Monday, 1 February 2016

February 1, 2016

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Snejka!

325 years ago
1691


Died on this date
Alexander VIII, 80
. Roman Catholic Pope, 1689-1691. Alexander VIII, born Pietro Vito Ottoboni, succeeded Pope Innocent XI. He served for just 16 months, and was succeeded by Innocent XII.

220 years ago
1796


Canadiana
Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe transferred the capital of Upper Canada from Niagara (Newark) to York for greater security in the event of an American invasion.

140 years ago
1876


Politics and government
Andrew Elliott was sworn in as Premier of British Columbia, replacing George Walkem.

Crime
Michael J. Doyle was convicted of the first-degree murder of John P. Jones, one of the events that led the violent Pennsylvanian Irish anti-owner coal miners organination "Molly Maguires" to disband.

120 years ago
1896


Opera
La bohème by Giacomo Puccini received its premiere performance, conducted by Arturo Toscanini, at the Teatro Regio in Turin.

100 years ago
1916


Died on this date
Yusuf Izzettin Efendi, 58
. Ottoman Royal Family member. Prince Yusuf Izzettin Efendi, the son of Sultan Abdul Azziz, was Crown Prince of the Ottoman Empire and heir to the throne from 1909 until his death, an apparent suicide. It was suspected at the time that War Minister Enver Pasha, with whom the Crown Prince had clshed, had ordered Prince Yusuf murdered.

80 years ago
1936


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Louis Hector and Harry West, on MBS
Tonight’s episode: The Speckled Band

This was the first episode of the season, and the first for Mr. West, who was replacing the departed Leigh Lovell.

Died on this date
Georgios Kondylis, 57
. Prime Minister of Greece, 1926, 1935. Major General Kondylis, nicknamed "Thunder," founded the National Republican Party, and served as Minister of War for three months in 1924 before leading a coup in 1926 that overthrew the dictatorship of Theodoros Pangalos. He served as Prime Minister for three months, but his party didn't participate in the ensuing elections. Major General Kondylis and several other officers forced the resignation of Prime Minister Panagis Tsaldaris on October 10, 1935, declared himself regent, and engineered the return of the monarchy under King George II on November 25. He quarrelled with the king and resigned just five days later. Major General Kondylis died of a heart attack, six days after the parliementary election.

75 years ago
1941


Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Frenesi--Artie Shaw and His Orchestra (7th week at #1)

At the movies
Freedom Radio, directed by Anthony Asquith and starring Clive Brook, Diana Wynyard, and Raymond Huntley, opened in theatres in the United Kingdom. It opened in the United States three days later under the title A Voice in the Night.

Died on this date
William Gibbs McAdoo, 77
. U.S. politician. Mr. McAdoo, a Democrat, was Secretary of the Treasury in the administration of President Woodrow Wilson from 1913-1918, after serving as his campaign manager in 1912. Mr. Gibbs was largely responsible for the creation of the Federal Reserve and financing the American war effort in World War I. He represented California in the United States Senate from 1933-1938.

Mohammed Mahmoud Pasha, 58. Egyptian politician. Mr. Mahmoud was Egypt's defense minister and leader of the nationalist movement.

War
French General Maxime Weygand rejected Free French General Charles de Gaulle's appeal to liberate Libya from Italian control. U.S. Navy Secretary Frank Knox told the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that he was worried that the United Kingdom may be defeated by the Axis powers, and he was positive that the Axis would then invade the Western Hemisphere.

Defense
The U.S. Conference of Mayors urged development of a civil defense program for cities that may be exposed to attack. Nicaraguan President Anastasio Somoza invited the United States to establish air and naval bases in Nicaragua.

Politics and government
The German government reported the creation of the National Popular Assembly in Paris for the reconstruction of France in collaboration with Germany.

Economics and finance
The Japanese government announced that rice would be rationed.

70 years ago
1946


At the movies
Terror by Night, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, opened in theatres.



War
At the trial in Manila of accused Japanese war criminals, General Hikotaro Tajima was sentenced to hang for the execution of American fliers on Bataan. At the hearings of the United States Senate committee on the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, Admiral P.N.L. Bellinger, naval air wing commander at Pearl Harbor in 1941, Captain L.F. Stafford, assistant director of naval communications for cryptography in 1941, testified that a Japanese "winds code" message had been deciphered in Washington on December 4, 1941.

