Toronto in 1950, and founded the National Ballet of Canada in 1951, serving as its artistic director for 24 years. She co-founded the National Ballet School of Canada in 1959. Miss Franca died on February 19, 2007 at the age of 85.

Golf
Jock Hutchison became the first American to win the British Open when he defeated Roger Wethered of England 150-159 in a 36-hole playoff at the Old Course at St. Andrews in Scotland.



80 years ago
1941


War
The Continuation War began when the U.S.S.R. launched an air offensive, with 460 fighters and bombers targeting 19 airfields in Finland. Inaccurate intelligence and poor bombing accuracy resulted in several raids hitting Finnish cities, or municipalities, causing considerable damage. 23 Soviet bombers were lost in this strike, while the Finnish forces lost no aircraft. The British command announced that its troops had reoccupied Merdiayoun and Inbales Saki in the central sector in Syria.

Defense
U.S. Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles announced that President Franklin D. Roosevelt would not invoke the Neutrality Act against the U.S.S.R., thus permitting American ships to carry war material to Vladivostok. U.S. Senator Robert Taft (Republican--Ohio) opposed aid to the Soviet Union, saying that a Communist victory "would be far more dangerous than the victory of Fascism." The Cuban cabinet passed a resolution reiterating Cuba's moral identification with U.S. President Roosevelt's statements toward the defense of America.

Diplomacy
The Turkish National Assembly ratified the Turko-German friendship pact.

World events
English author P.G. Wodehouse disclosed in Berlin that he had been released after a year in an internment camp, and said that he would broadcast over German radio once a week to the United States on non-political subjects.

Politics and government
A trial committee of the New York City Board of Higher Education found John K. Ackley, registrar of City College of New York, guilty of Communist activity and interference with the Rapp-Coudert committee's work, and recommended his dismissal.

Economics and finance
U.S. Office of Price Administration Administrator Leon Henderson announced that Chrysler Corporation had refused to rescind price increases on new cars, and that therefore the OPA would be forced to fix prices for the entire industry.

Labour
U.S. President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802, establishing a Committee on Fair Employment Pracitces and barring racial discrimination in defense industries.

75 years ago
1946


World events
The Costa Rican government put down an alleged coup attempt in San Jose, killing one person and arresting a number of others.

Politics and government
The All-India Congress Party working committee accepted Viceroy Archibald Wavell's long-range proposals for Indian independence, after rejecting his plan for an interim government.

The Italian Constituent Assembly elected Socialist Giuseppe Saragat as chairman at its first session.

U.S. Senator Milton Young (Republican--North Dakota) defeated former Senator Gerald Nye in a special primary to fill a Senate term of 4½ years, while Sen. William Langer (Republican--North Dakota) was renominated to a regular 6-year term.

Law
Massachusetts Chief Justice John Higgins resigned from the International Military Tribunal for the Far East.

Religion
The Catholic Theological Society of America was founded in New York, with Dr. Francis Connell of Catholic University as president.

Economics and finance
The United States unfroze $700 million in gold held by Argentina in the New York Federal Reserve Bank.

Business
First Boston Corporation and Mellon Corporation merged, creating a capital fund of $25 million, the largest of any investment banking firm in the United States.

Labour
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that average hourly wages for production workers in manufacturing had reached a record high of $1.06 in April 1946, with weekly average earnings averaging $42.92.

70 years ago
1951


On television tonight
The first commercial colour program was transmitted by CBS from New York to Baltimore, Philadelphia, Boston, and Washington, D.C. It was an hour-long special hosted by Arthur Godfrey, with Faye Emerson, Sam Levenson, Ed Sullivan and others participating. It was seen only on three dozen colour sets owned by CBS.

Died on this date
Mark Morton, 92
. U.S. businessman. Mr. Morton and his brother Joy bought the salt distributor Richmond and Company in 1886 and renamed it Joy Morton and Company; it went through another name change before becoming the Morton Salt Company in 1910. Mark Morton died after a long illness.

