Thursday, 25 April 2019

April 22, 2019

500 years ago

Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés established a settlement at Veracruz.

490 years ago

The Treaty of Zaragoza divided the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal along a line 297.5 leagues (1,250 kilometres (780 miles)) east of the Moluccas.

210 years ago

The Austrian army was defeated by the First French Empire army led by Napoleon Bonaparte and driven over the Danube in Regensburg, concluding the Battle of Eckmühl.

175 years ago

Born on this date
Lewis Powell
. U.S./C.S. criminal. Mr. Powell, a native of Alabama, fought for the Confederacy in the American Civil War and was wounded in the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863. On April 14, 1865, while John Wilkes Booth was assassinating U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, Mr. Powell attempted to assassinate U.S. Secretary of State William Seward. He broke into Mr. Seward's home and stabbed him, but Mr. Seward survived. Mr. Powell died at the age of 21 on July 7, 1865 when he and three co-conspirators were hanged in Washington.

The Bytown Packet--later the Ottawa Citizen--published its first edition.

130 years ago

Born on this date
Richard Glücks
. German SS officer. SS-Gruppenführer Glücks was the highest-ranking Concentration Camps Inspector in Nazi Germany. He was directly responsible for the forced labour of the camp inmates, and was also the supervisor for the medical practices in the camps, ranging from human experimentation to the implementation of mass murder of inmates with Zyklon-B gas. Mr. Glücks reportedly committed suicide on May 10, 1945, 18 days after his 56th birthday, by swallowing a potassium cyanide capsule at the Mürwik naval base in Flensburg.

At high noon, thousands rushed to claim land in Oklahoma in the Land Run of 1889. Within hours, the cities of Oklahoma City and Guthrie were formed with populations of at least 10,000.

120 years ago

Born on this date
Vladimir Nabokov
. Russian-born author. Mr. Nabokov was best known for his novel Lolita (1955). He was nominated seven times for the U.S. National Book Award for Fiction. Mr. Nabokov died on July 2, 1977 at the age of 78.

110 years ago

Born on this date
Spyros Markezinis
. Prime Minister of Greece, 1973. Mr. Markezinis was first elected to Parliament in 1946 as a member of the United Nationalist Party, but he soon left and founded the New Party, and later founded several other parties. He held several cabinet posts in the 1950s, and was praised for his economic reforms. Mr. Markezinis served as Prime Minister from September-November 1973 during an attempt to democratize the military dictatorship that was then governing Greece, but the government was overthrown. Mr. Markezinis was involved in the negotiations that saw the return of democratic government to Greece in 1974. He died on January 4, 2000 at the age of 90.

Indro Montanelli. Italian journalist. Mr. Montanelli was a foreign correspondent in various countries in the 1930s through the 1950s, and was acclaimed for his ability to write in such a way as to be understood by ordinary people. He originally wrote for a Fascist newspaper, but later turned against Fascism. Mr. Montanelli was still active when he died on July 22, 2001 at the age of 92.

Rita Levi-Montalcini. Italian neurobiologist. Dr. Levi-Montalcini shared the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Stanley Cohen "for their discoveries of growth factors." She died on December 30, 2012 at the age of 103.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Donald J. Cram
. U.S. chemist. Dr. Cram shared the 1987 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Jean-Marie Lehn and Charles J. Pedersen "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity." They founded of the field of host–guest chemistry. Dr. Cram died on June 17, 2001 at the age of 82.

Carl Lindner, Jr. U.S. businessman. Mr. Lindner expanded his family's business into the United Dairy Farmers convenience store chain, and controlled the insurance and investment firm American Financial Group, becoming a billionaire. Mr. Lindner was part-owner of the Cincinnati Reds baseball club in the early 21st century, and donated generously to churches and Jewish organizations. Mr. Lindner died on October 17, 2011 at the age of 92.

In Fredericton, New Brunswick, Stephen L. Chauncey Coleman patented the stabilizing bar for motor vehicle suspensions. A prolific inventor, Mr. Coleman later developed many improvements in automobile technology.

