475 years ago
Born on this date
Richard Grenville. English sailor. Sir Richard captained the galleon Revenge, which fought alone against a Spanish fleet of 55 ships in the Battle of Flores off the Azores, finally surrendering after Sir Richard was wounded. Sir Richard died of his wounds at the age of 49 on September 10, 1591, nine days after the battle's conclusion.
350 years ago
French physician Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys administered the first human blood transfusion, transfusing about 12 ounces of sheep blood into a 15-year-old boy, who had been bled with leeches 20 times. The boy survived the transfusion.
250 years ago
Born on this date
Rachel Jackson. Wife of U.S. President Andrew Jackson. Mrs. Jackson, born Rachel Donelson, married Captain Lewis Robards in 1787; the marriage was not a happy one, and she married Mr. Jackson in 1791, believing that Capt. Robards had filed for divorce. He had, but the petition had been rejected, making he marriage to Mr. Jackson bigamous and therefore invalid. Mr. Robards was granted a divorce in 1794, and Mr. Jackson and Mrs. Robards then got married legally. When Mr. Jackson ran for President of the United States in 1828, the scandal of the early invalid wedding of the Jacksons became a campaign issue; Mrs. Jackson became depressed, and died of a heart attack on December 22, 1828 at the age of 61, several weeks after her husband's election, but more than two months before she would have served as First Lady.
140 years ago
Henry Ossian Flipper became the first Negro cadet to graduate from the United States Military Academy, earning a commission as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army cavalry.
130 years ago
Carlisle Graham survived his second ride over the Horseshoe Falls at Niagara Falls in a barrel.
100 years ago
Born on this date
Lash LaRue. U.S. actor. Alfred LaRue starred in numerous low-budget Western movies in the 1940s and '50s. He was known for dressing in black, and got his nickname for his use of a bullwhip. Mr. LaRue died on May 21, 1996 at the age of 78.
John Fenn. U.S. chemist. Dr. Fenn shared half of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Koichi Tanaka "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules." Dr. Fenn died on December 10, 2010 at the age of 93.
Died on this date
Kristian Birkeland, 49. Norwegian physicist. Professor Birkeland invented the electromagnetic cannon and the Birkeland-Eyde process of fixing nitrogen from the air in order to fund his research on the aurora borealis. His theories of atmospheric electric currents and their relationship to the aurora were later confirmed by others. Prof. Birkeland used the barbiturate Veronal to help him sleep, and he took 20 times the recommended dose the night he died, while he was in Tokyo to visit colleagues.
80 years ago
Died on this date
Karl Wien, 30. German mountaineer. Mr. Wien and 15 other members of his German expedition died in an avalanche on Nanga Parbat in the Himalayas. It remains the worst single disaster to occur on an 8,000-metre peak.
75 years ago
U.K. and U.S. bombers concluded three days of attacks by setting two Italian battleships afire; sinking a 10,000-ton cruiser and two destroyers--and damaging two other cruisers and possibly two destroyers--while protecting two Mediterranean convoys. Axis forces bypassed Acroma, Libya and plunged northward toward the Mediterranean coast, isolating the El Gazala garrison, 40 miles of Tobruk. The U.S. Navy announced that six Japanese ships--"at least" three cruisers, one destroyer, one gunboat, and one transport--had been damaged by Army and Navy planes in the western Aleutian Islands. Two Japanese columns moving along the Hangchow-Nanchang railroad and through Kiangsi Province had formed a giant pincer in eastern China.
Politics and government
Hindu nationalist leader Mohandas Gandhi said in Wardha that he would soon launch a movement against British rule in India that "will be felt by the whole world."
Economics and finance
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt told Congress in his Lend-Lease report that $1.9 billion in aid had been dispersed to allies in three months ending May 31, and that in 15 months since March 1941, over $4.497 billion in aid had been given.
Assistant U.S. Treasury Secretary Randolph Paul told the House of Representatives Ways and Means Committee to enact a 100% tax on all net income over $25,000 left after regular income tax.
The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia upheld the conviction of the American Medical Association and Medical Society of the District of Columbia on charges of conspiring to violate the Sherman Antitrust Act.
