530 years ago
The Battle of Stoke Field ended the Wars of the Roses between the English houses of Lancaster and York.
120 years ago
The United States signed a treaty for the annexation of the Republic of Hawaii.
100 years ago
Born on this date
Phaedon Gizikis. President of Greece, 1973-1974. General Gilikis was a career officer in the Hellenic Army, and succeeded the ousted George Papadopoulos to become the second and last President during the military junta of 1967-1974. Gen. Gizikis died on July 27, 1999 at the age of 82.
90 years ago
The third and fourth rounds of the U.S. Open were played at Oakmont Country Club in Oakmont, Pennsylvania. After four rounds, Tommy Armour and Harry Cooper were tied for the lead with 13-over-par totals of 301, 1 stroke ahead of Gene Sarazen. The co-leaders played an 18-hole playoff the following day.
75 years ago
Axis forces attacked in a semi-circle stretching from west to south of Tobruk with Acroma, El Adem, and Sid Rezegh as anchors. British and South African troops in Libya abandoned El Gazala.
70 years ago
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Mam'selle--Art Lund (6th week at #1)
2 Linda--Ray Noble and his Orchestra with Buddy Clark
--Charlie Spivak and his Orchestra
3 Peg o' My Heart--The Harmonicats
4 Across the Alley from the Alamo--The Mills Brothers
5 My Adobe Hacienda--Eddy Howard and his Orchestra
6 Heartaches--Ted Weems and his Orchestra
--Harry James and his Orchestra
7 I Wonder, I Wonder, I Wonder--Eddy Howard and his Orchestra
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
8 That's My Desire--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
--Frankie Laine and Mannie Klein's All-Stars
9 Chi-Baba, Chi-Baba (My Bambino Go to Sleep)--Perry Como and the Satisfiers
10 Cu-Tu-Gu-Ru (Jack, Jack, Jack)--Jack Smith with the Clark Sisters
--Xavier Cugat and the Waldorf-Astoria Orchestra
Singles entering the chart were the versions of Peg o' My Heart by the Three Suns, Art Lund, and Buddy Clark; and Ask Anyone Who Knows, with versions by Eddy Howard and his Orchestra, and the Ink Spots (#23). The version of Ask Anyone Who Knows by Eddy Howard and his Orchestra was the B-side of I Wonder, I Wonder, I Wonder.
On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Tom Conway and Nigel Bruce, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Death in the North Sea
Macedonian Communist Party leader Pendelis Goussides was sentenced to death in Salonika for supporting guerrillas.
The United Nations Palestine Inquiry Commission held its first session in Jerusalem, hearing secret testimony from British authorities.
Jerusalem's Arab residents observed a one-day strike to protest the British mandate in Palestine.
Economics and finance
The Soviet. newspaper Pravda rejected French and British suggestions that the U.S.S.R. participate in formulating a joint plan for European reconstruction, as proposed by U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall. The newspaper also denounced the Marshall Plan as a "program for interference in the internal affairs of other states."
U.S. President Harry Truman vetoed the $4-billion congressional tax reduction bill as inflationary, claiming that surplus revenues should be used to fund the national debt.
60 years ago
On television tonight
Alfred Hitchcock Presents, on CBS
Tonight's episode: A Little Sleep, starring Barbara Cook and Vic Morrow
Died on this date
William Sherwood. U.S. biochemist. Dr. Sherwood was engaged in cancer research, and committed suicide in his lab after being subpoenaed to testify before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Un-American Activities hearings on Communist "intellectual infiltration."
U.S. Information Agency Director Arthur Larson called on the U.S.S.R. to halt its jamming of the Voice of America as a demonstration of its sincerity in seeking improved Soviet-American cultural relations.
Jordanian Foreign Minister Samir el-Rifai announced that Jordan would close its embassy in Cairo and recall all diplomatic personnel from Egypt in a dispute over alleged Egyptian attempts to assassinate Jordanian leaders.
At least 50 deaths, 200 injuries, and 1,000 arrests resulted as supporters of ousted Haitian provisional President Daniel Fignole rioted in Port-au-Prince, despite a proclamation of a state of siege.
A tornado struck Cigognala and Robeco Pavese, Italy, killing eight people.
Nine people were killed in flash floods in Alpine areas of Italy, Switzerland, and France.
Dick Mayer shot a 2-over-par score of 72 to finish 7 strokes ahead of defending champion Cary Middlecoff in an 18-hole playoff to win the U.S. Open at Inverness Club in Toledo, Ohio. First prize money was $7,200.
50 years ago
#1 single in New Zealand: A Little Bit Me, A Little Bit You--The Monkees (3rd week at #1)
Edmonton's top 10 (CJCA)
1 Here Comes My Baby--The Tremeloes (2nd week at #1)
2 Somebody to Love--Jefferson Airplane
3 Friday on My Mind--The Easybeats
4 She'd Rather Be with Me--The Turtles
5 Him or Me - What's it Gonna Be?--Paul Revere and the Raiders
6 My Girl Josephine--Jerry Jaye
7 Do it Again a Little Bit Slower--Jon & Robin and the In Crowd
8 On a Carousel--The Hollies
9 Sunday Will Never Be the Same--Spanky and Our Gang
10 San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)--Scott McKenzie
Pick hit of the week: My Friend--Willie and the Walkers
New this week: Mercy, Mercy, Mercy--The Buckinghams
Daylight Savin' Time--Keith
Pictures of Lily--The Who
Come On In--Wes Dakus
Ain't No Mountain High Enough--Marvin Gaye & Tammi Terrell
On the radio
Sherlock Holmes, starring Robert Langford and Kenneth Baker, on Springbok Radio
Tonight's episode: The Blanched Soldier
Died on this date
Reginald Denny, 75. U.K. actor. Mr. Denny, born Richard Dugmore, appeared in numerous plays, movies, and television programs in the U.K. and U.S.A. in a career spanning almost 70 years. He manufactured a drone called the OQ-2 Radioplane, which was used by the United States Army during World War II. Mr. Denny died after a stroke.