75 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): It's Love-Love-Love--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians with Skip Nelson and the Lombardo Trio (Best Seller--1st week at #1); Bésame Mucho (Kiss Me Much)--Jimmy Dorsey and his Orchestra with Bob Eberly and Kitty Kallen (Jukebox--1st week at #1)

Died on this date
Nikolaos Roussen, 30
. Greek military officer. Captain Roussen was killed three days before his 31st birthday while leading a detachment to recover the corvette Apostolis, which had been commandeered by its crew as part of a mutiny within the Royal Hellenic Navy.

Operation Persecution was initiated, as Allied forces landed in the Hollandia area of New Guinea. The 1st Air Commando Group, using Sikorsky R-4 helicopters, staged the first use of helicopters in combat with CSAR operations in the China-Burma-India theater. Japanese troops entered Chengchow. Long-range Nazi artillery engaged in heavy shelling of the Allied Italian beachhead at Anzio. German attempts to attack Soviet positions at Narva, Estonia and around Stanislav, Poland were repulsed. The U.S.S.R. announced that peace negotiations with Finland had collapsed with the rejection of Soviet demands.

U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Tom Connally appointed himself and seven other members of the committee to a special group to confer with Secretary of State Cordell Hull on the establishment of a postwar organization to maintain world peace.

Delegates to the International Labor Organization convention voted to exclude Argentine representative Luis Girola on the grounds that he had been named "by a fascist government which favors the Axis."

Politics and government
Republicans in Kentucky endorsed New York Governor Tom Dewey as the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in the November 1944 election.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission announced the completion of a study of corporate profits for the 1936-1942 period which showed a drop in profits due to higher taxation and costs.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York disclosed that 15,000 of its most valuable objects, removed shortly after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, had been returned to the museum.

70 years ago

On television tonight
Your Show Time, hosted and narrated by Arthur Shields, on NBC
Tonight's episode: A Confession on New Year's Eve, starring John Archer and Stanley Waxman

Died on this date
Charles Middleton, 74
. U.S. actor. Mr. Middleton didn't begin acting until he was 46, but appeared in almost 200 movies. He was best known for playing Ming the Merciless in the Flash Gordon serials (1936-1940). Mr. Middleton died of a heart attack.

Nationalist military forces and police abandoned Nanking in the face of the Communist assault, giving rise to widespread looting in the city.

Politics and government
Foy Kohler succeeded Charles Thayer as head of the international broadcasting division in the U.S. State Department's Office of International Information. The position included supervision of Voice of America programs.

Former Federal Bureau of Investigation informant Garfield Herron testified at the New York trial of 11 U.S. Communist party leaders that party schools viewed the United States as the chief post-World War II target of a Communist revolution.

Dr. Garwood Richardson of Northwestern University reported the development of an accurate urine test for pregnancy.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Federal Reserve Board eased credit controls for the third time in seven weeks in order to combat the current deflationary trend.

60 years ago

Divorced on this date
Anna Kashfi (Joan O'Callaghan), U.S. actress, divorced U.S. actor Marlon Brando in Santa Monica, California.

Politics and government
Indonesian President Sukarno called on the Constituent Assembly to inaugurate a program of socialist reconstruction and "guided democracy" designed to eliminate capitalism in the country.

Alabama Governor John Patterson told a U.S. Senate Judiciary subcommittee that "the citizens of my state will not tolerate or support an integrated school system."

The U.S. National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements revised downward its earlier estimate of the danger to human health from radioactive strontium-90 in fallout, raising the maximum permissible levels of strontium-90 in human bones from 1,000 to 2,000 mmc.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Switzerland (Swiss Hitparade): Sorry Suzanne--The Hollies

United Nations Secretary-General U Thant told the Security Council that a "virtual state of active war" existed between Israel and Egypt along the Suez Canal and that the cease-fire there "has become almost totally ineffective."