70 years ago
Politics and government
The All-India Congress Party's Executive Committee in New Delhi accepted the United Kingdom's plan for the partition of India, but barred independence for any princely state.
The Canadian Parliament voted to repeal laws limiting Asian immigration to Canada; Canadians of Asian decent were allowed to vote in federal elections.
Economics and finance
In a letter to U.S. Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Styles Bridges (Republican--New Hampshire), former U.S. President Herbert Hoover opposed State Secretary George Marshall's plan for European reconstruction, stating that the United States should limit its foreign aid and "bluntly insist [on a] return for our sacrifices" in terms of foreign cooperation with U.S. policy.
Lew Worsham made up 3 strokes on the final 3 holes, shooting a 2-under-par 69 to finish 1 stroke ahead of Sam Snead in an 18-hole playoff, winning the U.S. Open at St. Louis Country Club in Ladue, Missouri. First prize money was $2,500. This was the first U.S. Open to be televised, receiving local coverage.
60 years ago
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): The Green Door--Jim Lowe
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Heimatlos--Freddy Quinn (2nd week at #1)
#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): Yes Tonight, Josephine--Johnnie Ray (2nd week at #1)
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Love Letters in the Sand--Pat Boone (2nd week at #1)
2 So Rare--Jimmy Dorsey and his Orchestra
3 A White Sport Coat (And a Pink Carnation)--Marty Robbins
4 Bye Bye Love--The Everly Brothers
5 Dark Moon--Gale Storm
6 All Shook Up--Elvis Presley
7 Little Darlin'--The Diamonds
8 School Day--Chuck Berry
9 Start Movin' (In My Direction)--Sal Mineo
10 It's Not for Me to Say--Johnny Mathis
Singles entering the chart were (Main Theme) Around the World by Mantovani and his Orchestra (#30, charting with the version by Victor Young and his Orchestra); I'm Gonna Sit Right Down and Write Myself a Letter by Billy Williams (#39); Jenny, Jenny by Little Richard (#53); Dynamite by Brenda Lee (#54); and Suzie-Q by Dale Hawkins (#55).
U.S. Korean War prisoner Andrew Fortuna, who had refused repatriation in 1953, left the People's Republic of China for the United States. His departure left 13 former U.S. POWs still in China.
The U.S.S.R. announced the construction of a 420,000-kilowatt atomic power station, the first of a series expected to be delivering power by 1960.
Gallant Man, with Bill Shoemaker up, won the 89th running of the Belmont Stakes at Belmont Park, New York in a time of 26 3/5, a U.S. record for 1 1/2 miles. Inside Tract placed second.
The fourth round of the U.S. Open at Inverness Club in Toledo Ohio concluded with Dick Mayer and Cary Middlecoff tied for the lead with 2-over-par scores of 282, necessitating an 18-hole playoff the following day.
50 years ago
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Black Velvet Band--Johnny Kelly
#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): A Whiter Shade of Pale--Procol Harum (2nd week at #1)
Five days of race rioting concluded in Tampa and Cincinnati, with the National Guard called out in both cities. The Cincinnati riot, in the Negro neighbourhood of Avondale, resulted in 1 person dead, 63 injured, and 404 arrested, with $2 million in property damage.
The Arts of the Raven Exhibit opened at the Vancouver Art Gallery, marking the first time in Canadian history that indigenous art had been presented as art rather than as artifact.
Yoshiaki Numata (32-4) won the World Boxing Association and World Boxing Council world super featherweight title with a 15-round majority decision over Flash Elorde (82-22-2) at Kokugikan in Tokyo.
Vicente Saldivar (33-1) retained his WBA and WBC world featherweight title with a 15-round decision over Howard Winstone (59-4) at Ninian Park in Cardiff.
