Thursday, 13 December 2018

December 13, 2018

375 years ago

Roundhead forces serving under Sir William Waller led a successful surprise attack on a winter garrison of Royalist infantry and cavalry in the Battle of Alton in Hampshire.

260 years ago

Died on this date
Noël Doiron, 74
. Acadian leader. Mr. Doiron, a native of Port Royal, Acadia (in what is now Nova Scotia), served in several wars, and was regarded as the leader of his people after they were forced to move to Ile St. Jean (now Prince Edward Island). When British authorities decided to send the Acadians back to France aboard the Duke William, Mr. Doiron was recognized as their leader. As the ship sank in the North Atlantic Ocean, Mr. Doiron refused to leave, and perished along with his wife Marie, five of their children with their spouses, and over 30 grandchildren.

The English transport ship Duke William, carrying Acadians from Île Saint-Jean to France, sank in a storm in the North Atlantic Ocean, killing over 360 people.

200 years ago

Born on this date
Mary Todd Lincoln
. First Lady of the United States, 1861-1865. Mrs. Lincoln was almost 10 years younger than her husband; she and Abe were married on November 4, 1842, when she was a month shy of 24 and he was three months shy of 34. Mrs. Lincoln was known for her loud mouth and violent temper; Abe Lincoln was a battered husband, and Mary's violence toward him continued when they moved into the White House. She was holding his hand at Ford's Theatre when he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865, and over the years her increasingly erratic behaviour eventually resulted in her institutionalization in an asylum in 1875. Mrs. Lincoln was released after three months, and she spent her remaining years in declining health, although she was able to travel around Europe for four years. Mrs. Lincoln died on July 16, 1882 at the age of 63.

Cyril VI resigned, reportedly under pressure from Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II, from his position as Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, which he had held since March 4, 1813. He was succeeded by Gregory V.

125 years ago

Prince Edward Island voted for prohibition of alcoholic beverages.

120 years ago

The first passenger train ran over the newly-reconstructed Victoria Railway Bridge at Montréal; the original 1859 tube was replaced by a double track steel bridge.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Bill Vukovich
. U.S. auto racing driver. Mr. Vukovich won the Indianapolis 500 in 1953 and 1954, and on May 30, 1955 was leading the 1955 Indianapolis 500 on lap 57 of 200 when he plowed into a four-car tangle of wreckage immediately in front of him on the backstretch. His Hopkins Special burst into flames, and Mr. Vukovich, 36, died before members of the track safety patrol could extricate him. Another driver, Ed Elisian, stopped his car and got out and attempted to aid Mr. Vukovich, but was unsuccessful.

90 years ago

Died on this date
J.B. Bishop, 81
. U.S. journalist. Mr. Bishop, with George Johnson, founded the then-weekly Athens Review in Athens, Texas, in 1885.

Jacob M. Dickinson, 77. U.S. lawyer and politician. Mr. Dickinson was a lawyer from Nashville who served on the Tennessee Supreme Court (1891-1893), was president of the American Bar Association (1907-1908), and helped to organize the American Society of International Law, serving on its executive council (1907-1910) and as its vice president (1910). A Democrat, he was U.S. Secretary of War in the cabinet of President William Howard Taft, a Republican, from 1909-1911.

Émile Daeschner, 65. French diplomat. Mr. Daeschner worked with the French Foreign Office for 40 years and held various ambassadorial positions including to the U.S.A. (1924-1925) and Turkey (1926-1928).

An American in Paris, a jazz-influenced orchestral piece by George Gershwin, received its premiere performance, with Walter Damrosch conducting the New York Philharmonic Orchestra at Carnegie Hall in New York City.

80 years ago

The Neuengamme concentration camp opened in the Bergedorf district of Hamburg, Germany.

75 years ago

On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on MBS
Tonight's episode: The Jumping Jack

Died on this date
Marvin H. McIntyre, 65
. U.S. journalist and presidential secretary. Mr. McIntyre was an editor with both The Washington Post and Washington Times. He became a friend of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the late 1910s-early '20s, and served as his Appointments Secretary from 1933-1938, and as his Correspondence Secretary from 1941 until his death.

Dispatches from Zurich claimed that Germany was experimenting with a 12-ton, 45-foot-long rocket shell, with a 160-mile range and a destructive force of over 20 square miles. Allied planes hit the oil depot at Split and the railway yards at Sebenico, Yugoslavia. Japanese troops north of Changteh were routed and were reportedly fleeing to the northeast.

