Saturday, 19 January 2019

January 20, 2019

1,370 years ago

Politics and government
King Chindasuinth, at the urging of bishop Braulio of Zaragoza, crowned his son Recceswinth as co-ruler of the Visigothic Kingdom.

370 years ago

Politics and government
King Charles I of England went on trial for treason and other "high crimes".

200 years ago

Died on this date
Charles IV, 70
. King of Spain, 1788-1808. Charles IV succeeded his father Charles III on the throne. He wasn't active in affairs of state, and was forced to abdicate in favour of his son Ferdinand VII in 1808 after a revolt in Aranjuez. Shortly thereafter, Napoleon Bonaparte declared the Bourbon dynasty ended, and installed his brother Joseph as King Joseph I of Spain. Ferdinand VII was eventually restored to the throne, while Charles IV drifted around Europe before settling in Rome, where he died 18 days after his wife, the former Queen Maria Luisa.

180 years ago

Chilean forces commanded by General in Chief Manuel Bulnes and Peruvians opposed to Bolivian Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz defeated the Confederate Army of Peru and Bolivia, led by marshal Santa Cruz, in the Battle of Yungay in Peru.

150 years ago

While George Desbarats and his wife were giving a fancy-dress ball at their Ottawa residence, the Desbarats and Cameron building on Sparks Street, where D'Arcy McGee was assassinated, was set on fire and destroyed, as were the printing equipment on the premises and the finished copies, lithographic plates, and illustrations of the first edition of the Œuvres de Champlain, edited by Abbé Charles-Honoré Laverdière. Fortunately, Abbé Laverdière had kept a set of proofs at Quebec. The arson was doubtless the work of the Fenians, who had warned Mr. Desbarats about printing anti-Fenian material.

130 years ago

Born on this date
Allan Lockheed
. U.S. aviation engineer. Mr. Lockheed, born Allan Loughead, flew and designed planes, and with his brother Malcolm founded Alco Hydro-Aeroplane Company in 1912. The company folded in 1921, but Allan co-founded Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in 1926. He died of liver cancer at the age of 80 on May 26, 1969.

120 years ago

An advance group of about 2,000 Russian Doukhobors landed in Halifax from Russia en route to western Canada; 5,400 followed shortly thereafter. These first members of the mystical Christian sect (the name means spirit wrestlers) were sponsored by Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy.

110 years ago

Born on this date
William D. "Spike" Eckert
. U.S. military officer; Commissioner of Major League Baseball, 1965-1968. A lieutenant general in the United States Air Force, Mr. Eckert worked as a management consultant to the aviation industry and served on the boards of directors of several corporations. Lt. Gen. Eckert, a compromise choice of the owners of the 20 major league teams, succeeded Ford Frick as Commissioner of Major League Baseball on November 17, 1965. The owners thought it would be desirable to have a commissioner who had a background and connections with business. Although he has been credited with improving the efficiency of major league baseball and helping to promote the game abroad, Gen. Eckert was regarded as ineffective in dealing with substantial business issues, lost the confidence of the owners, and was forced to resign at the end of the 1968 season as the threat of a players' strike loomed. Lt. Gen. Eckert died while playing tennis in the Bahamas on April 16, 1971 at the age of 62.

75 years ago

The U.S. Army announced that loyal Japanese-Americans would henceforth be accepted for military duty. Berlin radio reported that all civilians had been removed from Helgoland, the German North Sea naval base and island fortress. Soviet forces west of Leningrad cut off the German corridor to the Gulf of Finland. British units in Italy took Minturno, two miles inland from the Gulf of Gaeta, and advanced to a point five miles northwest.

Politics and government
U.S. Senator Wallace White, Jr. (Republican--Maine) was named acting minority leader by a caucus of Republican Senators to serve during the illness of Charles McNary.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Senate confirmed the renomination of Mariner Eccles to a 14-year term as a governor of the Federal Reserve System.

The Argentine government decreed that the Army may expropriate privately-owned materials and equipment because of shortages reportedly due to U.S. refusal to extend Lend-Lease aid.

70 years ago

Died on this date
George J. Mead, 57
. U.S. aviation engineer. Mr. Mead and Frederick Rentschler co-founded Pratt & Whitney Aircraft in 1925, where Mr. Mead designed the Wasp. The company became part of United Aircraft and Transport Corporation (UATC). Mr. Mead left UATC shortly after becoming president of the U.S. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1939. Mr. Mead helped coordinate aircraft production just before and during World War II.

