Saturday, 20 July 2019

July 20, 2019

830 years ago
1189


Britannica
King Richard I was officially invested as Duke of Normandy.

500 years ago
1519


Born on this date
Innocent IX
. Roman Catholic Pope, 1591. Innocent IX, born Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti, became a priest in 1544 and was made a cardinal in 1583. He succeeded Gregory XIV on thee papal throne, and was crowned on November 3, 1591. He died on December 30, 1591 at the age of 72 after less than two months in office, and was succeeded by Clement VIII.

240 years ago
1779


Politics and government
Ethiopian nobleman Kenfu Adam announced that Tekle Giyorgis I was now the Emperor, replacing Salomon II, who had become a monk.

160 years ago
1859


Canadiana
Queen Victoria renamed the town of Queensborough, New Westminster, British Columbia.

130 years ago
1889


Born on this date
John Reith, 1st Baron Reith
. U.K. broadcast executive. Lord Reith joined the British Broadcasting Company, Ltd. as its general manager in 1922, and became its managing director in 1923. In 1927 he became Director-General of the British Broadcasting Corporation, and held the position until 1938. Lord Reith established the tradition of independent public broadcasting in the United Kingdom. He served as Britain's Minister of Information under Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, and as Minister of Transport under Prime Minister Winston Churchill during World War II. Lord Reith died on June 16, 1971 at the age of 81.

100 years ago
1919


Born on this date
Edmund Hillary
. N.Z. mountaineer and diplomat. Sir Edmund was a member of the ninth British expedition to Mount Everest when he and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first people to reach the peak of Mount Everest on May 29, 1953. Sir Edmund climbed 10 other Himalayan peaks, and reached both the North and South Poles, becoming the first person to accomplish what was later known as the Three Poles Challenge. He devoted his later years to the Sherpa people, and was New Zealand's High Commissioner to India and Bangladesh, and Ambassador to Nepal, from 1985-1988. Sir Edmund died on January 11, 2008 at the age of 88.

75 years ago
1944


Died on this date
Mildred Harris, 42
. U.S. actress. Miss Harris began her career as a child star, and appeared in numerous movies, mainly frm 1912-1928 during the era of silent films. She was the first wife of movie comedy legend Charlie Chaplin; the two were married from 1918-1920. Miss Harris died of pneumonia following a major abdominal operation.

World events
German dictator Adolf Hitler survived an assassination attempt led by German Army Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg when a bomb in a briefcase exploded at his headquarters in Rastenberg, East Prussia.

War
U.K. General Bernard Montgomery called off Operation Goodwood/Atlantic after British and Canadian forces in France lost 4,000 men and 437 of 877 tanks attacking German forces south and east of Caen. 60% of Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal were killed or wounded, and the South Saskatchewan Regiment lost 200 dead, wounded, or captured. Despite the heavy German resistance, the 11-mile front was widened. Allied forces in Italy pushed through the Arno River valley on a 25-mile line as German forces retreated toward the Gothic Line. U.S. troops stormed ashore on Japanese-held Guam on either side of Port Apra. Chinese relief forces made deep penetrations of the Japanese siege lines around Hengyang in the province of Hunan. The Mexican government announced that 300 airmen would leave this week for training in the U.S.A. and would be ready for overseas combat after six months.

Politics and government
Franklin D. Roosevelt was nominated for an unprecedented fourth term as President of the United States at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago, receiving 1,086 votes to 86 for U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd (Virginia) and 1 for James Farley.

Disasters
It was announced in Bombay that a cholera epidemic in four districts of the Indian province of Bihar had killed 34,808 people in three months.

70 years ago
1949


War
Israel and Syria signed an armistice agreement in the northern Galilee after 3 1/2 months of negotiation.

Politics and government
The Bulgarian Parliament unanimously elected Foreign Minister Vassil Kolarov to succeed the late Georgi Dimitrov as Premier.

U.S. Bureau of Standards Director Edward Condon, testifying before the Senate Rules Committee, urged Congress to pass laws guaranteeing witnesses called before congressional investigating committees an opportunity to defend themselves.

Carmine DeSapio succeeded Manhattan Borough President Hugo Rogers as leader of Tammany Hall.