The three-day Monterey International Pop Music Festival opened at the Monterey County Fairgrounds in Monterey, California.
Former world lightweight champion Joe Brown (111-42-11-2) scored a technical knockout of Blackie Zamora (25-11-2) in the 8th round at Teamsters Hall in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
40 years ago
Died on this date
Wernher von Braun, 65. German-born U.S. rocket engineer. Dr. von Braun was one of the leading figures in the history of rocket technology, helping to design the V-2 in Germany in the 1940s and the Saturn V in the United States in the 1960s. He joined the Nazi Party in 1937 and the SS in 1940; the factories that made the V-2s were operated with slave labour, and the extent to which Dr. Braun knew about it or could have done something remains a matter of debate. He was one of 1,500 German scientists, engineers, and technicians brought to the United States after World War II in Operation Paperclip, and became a leader in designing rockets, as well as publicizing space exploration, for the American space program from the late 1940s until his retirement in 1972. Dr. von Braun died after a four-year battle with kidney cancer.
Politics and government
Leonid Brezhnev, 70, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, was named President of the Soviet Union by the Supreme Soviet, becoming the first man to hold both posts. He had previously held the office of President from May 1960-June 1964, before replacing Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary in October 1964. Nikolai Podgorny, 74, had been ousted by the Politburo as President on May 24, 1977.
Los Angeles Times correspondent Robert C. Toth was permitted to leave the U.S.S.R. after diplomatic protests from the United States, five days after he had been seized by plainclothesmen on a Moscow street and questioned by the secret police force KGB for 13 hours over five days about his contacts with Soviet scientists and dissidents. Mr. Toth, who had written articles about Soviet science, had been accused in a statement on June 14 of "collecting secret information of a political and military nature."
A Québec Commission of inquiry into illegal police activities opened in Montreal, after the conviction of three officers for entering a press office without a search warrant. The Commission was headed by Jean Keable.
United States Steel Corporation entered a consent decree in U.S. District Court in Hammond, Indiana, agreeing to install a $70-million water recycling system at its plant in Gary, Indiana. The company also agreed to pay a $3.5-million fine for violating air and water pollution standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Indiana, and to pay $750,000 for further pollution research. The consent decree ended a five-year dispute over waste discharge into Lake Michigan and the Grand Calumet River.
Saskatchewan (0-1) 10 @ British Columbia (1-0) 19
30 years ago
Bernhard Goetz, the New York City subway passenger who in 1984 had shot four Negro youths on a train after they had approached him, was found not guilty of attempted murder and assault by a New York State Supreme Court jury, but was convicted of carrying a loaded, concealed weapon. Troy Canty, one of the wounded youths, testified that he had not intended to rob Mr. Goetz, but was just panhandling when he asked him for $5.
Toronto (1-1) 17 @ Hamilton (1-1) 15
Edmonton (1-1) 15 @ British Columbia (1-1) 31
25 years ago
Diana: Her True Story, Andrew Morton's controversial biography of the Princess of Wales, was published in Britain.
U.S. President George Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin, on the first day of their summit in Washington, agreed in principle to major reductions in nuclear weapons that went beyond the terms of the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. Mr. Yeltsin consented to an end to the concept of parity in the number of strategic arms. Mr. Bush and Mr. Yeltsin agreed that by 2003 the U.S.A. would have 3,500 warheads and the Russians 3,000. At the time of the summit, each country had about 10,000 warheads. Both nations also agreed to eliminate their land-based multiple-warhead missiles, and the U.S. agreed to reduce the number of its submarine-launched ballistic missile warheads by half.
Politics and government
Former defense secretary Fidel Ramos was declared the winner of May’s presidential election in the Philippines; slow tabulation of votes had delayed the announcement. Mr. Ramos, one of seven candidates, received 24% of the vote to 20% for Miriam Defensor Santiago, a former judge and administrator. He was an ally of outgoing President Corazon Aquino.
Former U.S. Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, who had served in the post under President Ronald Reagan in the 1980s, was indicted in connection with the Iran-Contra scandal (the sale of arms to Iran, with the proceeds going to fund the Contra resistance movement in Nicaragua). Prosecutors charged that Mr. Weinberger had committed perjury in testimony before Congress and had obstructed justice. Mr. Weinberger said that he refused to plead guilty to a lesser offense, and that the decision to indict him was a “moral and legal outrage.”
20 years ago
Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 I Want You--Savage Garden (2nd week at #1)
2 Clumsy--Our Lady Peace
3 Staring at the Sun--U2
5 Your Woman--White Town
6 Elegantly Wasted--INXS
7 A Change Will Do You Good--Sheryl Crow
8 Midnight Rain--Wide Mouth Mason
9 Push--Matchbox 20
10 Say You'll Be There--Spice Girls
Singles entering the chart were Go the Distance by Michael Bolton (#92); Last Night on Earth by U2 (#95); Nothing Beautiful by the Odds (#97); and Whatever by En Vogue (#98).
Canada and the German mercenaries of the American Revolution - By Anik Laflèche If your last name is Schneider, Sigman, Henry, or André, or it has “von” in it, you may be of German descent. In 1776, the Thirteen Coloni...
10 hours ago