War
South Korean President Syngman Rhee rejected any truce negotiations that did not provide for Korean unification, and demanded that his government participate in all United Nations discussions affecting it. The U.S. Senate Foreign Affairs and Armed Services Committees concluded 42 days of hearings on U.S. Far Eastern policy and General Douglas MacArthur's ouster. The last witness was Gen. Emmett O'Donnell, Jr., former head of the Far East Bomber Command, who urged restraint in Korea to save U.S. strength for a possible confrontation with the U.S.S.R.

Society
National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples Executive Secretary Walter White predicted in Atlanta that all racial segregation in the United States would be eliminated within 10 years.

Labour
A strike of 15,000 Chilean copper miners against American-owned mines in Antofagasta Province ended when the government threatened to occupy the mines.

The U.S. National Farm Labor Union suspended its picketing of Imperial Valley farms, accusing the Labor Department of serving as "an employment agency for strike-breakers" by failing to remove illegal Mexican workers.

60 years ago
1961


Diplomacy
Japanese Prime Minister Hyato Ikeda arrived in Ottawa to begin a two-day visit to Canada.

50 years ago
1971


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): I Am...I Said--Neil Diamond (4th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Butterfly--Danyel Gérard (5th week at #1)

South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 Joy to the World--Three Dog Night (3rd week at #1)
2 Funny Funny--The Sweet
3 If Not for You--Olivia Newton-John
4 Long Days and Lonely Nights--Lincoln
5 Mozart: Symphony No. 40 In G Minor K.550 1° Movement (Allegro Molto)--Waldo de Los Rios
6 Put Your Hand in the Hand--Alan Garrity
7 The Seagull's Name was Nelson--Des & Dawn
8 It Don't Come Easy--Ringo Starr
9 When Love Comes Knocking at Your Door--The Dealians
10 Shilo--Neil Diamond

Singles entering the chart were Tomorrow is Over by Dave Mills (#19); and Sea Cruise by Johnny Rivers (#20).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKLG)
1 It's Too Late--Carole King (2nd week at #1)
2 Never Ending Song of Love--Delaney & Bonnie & Friends
3 Double Lovin'--The Osmonds
4 When You're Hot, You're Hot--Jerry Reed
5 Rainy Days and Mondays--Carpenters
6 Indian Reservation (The Lament of the Cherokee Reservation Indian)--Raiders
7 Don't Pull Your Love--Hamilton, Joe Frank & Reynolds
8 Signs--Five Man Electrical Band
9 Deep Enough for Me--Ocean
10 I Love You Lady Dawn--The Bells

Singles entering the chart were Suzanne by Tom Northcott (#16, charting with its other side, Spaceship Races); How Can You Mend a Broken Heart by the Bee Gees (#22); House at Pooh Corner by the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band (#28); Summer Sand by Dawn (#29); and Sooner or Later by the Grass Roots (#30).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKVN)
1 Never Ending Song of Love--Delaney & Bonnie & Friends (3rd week at #1)
2 It's Too Late/I Feel the Earth Move--Carole King
3 Signs--Five Man Electrical Band
4 Indian Reservation (The Lament of the Cherokee Reservation Indian)--Raiders
5 Rainy Days and Mondays--Carpenters
6 You're Gonna Miss Me--Wishbone
7 High Time We Went/Black Eyed Blues--Joe Cocker
8 It Don't Come Easy--Ringo Starr
9 Done Too Soon--Neil Diamond
10 Uncle Albert/Smile Away (LP tracks)--Paul McCartney

Singles entering the chart were Black Eyed Blues; Sweet City Woman by the Stampeders (#27); Summer Sand by Dawn (#29); and Sunniland by Dion (#30).

Died on this date
John Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd-Orr, 90
. U.K. biologist, physician, and politician. Lord Boyd-Orr was an expert in animal and human nutrition, directing the Rowett Research Institute in Scotland from 1914-1945. He was awarded the 1949 Nobel Peace Prize, mainly for his work as Director-General fo the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (1945-1948) and as President of the National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations. Lord Boyd-Orr was an independent member of the House of Commons for the Combined Scottish Universities (1945-1946), and was elevated to the peerage in 1949. He was the co-founder and first president of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS) from 1960 until his death.