Nigerian government forces captured Umuahaia, the administrative capital of secessionist Biafra.

Politics and government
21-year-old Bernadette Devlin delivered her maiden speech in the British House of Commons just four days after being elected. She spoke on behalf of the "oppressed people" of Ulster, and promised to "knock sense into Harold Wilson."

Rev. Ralph Abernathy, successor to Martin Luther King as head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, led a march of more than 700 striking hospital workers in Charleston, South Carolina.

The faculty of Harvard University voted to give students a vote in the selection of faculty for a black studies program, and that the program should start as a full-fledged academic department. Students for a Democratic Society ended its boycott of Harvard.

Dr. Buell Gordon Gallagher, president of City College of New York, ordered the college closed after Negro and Puerto Rican students locked themselves inside the gates of the campus. The occupiers renamed the institution the "University of Harlem," and held impromptu classes attended by some members of the community. The protesters demanded that the college's enrollment reflect the more than 50% Negro and Puerto Rican student population of the city's high schools, and asked a say in its SEEK program for minority students with poor college preparation.

Robin Knox-Johnston completed the first nonstop solo voyage around the world to win the Sunday Times Golden Globe Race as he sailed his 32-foot ketch Suhaili back to his stating place, Falmouth harbour in England. The 29,500-mile trip took 312 days.

Joe Frazier (23-0) knocked out Dave Zyglewicz (28-2) at 1:36 of the 1st round at Sam Houston Coliseum in Houston to retain recognition as world heavyweight champion by the athletic commissions of New York, Texas, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Maine, and Massachusetts.

Stanley Cup
Boston 2 @ Montreal 4 (Montreal led best-of-seven series 3-2)

Claude Provost scored 2 goals for the Canadiens as they beat the Bruins at the Montreal Forum. Rogie Vachon made 40 saves to win the goaltending duel over Gerry Cheevers, who made 21 saves. Ken Hodge scored both Boston goals.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Tragedy--Bee Gees (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: One Way Ticket--Eruption

Rock guitarist Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones performed a benefit concert for the Canadian National Institute for the Blind in Ottawa as part of his 1977 release on drug charges. RHis band, the New Barbarians, featured Rolling Stones' guitarist Ron Wood, bass player Stanley Clarke, Ian McLagan on keyboards, and drummer Ziggy Modeliste. They left shortly afterward on a big U.S. tour, but never made a record.

Israeli gunboats shelled guerrilla bases in southern Lebanon after terrorists killed four Israelis in the northern town of Hahariya.

20,000 Cambodian refugees entered Thailand, fleeing a continued Vietnamese offensive against remaining Khmer Rouge forces along the Thailand-Cambodia border.

It was a cold, dreary day in Calgary.

Stanley Cup
Boston 4 @ Pittsburgh 1 (Boston won best-of-seven series 4-0)
Philadelphia 0 @ New York Rangers 6 (New York led best-of-seven series 3-1)
Montreal 5 @ Toronto 4 (OT) (Montreal won best-of-seven series 4-0)
New York Islanders 3 @ Chicago 1 (New York won best-of-seven series 4-0)

Larry Robinson's goal at 4:14 of the 1st overtime period gave the Canadiens their win over the Maple Leafs at Maple Leaf Gardens. The goal came on a powerplay after a terrible penalty call by the National Hockey League's worst referee, Bob Myers. Montreal jumped out to a 4-0 lead, but Toronto came back with two goals in the second period and two more in the third. The loss marked the end of Roger Neilson's reign as head coach of the Maple Leafs.

Avco World Trophy
New England 3 @ Cincinnati 6 (Best-of-three series tied 1-1)

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Like a Prayer--Madonna (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Like a Prayer--Madonna (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in France (SNEP): Megamix--Boney M.