Crime
Hollywood gangster Mickey Cohen, rumoured to be aiding a police vice investigation, was wounded with three companions in a shotgun ambush outside a restaurant on Sunset Boulevard in Los Angeles.

Business
Chicago Tribune publisher Robert McCormick announced the purchase of the Washington Times-Herald.

Labour
Clashes between striking Congress of Industrial Organizations longshoremen and police in Honolulu resulted in 23 injuries and 23 arrests.

60 years ago
1959


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Recordándote--Los Cinco Latinos

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Lonely Boy--Paul Anka (2nd week at #1)
2 The Battle of New Orleans--Johnny Horton
3 Tiger--Fabian
4 Waterloo--Stonewall Jackson
5 Personality--Lloyd Price
6 My Heart is an Open Book--Carl Dobkins, Jr.
7 Tallahassee Lassie--Freddy Cannon
8 Lipstick on Your Collar--Connie Francis
9 A Big Hunk o' Love--Elvis Presley
10 Dream Lover--Bobby Darin

Singles entering the chart were Sugaree by Rusty York (#79); With All of My Heart by Brook Benton (#82); Mona Lisa by Conway Twitty (#89); Cry by the Knightsbridge Strings (#90); Martinique by Martin Denny (#93); Linda Lu by Ray Sharpe (#95); A Girl Like You by Gary Stites (#97); Makin' Love by Floyd Robinson (#98); Broken-Hearted Melody by Sarah Vaughan (#99); and Summer's Love by Richard Barrett with the Chantels (#100).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKWX)
1 Lonely Boy--Paul Anka
2 The Battle of New Orleans--Johnny Horton
3 Frankie/Lipstick on Your Collar--Connie Francis
4 Personality--Lloyd Price
5 Robbin' the Cradle--Tony Bellus
6 A Big Hunk o' Love/My Wish Came True--Elvis Presley
7 Waterloo--Stonewall Jackson
8 Forty Miles of Bad Road/The Quiet Three--Duane Eddy and the Rebels
9 Tallahassee Lassie--Freddy Cannon
10 Mona Lisa--Carl Mann

Singles entering the chart were The Way I Walk by Jack Scott (#38); Sea of Love by Phil Phillips with the Twilights (#40); Thank You Pretty Baby by Brook Benton (#44); See You in September by the Tempos (#49); Baby Talk by Jan & Dean (#50); Alimony by Frankie Ford (#52); Linda Lu by Ray Sharpe (#55); Katy Too by Johnny Cash (#56); Blues Stay Away from Me by Billy Vaughn and his Orchestra (#58); Jine the Cavalry by Mitch Miller and his Orchestra (#59); and Bye Bye Baby Goodbye by Teresa Brewer (#60).

Died on this date
William Leahy, 84
. U.S. military officer. Admiral Leahy was Chief of Naval Operations (1937-1939); Governor of Puerto Rico (1939-1940); U.S. Ambassador to France (1941-1942); and Chief of Staff to U.S. Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman (1942-1949). He was the first U.S. naval officer to hold a five-star rank.

Diplomacy
French President Charles de Gaulle greeted Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie on his arrival in Paris for a two-day visit.

U.S. Secretary of State Christian Herter suggested that the Geneva conference of foreign ministers be transformed into a permanent body to continue the search for a settlement of "the German problem as a whole."

Economics and finance
The Organization for European Economic Cooperation granted full membership to Spain and announced a $375-million international aid program for revitalizing the Spanish economy.

50 years ago
1969

Space

The Apollo 11 lunar module Eagle, with Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin aboard, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. Several hours later, Mr. Armstrong became the first man to walk on the Moon, followed shortly by Mr. Aldrin. Michael Collins piloted the command module Columbia in lunar orbit. To follow the Apollo 11 mission in real time, go to Apollo 11 in Real Time.











The unmanned Soviet probe Luna 15 changed its orbit again, bringing it within 10 miles of the lunar surface.

For more on this date, see The Days of Apollo 11.

40 years ago
1979


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Pop Muzik--M (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Pop Muzik--M (6th week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Honesty--Billy Joel (2nd week at #1)

Diplomacy
A United Nations conference on Indochinese refugees opened in Geneva, with Vietnam urging western nations to accept more refugees from crowded southeast Asian camps.