The 117th Jäger Division of the German Wehrmacht massacred 700-1,200 civilians in Kalavryta, Greece, including almost all of the town's male population.

16 southern U.S. railroads and terminal companies notified the Fair Employment Practices Commission that they would not obey its order to abandon agreements with railroad unions which limited employment of Negroes.

70 years ago

On the radio
The Casebook of Gregory Hood, starring Elliott Lewis, on MBS

Guggenheim Foundation officials announced the creation of two centres for rocket and jet propulsion research at Princeton University and the California Institute of Technology.

Greek Communist guerrillas were driven from the Thessalian town of Karditsa by government forces after occupying it for 36 hours.

Costa Rican government forces reported checking the invasion of former President Rafael Calderon Guardia's supporters after a single skirmish.

Politics and government
U.S. President Harry Truman's election became official as the Electoral College met and cast 303 of 531 total votes for him. Republican Party nominee Thomas Dewey received 189 electoral votes, and States' Rights Party candidate Strom Thurmond received 39.

The Transjordanian Parliament unanimously authorized King Abdullah to accept sovereignty over Arab Palestine.

The U.S. Supreme Court handed down three decisions giving increased protection to defendants against police abuses. The Court reversed the convictions of Andrew Upshaw--who had confessed to a theft while being held illegally--and Earl McDonald and Joseph Washington, who had been convicted of gambling, on evidence obtained without a warrant. The Court also agreed to review the case of Elmer Uveges, who had been convicted of burglary after being denied counsel.

The Southern Governors Conference in Savannah, Georgia adopted an "action program" to establish a segregated regional university system, costing $1.7 million during the first two years.

The American Federation of Radio Artists, American Guild of Musical Artists, Chorus Equity, and Actors Equity merged in Hollywood in an effort to strengthen the position of labour in the television industry.

The American Federation of Labor American Federation of Musicians' 11-month ban on phonograph recording by members ended when U.S. Attorney General Tom Clark agreed that the AFM's proposed welfare-fund contract with the nation's 13 major record companies did not violate the Taft-Hartley Act.

The Professional Golfers Association announced that the leading money-winners for 1948 were Lloyd Mangrum ($45,898) and Ben Hogan ($36,812).

A meeting of football enthusiasts at the Edmonton Club resulted in the Edmonton Eskimos being revived, with a 15-man board of directors elected, and a minimum financial objective of $50,000 set for re-entry into the Western Interprovincial Football Union in 1949. The Eskimos had last played in the WIFU in 1939, with an abortive attempt at a comeback in 1941.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): It's All in the Game--Tommy Edwards

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): La Paloma--Billy Vaughn and his Orchestra (4th week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): When--The Kalin Twins (14th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): Hoots Mon--Lord Rockingham's XI (3rd week at #1)

U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 To Know Him, is to Love Him--The Teddy Bears
2 Tom Dooley--The Kingston Trio
3 One Night--Elvis Presley
4 Beep Beep--The Playmates
5 It's Only Make Believe--Conway Twitty
6 Smoke Gets in Your Eyes--The Platters
7 Lonesome Town--Ricky Nelson
8 I Got Stung--Elvis Presley
9 Problems--The Everly Brothers
10 Topsy II--Cozy Cole

Singles entering the chart were Goodbye Baby (#71)/Save My Soul (#96) by Jack Scott; Manhattan Spiritual by Reg Owen and his Orchestra (#79); Don't Pity Me by Dion and the Belmonts (#89); I Talk to the Trees (Cha Cha) by Edmundo Ros and his Orchestra (#91); Love Look Away by Tony Bennett (#95); The All American Boy by Bill Parsons (#97); Never Before by Connie Francis (#99); and It's Just About Time by Johnny Cash and the Tennessee Two (#100). The All American Boy was actually by Bobby Bare, but erroneously credited to Bill Parsons. Never Before was the B-side of My Happiness, charting at #34.

Died on this date
Tim Moore, 71
. U.S. comedian and actor. Mr. Moore had a long career in vaudeville beginning at the age of 10, but came out of retirement to become the first Negro to earn stardom in television, playing George "Kingfish" Stevens in the comedy series Amos 'n' Andy (1951-1953). Mr. Moore died of pulmonary tuberculosis, four days after his 71st birthday.