Politics and government
Harry Truman, who had become the 33rd President of the United States of America upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1945, was inaugurated into a term in his own right, and Alben W. Barkley was inaugurated as Vice President. In his inaugural address, Mr. Truman stressed U.S. support for the United Nations and anti-Communist military alliances, and announced the creation of the Point Four Program, a program for economic aid to poor countries.

Greek Prime Minister Themistocles Sophoulis formed a new five-party cabinet, naming Field Marshal Alexander Papagos commander-in-chief of government forces, with full power to conduct operations against Communist guerrillas.

Former Hungarian War Minister Albert Bartha charged in an interview in Vienna that Hungary's Soviet-controlled army exceeded its peace treaty limit by 5,000 men.

Economics and finance
Spain devalued its currency from 16.4 to 25 pesetas per U.S. dollar.

60 years ago

On the radio
Gull-lorgnetten (The Golden Pince-Nez), starring Knut M. Hansson as Sherlock Holmes and Willie Hoel as Dr. Watson, on Norsk Rikskringkasting (Norwegian State Broadcasting Corporation)

On television tonight
Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond, hosted by John Newland, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Bride Possessed, starring Virginia Leith and Skip Homeier

This was the first episode of One Step Beyond, a series about the supernatural.

Ending his two-week visit to the United States, Soviet First Deputy Premier Anastas Mikoyan admitted that "capitalism in America is still strong," but said that the U.S. must recognize that "socialism exists in our country, like it or not."

U.K. Prime Minister Harold Macmillan told Parliament that he would agree to East-West talks about Germany on Soviet terms rather than insist on Western demands for negotiation of the German question within the framework of European security.

Politics and government
U.S. Senator Lyndon Johnson (Democrat--Texas) introduced a four-point civil rights bill creating an independent Community Relations Service for voluntary racial conciliation and giving the Justice Department power to subpoena records in cases of alleged denial of voting rights.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Koi no Kisetsu--Pinky and the Killers (17th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Eloise--Barry Ryan

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 I Started a Joke--The Bee Gees
2 I'm Gonna Make You Love Me--Diana Ross and the Supremes & the Temptations
3 Hooked on a Feeling--B.J. Thomas
4 Soulful Strut--Young-Holt Unlimited
5 Crimson and Clover--Tommy James and the Shondells
6 Wichita Lineman--Glen Campbell
7 Worst that Could Happen--Brooklyn Bridge
8 Going Up the Country--Canned Heat
9 I Heard it Through the Grapevine--Marvin Gaye
10 If I Can Dream--Elvis Presley

Singles entering the chart were Here Comes the Rain by Leapy Lee (#67); Dizzy by Tommy Roe (#69); Home Cookin' by Jr. Walker & the All-Stars (#70); Not on the Outside by the Moments (#74); Indian Giver by 1910 Fruitgum Co. (#76); Riot by Hugh Masakela (#78); Star Crossed Lovers by Neil Sedaka (#86); 30-60-90 by Willie Mitchell (#92); Shake a Poo Poo by Chet "Poison" Ivey (#93); That's Your Baby by Joe Tex (#96); Mendocino by the Sir Douglas Quintet (#97); Woman Helping Man by the Vogues (#98); There'll Come a Time by Betty Everett (#99); and The Grooviest Girl in the World by the Fun and Games (#100).

Died on this date
Amanullah Asaduzzaman, 26
. Pakistani student activist. Mr. Asaduzzaman was a graduate student in history at Dhaka University who participated in a student strike taking place at all university campuses in East Pakistan. He was fatally shot by police when he refused to obey orders to cease marching on the campus. Mr. Asaduzzaman's death was one of the events that led to the resignation two months later of Pakistani President General Mohammed Ayub Khan, and the war that led to East Pakistan becoming a republic in 1971, under the name of Bangladesh.

Politics and government
Richard Nixon was inaugurated into his first term as the 37th President of the United States of America, and Spiro Agnew was inaugurated as Vice President. 2,000-3,000 well-wishers were at Andrews Air Force Base in Washington to bid goodbye to departing President Lyndon Johnson, who flew home to Texas with his family.

Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. took over as chief U.S. negotiator at the Paris peace talks on the Vietnam War.

The Conseil du Patronat du Quebec (CPQ), an umbrella organization of 25 employers' associations, was officially founded during a special general assembly, with Charles Perrault elected as its first president. Its objectives were to federate the various employers 'associations; promote the economic, professional and social interests of employers; ensure liaison between the different employers' groups; contribute to the training of business leaders; and defend the interests of employers against governments provincial and federal.

Miller Barber won the Kaiser International and $13,500 in Napa, California.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Rhodesia (Lyons Maid): Three Little Words (I Love You)--Dave Loggins (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Too Much Heaven--Bee Gees

#1 single in Ireland: Y.M.C.A.--Village People (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Y.M.C.A.--Village People (3rd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Y.M.C.A.--Village People
2 Paradise by the Dashboard Light--Meat Loaf
3 A Little More Love--Olivia
4 Stumblin' In--Suzi Quatro & Chris Norman
5 Do Ya Think I'm Sexy?--Rod Stewart
6 Le Freak--Chic
7 Blame it on the Boogie--The Jacksons
8 (You Gotta Walk) Don't Look Back--Peter Tosh (support vocals: Mick Jagger)
9 Hit Me with Your Rhythm Stick--Ian Dury and the Blockheads
10 Song for Guy--Elton John

Singles entering the chart were I Love the Nightlife (Disco Round) by Alicia Bridges (#26); Meissie Van Alle Dag (Mina) by Gebroeders Grimm (#32); Jodelodelodelodelohitie by De Twee Pinten (#33); Another Band by Rainbow Train (#34); and The Best Friend I Know by Patricia Paay and Yvonne Keeley (#35).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Le Freak--Chic (4th week at #1)
2 Too Much Heaven--Bee Gees
3 My Life--Billy Joel
4 Y.M.C.A.--Village People
5 Hold the Line--Toto
6 You Don't Bring Me Flowers--Barbra & Neil
7 Ooh Baby Baby--Linda Ronstadt
8 A Little More Love--Olivia Newton-John
9 Promises--Eric Clapton and his Band
10 Do Ya Think I'm Sexy?--Rod Stewart

Singles entering the chart were Crazy Love by Poco (#72); What a Fool Believes by the Doobie Brothers (#73); Lonely Wind by Kansas (#74); You Stepped Into My Life by Melba Moore (#75); Pops, We Love You (A Tribute to Father) by Diana Ross, Marvin Gaye, Smokey Robinson and Stevie Wonder (#78); Chip Away the Stone by Aerosmith (#81); Not Fade Away by Tanya Tucker (#84); Every Which Way But Loose by Eddie Rabbitt (#87); Goodbye, I Love You by Firefall (#88); Our Love is Insane by Desmond Child and Rouge (#89); and Chase by Giorgio Moroder (#90). Pops, We Love You (A Tribute to Father) was a tribute to Berry Gordy, Sr., father of Motown Records founder and president Berry Gordy, Jr. Mr. Gordy, Sr. had died of cancer in October 1978 a the age of 90. Every Which Way But Loose was the title song of the movie. Chase was from the movie Midnight Express (1978).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Le Freak--Chic (6th week at #1)
2 Too Much Heaven--Bee Gees
3 My Life--Billy Joel
4 Y.M.C.A.--Village People
5 Hold the Line--Toto
6 September--Earth, Wind & Fire
7 Ooh Baby Baby--Linda Ronstadt
8 You Don't Bring Me Flowers--Barbra & Neil
9 A Little More Love--Olivia Newton-John
10 Every 1's a Winner--Hot Chocolate

Singles entering the chart were Goodbye, I Love You by Firefall (#77); Theme from Superman (Main Title) by John Williams/London Symphony Orchestra (#79); Pops, We Love You (A Tribute to Father) by Diana Ross, Marvin Gaye, Smokey Robinson and Stevie Wonder (#80); Lonely Wind by Kansas (#81); You Can Do It by Dobie Gray (#82); I Go to Rio by Pablo Cruise (#83); Every Which Way But Loose by Eddie Rabbitt (#84); I Just Fall in Love Again by Anne Murray (#85); For You and I by 10cc (#89); Chase by Giorgio Moroder (#90); Haven't Stopped Dancing Yet by Gonzalez (#92); and Take That to the Bank by Shalamar (#96). Theme from Superman (Main Title), as the title indicates, was from the movie.