Diplomacy
At the United Nations Security Council, Soviet delegate Andrey Vyshinsky demanded the withdrawal of British troops from Greece.

Arab League spokesman Faiz al-Khoury told the Palestine Inquiry in London that Arabs would not accept partition of Palestine or continued Jewish immigration.

On instructions from Secretary of State James Byrnes, U.S. Charge d'Affaires John Moors Cabot asked Argentine Foreign Minister Juan Cooke to repudiate presidential candidate Juan Peron's charges of U.S. arms smuggling.

Abominations
The Parliament of Hungary abolished the monarchy after nine centuries, and proclaims the Hungarian Republic, with Premier Zoltan Tildy as the first President.

Space
Dr. Nicholas Wagman announced that he had used a new photographic filter to locate a star similar to the sun, previously hidden by the brilliant Ophiucus constellation.

Aviation
A Trans World Airlines Lockheed Constellation set a New York-Los Angeles commercial record of 10 hours 49 minutes.

Politics and government
Testifying before the United States Senate Naval Affairs Committee on President Harry Truman's nomination of Edwin Pauley as undersecretary of the Navy, Interior Secretary Harold Ickes claimed that Mr. Pauley had urged him in 1945 to cancel a government suit for title to tidelands oil fields in order to help raise Democratic Party campaign funds from oilmen.

American Legion National Commander John Stelle claimed that the U.S. Veterans Administration had suffered a "tragic breakdown" and must be headed by "a seasoned businessman, not a soldier." VA Administrator General Omar Bradley defended the agency and claimed that Mr. Stelle's criticism did not represent general opinion in veterans' organizations.

Technology
The creation of Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC), the first electronic digital computer, was announced at the University of Pennsylvania.

Energy
Massachusetts Institute of Technology President Karl Compton urged the United States Senate Atomic Energy Commission to set up separate policy-making and administrative bodies for atom control.

50 years ago
1966


On television tonight
The Fugitive, starring David Janssen, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Stroke of Genius, with guest stars Telly Savalas and Beau Bridges

Died on this date
Hedda Hopper, 80
. U.S. actress and journalist. Mrs. Hopper, born Elda Furry, married actor DeWolf Hopper, and appeared in numerous plays and films before achieving fame as a gossip columnist with the Los Angeles Times from 1938 until the end of her life.

Buster Keaton, 70. U.S. actor and movie director. Joseph Frank Keaton, nicknamed "The Great Stone Face," was one of the biggest stars of silent film comedy, in movies such as Three Ages (1923); Sherlock, Jr. (1924); The Navigator (1924); Seven Chances (1925); The General (1926); College (1927); Steamboat Bill, Jr. (1928); and The Cameraman (1928). His career declined after sound came into movies and he lost creative control over his films, but he made a comeback in later years with guest roles in films and television programs. Mr. Keaton died of lung cancer.

40 years ago
1976


Died on this date
George Whipple, 97
. U.S. physician. Dr. Whipple shared the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with George Minot and William P. Murphy "for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anemia."

Werner Heisenberg, 74. German physicist. Dr. Heisenberg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1932 "for the creation of quantum mechanics." He remained in Germany during the Nazi regime and worked on their nuclear fission project. Dr. Heisenberg was captured by Allied forces at the end of World War II and was detained in England for several months, but was returned to Germany early in 1946, and spent the rest of his life in West Germany.

Hockey
NHL
Toronto 1 @ Pittsburgh 7

Don Ashby scored the only goal for the Maple Leafs as they were routed by the Penguins at Civic Arena in the Sunday afternoon CBC radio broadcast.

