Thursday, 25 April 2019

April 21, 2019

510 years ago

Died on this date
Henry VII, 52
. King of England and Lord of Ireland, 1485-1509. Henry VII took the throne as the first monarch of the House of Tudor by defeating the forces of King Richard III in the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, concluding the Wars of the Roses. Henry VII was known for his shrewd economic and foreign policies, and for initiating legal reforms such as the use of Justices of the Peace and the Court of Star Chamber. He died of tuberculosis and was succeeded on the throne by his second son Henry VIII.

400 years ago

Born on this date
Jan van Riebeeck
. Dutch colonial administrator. Mr. van Riebeeck served with the Dutch East India Company in various capacities, most notably as the founder of Cape Town, South Africa and Commander of the Cape from 1652-1662. He died in Batavia, Java on January 18, 1677 at the age of 57.

370 years ago

The Maryland Toleration Act, which provided for freedom of worship for all Christians, was passed by the Maryland assembly.

230 years ago

Politics and government
John Adams was sworn in as the 1st Vice President of the United States, nine days before George Washington took office as the 1st President.

210 years ago

Born on this date
Robert M.T. Hunter
. U.S. and C.S. politician. Mr. Hunter, a Whig before 1844 and a Democrat afterward, represented Essex County in the Virginia House of Delegates (1834-1837) before moving into national politics, representing Virginia in the U.S. House of Representatives (1837-1843, 1845-1847), serving as Speaker of the House (1839-1841). He represented Virginia in the U.S. Senate (1847-1861), leaving upon his state's secession from the Union. Mr. Hunter served as Confederate States Secretary of State from May 1861-February 1862, resigning when he was elected to the C.S. Senate. He represented Virginia and was President pro tempore of the C.S. Senate until the dissolution of the Confederacy in May 1865, and was a frequent critic of C.S. President Jefferson Davis during the American Civil War. Mr. Hunter was unsuccessful in an attempt to gain election to the U.S. Senate in 1874, but accepted the appointment of Treasurer of Virginia, serving from 1874-1880. He died on July 18, 1887 at the age of 78.

Two Austrian army corps were driven from Landshut by a First French Empire army led by Napoleon Bonaparte as two French corps to the north held off the main Austrian army on the first day of the Battle of Eckmühl.

130 years ago

Born on this date
Paul Karrer
. Russian-born Swiss chemist. Dr. Karrer shared the 1937 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Walter Haworth, both of whom had conducted research on vitamins. Dr. Karrer died on June 18, 1971 at the age of 82.

Efrem Zimbalist. Russian-born U.S. musician. Mr. Zimbalist was one of the world's most prominent concert violinists in the first half of the 20th century. He directed the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia from 1941-1968. Mr. Zimbalist died on February 22, 1985 at the age of 95.

125 years ago

Norway formally adopted the Krag–Jørgensen bolt-action rifle as the main arm of its armed forces, a weapon that would remain in service for almost 50 years.

120 years ago

Born on this date
Randall Thompson
. U.S. composer. Mr. Thompson wrote three symphonies, but was best known for his choral works, including the song cycle Americana (1932). He died on July 9, 1984 at the age of 85.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Roger Doucet
. Canadian singer. Mr. Doucet, a native of Montreal, was famous for singing O Canada before Montreal Canadiens' hockey games at the Montreal Forum, and made highly-regarded recordings of national anthems of various countries. Mr. Doucet died of a brain tumour on July 19, 1981 at the age of 62.

Jack Britton. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Britton was a third baseman with the Birmingham Black Barons (1944-1948) and Indianapolis Clowns (1950) of the Negro American League, batting .249 with 1 home run and 36 runs batted in. He played in the minor leagues with the Winnipeg Buffaloes (1950) and Elmwood Giants (1951) of the Manitoba-Dakota League, and with the Hankyu Braves of the Japanese Pacific League (1952-1953), batting .293 with 5 home runs and 95 runs batted in in 194 games in Japan. Mr. Britton and pitcher Jimmy Newberry, his teammate with Hankyu in 1952, were the first American Negroes to play professionally in Japan. Mr. Britton died on December 2, 1990 at the age of 71.