Canadiana
Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip arrived in Toronto to begin a 10-day visit to Canada.

40 years ago
1981


Business
Microsoft was restructured to become an incorporated business in its home state of Washington.

30 years ago
1991


World events
Croatia and Slovenia proclaimed their independence, beginning the Yugoslavian civil war.

Protest
James Bay Cree Indians erected a barricade at Whapmagootui airport, forcing cancellation of the first public hearings into Hydro-Québec's Great Whale dam project.

Scandal
Alex Hickman, Chief Justice of the Newfoundland Supreme Court trial division, was cleared by the Canadian Judicial Council of accusations of having financial dealings with banks under review by the court.

25 years ago
1996


Died on this date
Arthur Snelling, 82
. U.K. diplomat. Sir Arthur's posts included High Commissioner to Ghana (1959-1961) and Ambassador to South Africa (1970-1973). He died of emphysema while being treated for lung cancer.

Education
Eastwood Junior High School in Edmonton held its Awards Day. This blogger presented the Monarchist League Award to Leigh-Ann Nielsen, the Grade 8 student "who has demonstrated significant academic improvements, excellent citizenship, and is involved in school activities."

Terrorism
A truck bomb killed 19 Americans and injured hundreds at a U.S. military housing complex in Khobar, Saudi Arabia.

Diplomacy
Canadian Minister of Foreign Affairs Lloyd Axworthy announced sanctions against Nigeria in response to that country's summary execution of minority rights activists. The sanctions included an arms embargo; a ban on sporting contacts; the downgrading of cultural and diplomatic links; and some visa regulations.

United Nations-sponsored talks aimed at uniting the Turkish and Cypriot factions in Cyprus resumed after an 18-month delay.

Religion
The Chinese government stepped up its attacks on the Dalai Lama, denouncing his hopes for the return of Tibetan independence. The Chinese Communist regime also had their choice as Panchen Lama initiated as a monk.

20 years ago
2001


Died on this date
John LeRoy, 26
. U.S. baseball pitcher. Mr. LeRoy (or Leroy), a native of Bellevue, Washington, was one of the few pitchers to be credited with a win in his only major league game. He pitched the 10th and 11th innings for the Atlanta Braves on September 25, 1997, giving up 1 hit and 3 bases on balls, but recording 3 strikeouts and not allowing a run, as the Braves edged the New York Mets 7-6 at Shea Stadium in New York. Mr. LeRoy returned to the minor leagues after 1997, playing in the Tampa Bay Devil Rays' organization in 1998 and 1999, and the Cincinnati Reds' system in 2000. In 2001 he was with the Sioux City Explorers in the independent Northern League, but had a heart attack and brain aneurysm as he was about to undergo arm surgery on June 22, going into a coma. He was taken off life support when no further brain activity was detected. Mr. LeRoy compiled a record of 29-30 in 151 games in nine seasons in the minor and independent leagues (1993-2001).

Protest
200 white and Asian youths went on a destructive rampage in Burnley, Lancashire, England.

10 years ago
2011


Died on this date
Margaret Tyzack, 79
. U.K. actress. Miss Tyzack appeared on stage, screen, and television, and was noted for her classical stage roles. She won a Tony Award for her featured performance in Lettice and Lovage (1990), and won a BAFTA TV Award for her starring performance in the serial The First Churchills (1969). Miss Tyzack's two dozen films included 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968); A Clockwork Orange (1971); and Mrs Dalloway (1997). She died after a short illness.

Annie Easley, 78. U.S. computer scientist and mathematician. Miss Easley worked with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) and its successor, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from 1955-1989 as one of its first Negro employees. Her achievements included developing and implementing computer code that analyzed alternative power technologies, supporting the Centaur high-energy upper rocket stage; determining solar, wind and energy projects; and identifying energy conversion systems and alternative systems to solve energy problems.

Goff Richards, 66. U.K. composer and conductor. Mr. Richards composed for and conducted brass bands in Cornwall, and was musical director of the Chetham's Big Band for many years.

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