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Eternal Flame--Bangles (2nd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Eternal Flame--Bangles (2nd week at #1)
2 Like a Prayer--Madonna
3 Alles Kan Een Mens Gelukkig Maken--René Froger & Het Goede Doel
4 Straight Up--Paula Abdul
5 The Look--Roxette
6 Too Many Broken Hearts--Jason Donovan
7 This Time I Know it's for Real--Donna Summer
8 Kokomo--The Beach Boys
9 Mijn Naam is Jaap--André Van Duin presenteert: Jaap Aap en de Apen
10 I'd Rather Jack--The Reynolds Girls

Singles entering the chart were Wonderful by Patty and Shift (#22); This is Your Land by Simple Minds (#23); Turn the World Around by Golden Earring (#24); 123 by Gloria Estefan and Miami Sound Machine (#28); In the Air Tonight ('88 Remix) by Phil Collins (#29); Move Your Feet to the Rhythm of the Beat by Hithouse (#31); and Timebomb by Selena (#32).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Like a Prayer--Madonna
2 She Drives Me Crazy--Fine Young Cannibals
3 The Look--Roxette
4 Funky Cold Medina--Tone Loc
5 I'll Be There for You--Bon Jovi
6 Stand--R.E.M.
7 Heaven Help Me--Deon Estus with George Michael
8 Girl You Know it's True--Milli Vanilli
9 Eternal Flame--Bangles
10 Second Chance--Thirty Eight Special

Singles entering the chart were This Time I Know it's for Real by Donna Summer (#88); Seeing is Believing by Mike + the Mechanics (#90); Shake it Up by Bad Company (#93); and Round & Round by New Order (#95).

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Like a Prayer--Madonna
2 She Drives Me Crazy--Fine Young Cannibals
3 I'll Be There for You--Bon Jovi
4 The Look--Roxette
5 Funky Cold Medina--Tone Loc
6 Girl You Know it's True--Milli Vanilli
7 Heaven Help Me--Deon Estus (with George Michael)
8 Superwoman--Karyn White
9 Eternal Flame--Bangles
10 Second Chance--Thirty Eight Special

Singles entering the chart were Giving Up on Love by Rick Astley (#68); Seeing is Believing by Mike + the Mechanics (#70); Cuddly Toy (Feel For Me) by Roachford (#75); All This I Should Have Known by Breathe (#82); Stop by Sam Brown (#84); Promises by Basia (#88); and Sweet Jane by Cowboy Junkies (#95).

Died on this date
Emilio G. Segrè, 84
. Italian-born U.S. physicist. Dr. Segrè shared the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics with Owen Chamberlain "for their discovery of the antiproton." He also discovered the elements technetium and astatine.

Darrin Reichle (6 innings) and William Marx (3 innings) combined to pitch a no-hitter for the Riverside Red Wave of the Class A California League as they shut out the Modesto Athletics 5-0 at John Thurman Field in Modesto. The Red Wave were a farm team of the San Diego Padres.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Without You--Mariah Carey (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Streets of Philadelphia--Bruce Springsteen (5th week at #1)

Died on this date
Richard Nixon, 81
. 37th President of the United States of America, 1969-1974; Vice President of the United States of America, 1953-1961. Mr. Nixon, a Republican, was the only President to resign the office, as a result of the scandal involving the June 1972 break-in at the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1947-1951) and Senate (1951-1953) before taking office as Vice President under President Dwight Eisenhower. Mr. Nixon's career appeared to be finished when he was defeated in the election for Governor of California in 1962, but six years later he was elected President. Mr. Nixon, one of the most polarizing politicians in American history, died four days after suffering a stroke.

20 years ago

NATO forces bombed one of Yugoslavian President Slobodan Milosevic's residences in Belgrade. The state television headquarters was also hit, killing at least 10 people.

Police in Littleton, Colorado found a gasoline-filled container containing shrapnel, intended to be used as a bomb by Columbine High School killers Eric Harris and Dylan Kliebold.

Stanley Cup
Division Semi-Finals
Toronto 0 @ Philadelphia 3 (Philadelphia led best-of-seven series 1-0)

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