Don Cornell. U.S. singer. Born Luigi Varlaro, Mr. Cornell was with the band of Sammy Kaye in the 1940s before embarking on a successful solo career. His hit solo singles included I'll Walk Alone (1950); I'm Yours (1950); I (1952); Hold My Hand (1954); and The Bible Tells Me So (1955). Mr. Cornell died on February 23, 2004 at the age of 84.

75 years ago

Japanese forces, aided by reinforcements from Manchukuo, were reported to be quickly encircling the northern Honan town of Chengchow. U.S. Army Lieutenant General George Patton was assigned to an undisclosed European command.

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill said that the Atlantic Charter reserved the right of the United Kingdom to maintain her empire.

Politics and government
Marshal Pietro Badoglio announced a new Italian cabinet in which he would serve as prime minister and foreign minister, with representatives of opposition parties which had been critical of his government.

U.S. Senator Clyde Reed (Republican--Kansas) introduced a resolution in the Senate for an investigation of "unauthorized disclosures of information obtained through censorship channels."

Economics and finance
U.S. Treasure Secretary Henry Morgenthau said that representatives of 30 Allied nations had agreed in principle on a plan for establishment of an $8-billion currency stabilization fund to be administered by the World Bank.

The U.S. Maritime Commission announced in Washington that it had completed negotiations with Henry Kaiser's Oregon Shipbuilding Corporation, reducing its profits by $6,322,954.

The National Football League announced the merger of the Chicago Cardinals and Pittsburgh Steelers for the 1944 season, with the team officially known as Card-Pitt.

70 years ago

The United States launched the sounding rocket Bumper 6 from White Sands Proving Grounds in White Sands, New Mexico; there was a premature V-2 cut-off, and the WAC stage failed to fire.

Chinese Communist forces crossed the Yangtze River at four points near Nanking, facing little Nationalist resistance. Exchange of fire between Communists and U.K. ships continued as the heavy cruiser London unsuccessfully attempted to reach the disabled Amethyst.

Kenneth Royall resigned as U.S. Secretary of the Army.

U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson and Defense Secretary Louis Johnson asked Congress to provide $1.13 billion in military aid to Western Europe under the North Atlantic security pact, and $320 million to Greece and Turkey.

A Greek court in Salonika sentenced former Communist Gregory Staktopoulos to life in prison for the 1948 murder of CBS radio correspondent George Polk.

A new U.S. Roman Catholic catechism, the first major revision in 60 years, was issued; it denied that "everyone who is not a Catholic will be condemned."

City College of New York students ended an unsuccessful five-day strike aimed at forcing the removal of two faculty members accused of anti-Semitism and discrimination against Negroes.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Senate passed a public housing bill providing $1 billion in federal loans and $500 million in federal grants for a five-year slum clearance program.

60 years ago

On television tonight
Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Secret, starring Maria Palmer, Robert Douglas, and Albert Carrier

Divorced on this date
U.S. swimmer and actress Esther Williams and movie producer Ben Gage were divorced in Los Angeles.

Politics and government
The U.S. Senate confirmed the nomination of Christian Herter as Secretary of State.

Economics and finance
British Board of Trade President Sir David Eccles said that he would lead a trade mission to Moscow to seek expasion of U.K.-U.S.S.R. commerce.

U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower imposed tariff-quota curbs on woolen imports for the third consecutive year.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Yoake no Scat--Saori Yuki (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Las Flechas Del Amor (Little Arrows)--Karina (6th week at #1)

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In (The Flesh Failures)--The 5th Dimension (3rd week at #1)
2 You've Made Me So Very Happy--Blood, Sweat & Tears
3 Hair--The Cowsills
4 Don't Give in to Him--Gary Puckett and the Union Gap
5 Only the Strong Survive--Jerry Butler
6 Rock Me--Steppenwolf
7 Gimme Gimme Good Lovin'--Crazy Elephant
8 Galveston--Glen Campbell
9 Brother Love's Travelling Salvation Show--Neil Diamond
10 Twenty-Five Miles--Edwin Starr

Singles entering the chart were Love (Can Make You Happy) by Mercy (#55); Goodbye by Mary Hopkin (#59); I Can't See Myself Leaving You by Aretha Franklin (#64); I'm a Drifter by Bobby Goldsboro (#69); Any Day Now by Percy Sledge (#72); I Don't Want to Hear it Anymore by Dusty Springfield (#73); I Can't Do Enough by the Dells (#78); Happy Heart by Petula Clark (#82); Too Busy Thinking About My Baby by Marvin Gaye (#86); We Can't Go On This Way by Unchained Mynds (#92); Heather Honey by Tommy Roe (#93); Singing My Song by Tammy Wynette (#97); I Shall Be Released by the Box Tops (#98); I've Been Hurt by Bill Deal & the Rhondels (#99); and Sausalito by Al Martino (#100).