Defense
U.S. President Jimmy Carter postponed withdrawal of American combat forces from South Korea until at least 1981.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the nation’s gross national product had declined 3.3% during the second quarter of 1979.

Politics and government
U.S. President Jimmy Carter accepted the resignations of Energy Secretary James Schlesinger and Transportation Secretary Brock Adams.

Scandal
A United States Federal Court of Appeals upheld the 1977 conviction of Maryland Governor Marvin Mandel and five co-defendants on mail fraud and racketeering charges, reversing its previous ruling that overturned that verdict.

Baseball
The Los Angeles Dodgers overcame deficits in both the 10th and 11th innings to defeat the Montreal Expos 6-5 in 11 innings before 48,825 fans at Dodger Stadium, with Bill Russell's solo home run ending the game. Montreal shortstop Rodney Scott batted 5 for 5 with a sacrifice, run, and 2 runs batted in. After the game, the Expos acquired Rusty Staub from the Detroit Tigers for cash and a minor league player to be named later. Mr. Staub, nicknamed Le Grand Orange, had played right field for the Expos from 1969-1971, and had been the most popular player in the team’s history.

Jerry Turner hit a solo home run with 1 out in the bottom of the 9th inning to give the San Diego Padres a 2-1 win over the New York Mets before 16,381 fans at San Diego Stadium. Gaylord Perry pitched a 4-hitter to win the pitchers' duel over Craig Swan, who also allowed 4 hits.

The Minnesota Twins scored 4 runs in the 4th inning and 9 in the 5th as they overcame a 5-0 deficit to defeat the Detroit Tigers 14-6 before 14,509 fans at Metropolitan Stadium in Bloomington.

30 years ago
1989


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Finnish Singles Chart): Minä olen muistanut--Kim Lönnholm (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): You'll Never Stop Me Loving You--Sonia

Died on this date
Forrest H. Anderson, 76
. U.S. politician. Mr. Anderson, a Democrat, was Governor of Montana from 1969-1973. He shot himself to death at his home after several years of declining health.

Space
U.S. President George Bush, commemorating the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing, called for a new national commitment to space. Saying he wanted to establish the United States as "the pre-eminent space-faring nation," Mr. Bush advocated an orbiting space station, a manned base on the moon, and a manned mission to Mars. It was estimated that these ventures would cost several hundred billion dollars.

World events
Burma's ruling junta put opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest.

Football
CFL
Winnipeg (1-1) 22 @ Hamilton (2-0) 28

25 years ago
1994


Diplomacy
Bosnian Serb leaders rejected a plan devised by the U.S.A., U.K., France, and Germany that would have given them 49% of Bosnian territory. The Serbs already held 72% of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Football
CFL
Ottawa (1-2) 21 @ Edmonton (2-1) 23

Sean Fleming's 33-yard field goal on the last play of regulation time gave the Eskimos the win over the Rough Riders before 27,188 fans at Commonwealth Stadium. Terry Baker kicked 7 field goals for Ottawa, including one from 16 yards to give the Rough Riders a 21-20 lead with 33 seconds remaining. Ottawa running back Gerry Collins had the best game of his CFL career, rushing for 128 yards.

20 years ago
1999


Died on this date
Sandra Gould, 82
. U.S. actress. Miss Gould appeared in minor and guest roles in various movies and television programs, but was best known for playing Gladys Kravitz in the television comedy series Bewitched (1966-1972). She died of a stroke following heart surgery, three days before her 83rd birthday.

Space
After 38 years at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, astronaut Gus Grissom's Liberty Bell 7 Mercury capsule was recovered. At the conclusion of Mr. Grissom's Mercury-Redstone 4 mission on July 21, 1961, the hatch had blown early, causing water to come into the spacecraft. The U.S. Navy helicopter was forced to abandon the spacecrat when it became too heavy to lift.



War
Muslims killed 20 Hindus in three attacks in Kashmir.

Religion
The Chinese Communist Party began a persecution campaign against Falun Gong, arresting thousands nationwide.

10 years ago
2009


Died on this date
Mark Rosenzweig, 86
. U.S. psychologist. Dr. Rosenzweig was known for his research into neuroplasticity in animals which indicated that the adult brain remains capable of anatomical remodelling and reorganization based on life experiences, contrary to the conventional view that the brain stops developing after childhood. He died of renal failure.

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