Gordo. U.S. space monkey. Gordo, a South American squirrel monkey, was sent into space from Cape Canaveral, Florida atop a Jupiter AM-13 rocket for a 300-mile journey into space. The 15-minute flight was successful, but a technical problem with the recovery gear prevented a parachute from opening, and the payload plunged into the South Atlantic Ocean, 1,500 miles from the launch site, carrying Gordo with it. The U.S. Army gave up their search after six hours.

Politics and government
French Prime Minister Charles de Gaulle formally announced his candidacy for President of the Fifth Republic.

The first All-Africa People's Conference, presided over by Tom Mboya of Kenya, concluded after adopting resolutions establishing a permanent headquarters in Accra; condemning racialism, colonialism, and tribalism; and appealing for a trade and labour boycott of South Africa.

U.S. Senators John F. Kennedy (Democrat--Massachusetts) and Sam Ervin (Democrat--North Carolina) urged other Senators to support legislation making school and church bombings a federal offense with penalties up to death.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Little Arrows--Leapy Lee (2nd week at #1)

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKLG)
1 Love Child--Diana Ross and the Supremes (2nd week at #1)
2 Wichita Lineman--Glen Campbell
3 The Straight Life--Bobby Goldsboro
4 Shame, Shame--Magic Lanterns
5 Bitter Green--Gordon Lightfoot
6 Both Sides Now--The Johnstons
7 Kentucky Woman--Deep Purple
8 I Put a Spell on You--Creedence Clearwater Revival
9 Son-of-a Preacher Man--Dusty Springfield
10 Little Arrows--Leapy Lee

Singles entering the chart were King Size by Jayson Hoover (#26); A Ray of Hope by the Rascals (#27); Going Up the Country by Canned Heat (#28); If I Can Dream by Elvis Presley (#29); and Too Weak to Fight by Clarence Carter (#30).

Edmonton's top 10 (CJCA)
1 Abraham, Martin and John--Dion
2 Love Child--Diana Ross and the Supremes
3 Little Arrows--Leapy Lee
4 Wichita Lineman--Glen Campbell
5 Hey Jude/Revolution--The Beatles
6 Chewy Chewy--Ohio Express
7 Magic Carpet Ride--Steppenwolf
8 Sunday Sun--Neil Diamond
9 Cinnamon--Derek
10 Stormy--Classics IV

In Paris, the United States, following talks with the South Vietnamese delegation, presented a new plan for the tables to be used in talks with North Vietnam and the National Liberation Front (NLF). The U.S. now suggested four seating arrangements using half-circle tables. U.S. forces concluded two days of heavy air raids against enemy targets west of Danang, north and northwest of Saigon, and along the central coast west of Quinhon.

In line with a 1963 agreement, U.S. President Lyndon Johnson and Mexican President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz met on a bridge at El Paso, Texas between the two countries to officiate at ceremonies changing the border to return the long-disputed el Chamizal area to the Mexican side. A scheduled explosion during the event shifted the Rio Grande into a channel putting the area back into Mexican territory, where it had been before a flood in 1864 altered the river's course. Lauding the peaceful settlement of the dispute, the two chief executives foresaw similar resolutions of such mutual problems as cattle disease and irrigation.

Former Pennsylvania Governor William Scranton, back from his six-day, six-nation fact-finding visit to the Middle East, urged U.S. President-elect Richard Nixon to take an "even-handed" approach toward the Arabs and Israelis to help ease the "extremely" explosive Middle East tensions.

Politics and government
Christian Democratic Party leader Mariano Rumor was sworn in as Prime Minister of Italy, along with his 20-member centre-left coalition cabinet.

The Québec Legislative Council voted in favour of Bill 90, abolishing the Legislative Council. The bill provided that the Québec Legislature would now be composed solely of the Lieutenant-Governor and an elective chamber that would be called the National Assembly of Québec, instead of the Legislative Assembly of Québec. The legislative counsels, who saw their jobs disappear, were entitled to a $ 10,000 pension, a measure that was strongly contested by the Liberals who sat in the Opposition. The bill, which went into effect on December 31, 1968, had been approved by the Chamber of Deputies on November 29.

Brazilian President Artur da Costa e Silva issued AI-5 (Institutional Act No. 5), enabling government by decree and suspending habeas corpus.