30 years ago
1986


Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Take on Me--A-Ha (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Nikita--Elton John (7th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): A Good Heart--Feargal Sharkey

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Borderline--Madonna

#1 single in the U.K.: The Sun Always Shines on T.V.--A-Ha (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): That’s What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends (with Elton John, Gladys Knight & Stevie Wonder) (3rd week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 That’s What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends (with Elton John, Gladys Knight & Stevie Wonder) (2nd week at #1)
2 Say You, Say Me--Lionel Richie
3 Burning Heart--Survivor
4 Talk to Me--Stevie Nicks
5 I’m Your Man--Wham!
6 Party All the Time--Eddie Murphy
7 My Hometown--Bruce Springsteen
8 When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going--Billy Ocean
9 Alive and Kicking--Simple Minds
10 Walk of Life--Dire Straits

Singles entering the chart were R.O.C.K. in the U.S.A. by John Cougar Mellencamp (#48); Goodbye is Forever by Arcadia (#60); Needles and Pins by Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers with Stevie Nicks (#76); Bop by Dan Seals (#81); I’m Not the One by the Cars (#83); Calling America by Electric Light Orchestra (#85); I'd Do it All Again by Sam Harris (#86); Superbowl Shuffle by the Chicago Bears' Shufflin' Crew (#87); Do Me Baby by Meli’sa Morgan (#88); and Live is Life by Opus (#90).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Rock Me Amadeus--Falco
2 That’s What Friends are For--Dionne and Friends (with Elton John, Gladys Knight & Stevie Wonder)
3 I Miss You--Klymaxx
4 Party All the Time--Eddie Murphy
5 Say You, Say Me--Lionel Richie
6 When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going--Billy Ocean
7 I’m Your Man--Wham!
8 Everything in My Heart--Corey Hart
9 Tarzan Boy--Baltimora
10 Talk to Me--Stevie Nicks

Singles entering the chart were Flippin' to the 'A' Side by Cats Can Fly (#72); Goodbye is Forever by Arcadia (#77); Day by Day by the Hooters (#83); Somewhere by Barbra Streisand (#89); The Whole of the Moon by the Waterboys (#92); and Land of 1,000 Dances by the Wrestlers (#95).

Died on this date
Alva Myrdal, 84
. Swedish sociologist and politician. Mrs. Myrdal, the wife of economist Gunnar Myrdal, was one of the leading figures in the creation of Sweden's welfare state. She held several diplomatic posts and sat in parliament as a member of the Swedish Social Democratic Party. Mrs. Myrdal and Alfonso García Robles of Mexico shared the 1982 Nobel Peace Prize "[for] their magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition." Mrs. Myrdal died the day after her 84th birthday.

25 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Beinhart--Torfrock (2nd week at #1)

Society
In an address to parliament in Cape Town, South African President F.W. de Klerk said he would seek the repeal of the laws on which the country’s apartheid system was based, citing the Land Acts of 1913 and 1936 that reserved 87% of the nation’s land for the white minority, the Group Areas Act of 1966 and the Black Communities Act of 1984 that segregated residential areas, and the Population Registration of 1950 that separated South Africans into four races--whites, blacks, Indians, and mixed race. Mr. de Klerk also proposed a multiparty conference to consider a new constitution, but rejected African National Congress demands for an elected constituent assembly. ANC deputy president Nelson Mandela welcomed the proposals, but pointed out that blacks were still not allowed to vote and that Mr. de Klerk had made no mention of the freeing of political prisoners or the repeal of security laws. Mr. Mandela urged the maintenance of international sanctions against South Africa until "there is fundamental change in the living conditions of the majority."

War
U.S. soldier Melissa Rathbun-Nealy’s vehicle got stuck in sand during a supply mission, and she became the Gulf War’s first female prisoner of war.

Labour
Striking nurses in Manitoba began returning to their jobs after voting to accept a two-year contract calling for a pay hike of up to 14%. Canada’s longest nurses’ strike had begun on January 1.

Disasters
1,200 were reported killed after an earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale struck Pakistan and Afghanistan.

The collision of two planes on a runway at Los Angeles International Airport killed 34 people and injured 24. A USAir jet that was landing struck a SkyWest plane that was taxiing for takeoff. Two days later, federal investigators reported that the crash may have been caused by an air traffic controller giving both planes clearance to be on the runway at the same time.

20 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Spaceman--Babylon Zoo

#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): Spaceman--Babylon Zoo

Law
The Communications Decency Act--the first notable attempt by the United States Congress to regulate pornographic material on the Internet--was passed by the U.S. Congress.

10 years ago
2006


Scandal
Quebec Superior Court Justice John Gomery delivered the final report of his Commission of Inquiry into the Sponsorship Program and Advertising Activities; the report consisted mostly of recommendations for changes to the civil service and its relation to government.

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