A United States Navy task force of 23 warships began moving into the Sea of Japan in response to the downing of an American reconnaissance plane by North Korea six days earlier.

More than 1,000 British soldiers arrived in Northern Ireland to protect reservoirs, telephone exchanges, and power stations in the wake of weekend riots.

An Indian plane crashed near Khulna, East Pakistan, killing all 44 aboard.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Rhodesia (Lyons Maid): Le Freak--Chic (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Tragedy--Bee Gees (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland: Bright Eyes--Art Garfunkel (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Bright Eyes--Art Garfunkel (2nd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 In the Navy--Village People
2 Lay Your Love on Me--Racey
3 Lucky Number--Lene Lovich
4 Stir it Up--Bob Marley & the Wailers
5 Hooray! Hooray! It's a Holi-Holiday--Boney M.
6 I Will Survive--Gloria Gaynor
7 Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground)--The Jacksons
8 Fire!--Pointer Sisters
9 Born to Be Alive--Patrick Hernandez
10 Greenpeace--Teach In

Singles entering the chart were Some Girls by Racey (#21); I Want You to Want Me by Cheap Trick (#27); I'm the Toughest by Peter Tosh (#34); Hendrik Haverkamp by Normaal (#37); Oliver's Army by Elvis Costello (#38); and Ik Wil Jou by Polle Eduard (#39).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Knock on Wood--Amii Stewart
2 I Will Survive--Gloria Gaynor
3 Heart of Glass--Blondie
4 Music Box Dancer--Frank Mills
5 What a Fool Believes--The Doobie Brothers
6 Reunited--Peaches & Herb
7 Stumblin' In--Suzi Quatro & Chris Norman
8 Tragedy--Bee Gees
9 I Want Your Love--Chic
10 Sultans of Swing--Dire Straits

Singles entering the chart were Love You Inside Out by the Bee Gees (#37); Honesty by Billy Joel (#71); Ain't Love a Bitch by Rod Stewart (#73); Hot Stuff by Donna Summer (#79); You Take My Breath Away by Rex Smith (#84); Touch Me Baby by Ultimate (#85); and Can't Sleep by the Rockets (#90). You Take My Breath Away was from the made-for-television movie Sooner or Later.

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Knock on Wood--Amii Stewart
2 Music Box Dancer--Frank Mills
3 What a Fool Believes--The Doobie Brothers
4 Heart of Glass--Blondie
5 Reunited--Peaches & Herb
6 Stumblin' In--Suzi Quatro & Chris Norman
7 Tragedy--Bee Gees
8 I Will Survive--Gloria Gaynor
9 In the Navy--Village People
10 I Want Your Love--Chic

Singles entering the chart were Love You Inside Out by the Bee Gees (#39); Hot Stuff by Donna Summer (#48); Honesty by Billy Joel (#66); She Believes in Me by Kenny Rogers (#74); You Take My Breath Away by Rex Smith (#84); You Can't Change That by Raydio (#86); Dance Away by Roxy Music (#88); I Want You to Want Me by Cheap Trick (#89); Can't Sleep by the Rockets (#90); I (Who Have Nothing) by Sylvester (#95); There But for the Grace of God Go I by Machine (#97); and Star Love by Cheryl Lynn (#98).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 I Just Fall in Love Again--Anne Murray
2 What a Fool Believes--The Doobie Brothers
3 Tragedy--Bee Gees
4 Sultans of Swing--Dire Straits
5 Shake Your Groove Thing--Peaches & Herb
6 Knock on Wood--Amii Stewart
7 Lady--Little River Band
8 Every Time I Think of You--The Babys
9 Heart of Glass--Blondie
10 Forever in Blue Jeans--Neil Diamond

Singles entering the chart were Old Time Rock & Roll by Bob Seger & the Silver Bullet Band (#87); Just When I Needed You Most by Randy Vanwarmer (#89); (Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay by Sammy Hagar (#90); Bridge Over Troubled Water by Linda Clifford (#91); I Need Your Help Barry Manilow by Ray Stevens (#92); Reunited by Peaches & Herb (#93); The Boys in the Sports Car by Trooper (#98); and Bang a Gong by Witch Queen (#100).