FLQ members exploded another bomb in Westmount, Québec.

14 people were reported dead after explosions in a Liberian tanker unloaded crude oil in Amsterdam.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Mary's Boy Child/Oh My Lord--Boney M. (2nd week at #1)

Economics and finance
The U.S. administration of President Jimmy Carter issued revised wage and price guidelines. Chief among the modifications, announced by presidential inflation adviser Alfred Kahn, were a relaxation of restrictions on fringe benefits and a tougher test for profit margins. He said that the modifications should "roughly balance each other out," and if the guidelines were complied with, inflation should hold at 6.5% in 1979.

Toronto 5 Vancouver 1

30 years ago

Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasser Arafat addressed the United Nations General Assembly in Geneva, where it had reconvened after the United States refused to grant Mr. Arafat a visa to visit New York. He supported an international conference in which "the state of Palestine, Israel, and other neighbours" would work out a comprehensive peace settlement. Mr. Arafat also condemned terrorism "in all its forms." Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir responded by rejecting any thought of talking with the PLO.

Politics and government
The President's Commission on Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Salaries proposed that salaries of U.S. government leaders be increased by at least 50%. Members of Congress would go from $89,500 to $135,000 and the president from $200,000 to $350,000. Judges and cabinet officers would be among others getting similar increases, which would take effect within a month after the president approved the recommendation, unless rejected by both houses of Congress.

Ron Lapointe was fired as head coach of the Quebec Nordiques after the team started the 1988-89 season with a record of 11-20-2. He had posted a record of 22-30-4 in the final 56 games of the 1987-88 season as the team's interim head coach.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Germany (Media Control): I'd Do Anything for Love (But I Won't Do That)--Meat Loaf (4th week at #1)

Died on this date
Larry Cameron, 41
. U.S.-born football player and wrestler. Mr. Cameron was a linebacker with the British Columbia Lions (1975) and Ottawa Rough Riders (1976-1977) of the Canadian Football League. In his rookie season he was the runner-up for the Schenley Award as the CFL's Most Outstanding Rookie, and was named to the All-Western and All-Canadian all-star teams, but was traded to the Ottawa Rough Riders in the off-season. In 1976, Mr. Cameron was named to the All-Eastern all-star team, and helped the Rough Riders win the Grey Cup championship. His play fell off in 1977, and he was cut from the squad after 10 games. Mr. Cameron played for the Montreal Alouettes during the pre-season of 1978, but he was released before the start of the regular season, ending his CFL career. In later years he achieved success as a professional wrestler, billed as "Lethal" Larry Cameron. Mr. Cameron wrestled in western Canada in the mid-late 1980s, regularly appearing on the widely-televised program Stampede Wrestling and winning the North American heavyweight title. He was wrestling in Bremen, Germany when he suffered a fatal heart attack in the ring during a match against Tony St. Clair.

The U.S. space shuttle Atlantis and its seven-member crew landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California to conclude an 11-day mission.

Wayne County,Michigan Circuit Court Judge Richard Kaufman ruled that gravely ill people with little prospect for recovery and a poor quality of life had a "constitutionally protected right" to take their own lives. He found sections of Michigan's law forbidding assisted suicides to violate the Michigan state constitution. The ruling was a boon for Michigan mad scientist "Dr." Jack Kevorkian, who was facing charges for assisting in a suicide three months earlier.

Politics and government
Former Prime Minister Kim Campbell, whose governing Progressive Conservative Party had been reduced from 156 seats to 2 in the October 25 Canadian federal election, announced her resignation as party leader. Jean Charest, one of the two PC candidates to win a seat, took over as interim leader. Ms. Campbell had lost her own seat in the election.

Yellow birch was chosen as the provincial tree of Quebec.

20 years ago

Died on this date
Lew Grade, 91
. Ukrainian-born U.K. television and film magnate. Lord Grade, born Lev Winogradsky, moved to London with his family at the age of 5. He achieved success in the 1950s and beyond with Incorporated Television Company (ITC), which merged into Associated Television (ATV), producing and exporting series such as The Saint (1962-1969); The Prisoner (1967-1968); and The Muppet Show (1976-1981). Lord Grade produced some successful films, including The Muppet Movie (1979), but Raise the Titanic (1980) and other later movies were critical and commercial failures. Lord Grade died of heart failure, 12 days before his 92nd birthday.

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