40 years ago
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): God Save the Queen--Sex Pistols
Died on this date
Bill Lee, 67. U.S. baseball pitcher. Mr. Lee played with the Chicago Cubs (1934-1943, 1947); Philadelphia Phillies/Blue Jays (1943-1945); and Boston Braves (1945-1946), compiling a record of 169-157 with an earned run average of 3.54 in 462 games, batting .168 with 5 home runs and 71 runs batted in in 167 games. His best season was 1938, when he was 22-9, leading the National League in wins and also leading the NL with a 2.66 ERA and 9 shutouts as the Cubs won the pennant. Eye problems shortened Mr. Lee's career, and he went blind later in life.
Politics and government
Prime Minister Adolfo Suarez led his Union of the Democratic Centre to a minority government in the first free Spanish parliamentary elections in 41 years. The Democratic Centre won 165 of 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies (lower house) and 106 of 207 elected Senate seats. The Socialist Workers Party, led by Felipe Gonzalez, won 118 lower house seats, mostly in the large cities and Basque and Catalan regions; the Communist Party, led by Santiago Carrillo, won 20 seats; the Popular Alliance, led by conservatives associated with the former regime of the late dictator Francisco Franco, won 16 seats. Most of the remaining seats were won by Basque and Catalan moderate parties. King Juan Carlos appointed 41 Senators.
Former Canadian federal cabinet minister and broadcaster Judy LaMarsh issued her Report of the Ontario Royal Commission on Violence in the Media; it rejected greater censorship, but advised stricter control over print and broadcast media.
Calgary (0-1) 16 @ Hamilton (1-0) 24
Montreal (0-1) 17 @ Winnipeg (1-0) 24
The Stampeders not only lost to the Tiger-Cats at Ivor Wynne Stadium, but lost starting offensive tackle Lloyd Fairbanks with torn knee ligaments; he returned to the lineup for the final game of the season on November 5.
In what became known as the "Midnight Massacre," the New York Mets traded ace pitcher Tom Seaver to the Cincinnati Reds for pitcher Pat Zachry, infielder Doug Flynn, and minor league outfielders Steve Henderson and Dan Norman. The Mets also traded outfielder Dave Kingman to the San Diego Padres for infielder-outfielder Bobby Valentine and pitcher Paul Siebert. The Reds traded pitchers Rawly Eastwick, Mike Caldwell, and Gary Nolan in separate deals, with the details too numerous to mention here.
Fernando Arroyo pitched a 5-hitter and the Detroit Tigers scored 4 runs in the bottom of the 1st inning as they coasted to a 9-0 win over the Toronto Blue Jays before 11,349 fans at Tiger Stadium in a game televised in Canada on CBC.
The Milwaukee Brewers scored all their runs in the 2nd inning as they beat the Baltimore Orioles 6-2 before 7,443 fans at Memorial Stadium in Baltimore.
Mike Marshall, making his first start in 7 years, allowed 3 hits in 7 innings to get his first win in a Texas uniform as the Rangers shut out the Cleveland Indians 6-0 before 5,883 fans at Cleveland Stadium.
The Seattle Mariners scored 2 runs in the bottom of the 11th inning to defeat the Oakland Athletics 6-5 before 14,248 fans at the Kingdome in Seattle. The Athletics took a 4-3 lead in the top of the 10th, but Carlos Lopez hit a solo home run with 2 out in the bottom of the inning to tie the game.
John Milner drove in 3 runs with a triple and a single to help the New York Mets edge the Atlanta Braves 6-5 before 6,343 fans at Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium.
Pete Rose singled home pinch runner Champ Summers with 2 out in the bottom of the 10th inning to give the Cincinnati Reds an 8-7 win over the Philadelphia Phillies before 31,214 fans at Riverfront Stadium in Cincinnati. The Reds trailed 7-2 after 6 1/2 innings, but scored 4 runs in the 7th, and tied the game on a solo home run with 2 out in the bottom of the 9th by George Foster. With 2 out and nobody on in the bottom of the 10th, pinch hitter Bob Bailey singled and stole second base, at which point Mr. Summers was sent in to run for him. Gary Nolan started on the mound for the Reds and allowed 5 hits and 4 runs--all earned--in 1/3 inning in his final appearance in a Cincinnati uniform; he was relieved by Tom Hume, who hit his first major league home run to lead off the bottom of the 3rd inning.