Died on this date
Ira Vail, 85
. Canadian-born U.S. auto racing driver. Mr. Vail, a native of Montreal, raced in the Indianapolis 500 in 1919; 1921; 1922; 1924; and 1925. He completed the first four of those races, finishing 7th in 1921 and 8th in the other three. In 1925 he finished 20th, being forced out after 63 laps because of a broken rod. On May 30, 1917, he managed a third place finish in the International Sweepstakes, a 250-mile race held in Cincinnati in place of the Indianapolis 500, which had been cancelled that year. Mr. Vail was inducted into the National Sprint Car Hall of Fame in the United States in 1993. Ira Vail was no relation to Noah Vail, to whom all seems to be done.

Politics and government
Moderates were big winners as the five-day "Common Roll" elections for black majority rule in Zimbabwe Rhodesia concluded. Bishop Abel Muzorewa's United African National Council won 51 seats in the House of Assembly; the Zimbabwe African National Union,led by Ndabaningi Sithole, won 12 seats, and the United National Federal Party, led by Kayisa Ndiweni, won 9 seats. The "White Roll" elections on April 10 had resulted in Ian Smith's Rhodesian Front winning all 28 seats contested.

Stanley Cup
Boston 2 @ Pittsburgh 1 (Boston led best-of-seven series 3-0)
Montreal 4 @ Toronto 3 (2 OT) (Montreal led best-of-seven series 3-0)

Rick Middleton scored at 5:03 of the 3rd period to break a 1-1 tie as the Bruins edged the Penguins at Civic Arena. Gerry Cheevers made 23 saves to win the goaltending duel over Denis Herron.

Cam Connor, who had scored just 1 goal in 23 regular season games in 1978-79, scored his first Stanley Cup goal at 5:25 of the 2nd overtime period to give the Canadiens their win over the Maple Leafs at Maple Leaf Gardens. Darryl Sittler scored 2 goals for Toronto, including the tying goal with 2:20 remaining in regulation time.

Avco World Trophy
Cincinnati 3 @ New England 5 (New England led best-of-three series 1-0)

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Looking for Freedom--David Hasselhoff (4th week at #1)

Died on this date
James Kirkwood, Jr., 64
. U.S. actor, playwright, and author. Mr. Kirkwood acted in the television soap opera Valiant Lady (1953-1957) and wrote several novels, but was best known for co-writing the book for the musical play A Chorus Line (1975), for which he shared a Tony Award and a Pulitzer Prize for Drama with collaborator Nicholas Dante. Mr. Kirkwood died of AIDS.

In Beijing, about 100,000 students gathered in Tiananmen Square to commemorate recently-deceased Chinese Communist reform leader Hu Yaobang.

The Order of British Columbia was founded to honour distinguished people who had benefited the province.

Stanley Cup
Division Finals
Montreal 5 @ Boston 4 (Montreal led best-of-seven series 3-0)

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Jos sulla on toinen--Taikapeili (4th week at #1)

Paul Hill, one of the "Guildford Four" convicted of the 1974 Irish Republican Army murder of a British soldier, was cleared by the Appeal Court in Belfast because his confession had been obtained improperly.

20 years ago

Died on this date
Charles "Buddy" Rogers, 94
. U.S. actor and musician. Mr. Rogers was a popular leading man in movies in the late 1920s and early '30s, earning the nickname "America's Boy Friend." He was best known for his co-starring role in Wings (1927). Mr. Rogers played several musical instruments, and made recordings as a bandleader in the 1930s. He was married to actress Mary Pickford from 1937 until her death in 1979.

In response to the killings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado the day before, the National Rifle Association said that it would cut its convention in Denver the following week from three days to one.

Intelligence officials gave an assessment to U.S. President Bill Clinton and Congress confirming that China had obtained secret data on nuclear weapons, and that it was likely that China was engaged in more spying.

The Dallas Stars defeated the Edmonton Oilers 2-1 at Reunion Arena in Dallas on opening night of the Stanley Cup playoffs.

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