Jackie Brown pitched a 4-hitter to win the pitchers' duel over J.R. Richard as the Montreal Expos shut out the Houston Astros 2-0 before 9,932 fans at the Astrodome in a game that was televised in Canada by Radio-Canada.
The St. Louis Cardinals scored 6 runs in the 4th inning and 3 in the 7th to defeat the San Francisco Giants 9-6 before 3,204 fans at Candlestick Park in San Francisco.
The Los Angeles Dodgers scored 7 runs in the 6th inning as they routed the Pittsburgh Pirates 10-1 before 32,436 fans at Dodger Stadium. Rick Rhoden allowed 8 hits and 1 earned run in 8 innings and singled in a run as he improved his record for the season to 9-3.
Rick Reuschel pitched a 4-hitter to improve his record for the season to 9-2 as the Chicago Cubs blanked the San Diego Padres 2-0 before 14,931 fans at San Diego Stadium in a game that was played in 1 hour 58 minutes.
30 years ago
#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): I Wanna Dance with Somebody (Who Loves Me)--Whitney Houston
The Ontario Provincial Parliament passed North America's first pay equity legislation.
Montreal (0-2) 15 @ Ottawa (2-0) 18
Saskatchewan (1-1) 27 @ Calgary (1-1) 42
The Alouettes’ loss to the Rough Riders at Lansdowne Park proved to be their last game; the team folded nine days later, the day before they were scheduled to open their regular season in Toronto.
25 years ago
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Kun olet mennyt--Kaivo (2nd week at #1)
Died on this date
Ed Lopat, 73. U.S. baseball pitcher. Mr. Lopat, born Ed Lopatynski, pitched with the Chicago White Sox (1944-1947); New York Yankees (1948-1955); and Baltimore Orioles (1955), compiling a record 166 wins and 112 losses. His best seasons were 1951, when he was 21-9 and won 2 games in the World Series, the third of five straight World Series won by the Yankees; and 1953, when he was 16-4, leading the AL in winning percentage (.800) and earned run average (2.42). He was known as "The Junkman" because of his baffling pitches, which didn't seem to be thrown hard, but were able to get batters out. Mr. Lopat managed the Kansas City Athletics in 1963 and 1964; he was fired on June 11, 1964 after compiling a record of 90-124. He remained with the Athletics as an aide to owner Charles O. Finley through 1967 and then served as a scout with the Montreal Expos.
This blogger continued his Quebec vacation, arriving in Trois-Rivieres.
The United States Supreme Court ruled in United States v. Álvarez-Machaín that it was permissible for the United States to forcibly extradite suspects in foreign countries and bring them to the United States for trial, without approval from those other countries.
The Canadian House of Commons passed Justice Minister Kim Campbell’s “rape shield” law, defining consent on the part of participants in a sex act. The new bill made it clear that agreement to sexual activity must be voluntary and that if a partner was incapacitated, consent did not exist.
U.S. Vice-President Dan Quayle, observing a spelling bee in Trenton, New Jersey, advised a contestant to spell “potato” with an “e” on the end, and became the object of widespread ridicule.
20 years ago
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): MMMBop--Hanson (3rd week at #1)
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Can We?--SWV
#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Blond--Rainhard Fendrich (6th week at #1)
#1 single in Switzerland: Vivo per lei - Ich lebe für sie--Andrea Bocelli & Judy Weiss
Ernie Els won the U.S.Open at Congressional Country Club in Bethesda, Maryland with a 4-under-par score of 276, 1 stroke ahead of Colin Montgomerie. First prize money was $465,000.
10 years ago
The British Columbia Supreme Court struck down part of the definition of the federal Indian Act, ruling that a clause discriminated against Canadians who traced their aboriginal roots through their female relatives rather than the male line.
Edmonton (0-1) 3 @ Calgary (1-0) 28
Saskatchewan (1-0) 24 @ British Columbia (0-1) 15
Canada and the German mercenaries of the American Revolution - By Anik Laflèche If your last name is Schneider, Sigman, Henry, or André, or it has “von” in it, you may be of German descent. In 1776, the Thirteen Coloni...
10 hours ago