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Too Much Heaven--Bee Gees
2 Y.M.C.A.--Village People
3 My Life--Billy Joel
4 Le Freak--Chic
5 I Just Wanna Stop--Gino Vannelli
6 Sharing the Night Together--Dr. Hook
7 Promises--Eric Clapton and his Band
8 I Love the Night Life (Disco 'round)--Alicia Bridges
9 Ooh Baby Baby--Linda Ronstadt
10 (Our Love) Don't Throw it All Away--Andy Gibb

Singles entering the chart were Need You Bad by Ted Nugent (#83); Lady by Little River Band (#86); Free Me from My Freedom by Bonnie Pointer (#87); Rasputin by Boney M. (#89); Haven't Stopped Dancing Yet by Gonzalez (#91); Dancin' in the City by Marshall Hain (#92); Every Time I Think of You by the Babys (#94); You Can Do It by Dobie Gray (#96); Manana by Jimmy Buffett (#97); and I'm Gonna Make You Love Me by the Blend (#100).

World events
Shi'ite Muslim leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, exiled for 15 years, decided to return to Iran, called for the resignation of the government, and later warned the army of a "holy war" if it tried a coup.

CIAU (men)
Alberta 77 @ Calgary 62

Buffalo 2 Boston 1
Philadelphia 5 @ Montreal 5
Toronto 3 @ Los Angeles 2

Bob Dailey scored with 38 seconds remaining in the game to climax the Flyers' comeback from a 4-2 deficit after 2 periods to tie the Canadiens at the Montreal Forum in the national Hockey Night in Canada telecast.

John Anderson scored with 4:16 remaining in the game to break a 2-2 tie as the Maple Leafs edged the Kings at the Forum in Inglewood, California. Toronto goalie Mike Palmateer made 34 saves, and was named the game's first star.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): First Time--Robin Beck (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Beatrice Lillie, 94
. Canadian-born U.K. actress. Born Constance Sylvia Gladys Munston in Toronto, Miss Lillie was often called the funniest woman in the world. She appeared in such films as Around the World in 80 Days (1956) and Thoroughly Modern Millie (1967).

Józef Cyrankiewicz, 77. Prime Minister of Poland, 1947-1952, 1954-1970. Mr. Cyrankiewicz joined the Polish Socialist Party (PPS) in the 1930s and led the Polish resistance organization Związek Walki Zbrojnej from 1939 until he was captured by the Gestapo in 1941 and interned for the balance of World War II. He supported the union of the PPS with the Communist Polish Workers' Party (PPR) in 1948 to become the Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR), while he continued as Prime Minister. Mr. Cyrankiewicz resigned as Prime Minister in 1952 in favour of party boss Bolesław Bierut, and served as deputy Prime Minister under him until returning as Prime Minister in 1954. He resigned in 1970, and served as Chairman of the Council of State from 1970-1972. Mr. Cyrankiewicz was posthumously charged in 2003 with complicity in the 1948 murder of World War II resistance hero Witold Pilecki.

Politics and government
George H.W. Bush was inaugurated as the 41st President of the United States of America. Dan Quayle was inaugurated as Vice President. In his inaugural address, Mr. Bush urged Americans to rise above materialism and "to make kinder the face of the nation and gentler the face of the world." He noted that problems, including crime and poverty, faced the nation, but that the federal government acting alone could not achieve solutions. Addressing illegal drug abuse, Mr. Bush said, "This scourge will stop." Nine inaugural balls were held in Washington; the cost of the week's events, mostly covered by private donations, was $30 million, by far the greatest for any inauguration. Lee Atwater, who had managed Mr. Bush's election campaign, played a starring role on inauguration night as he performed the song Hi Heel Sneakers on stage. A fascinating documentary movie called Boogie Man: The Lee Atwater Story was released in 2008.

World events
The U.S.S.R. began airlifting food and fuel to the Afghan capital of Kabul to keep the city supplied while the Soviet army withdrew from the country.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): All for Love--Bryan Adams, Rod Stewart and Sting (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Matt Busby, 84
. U.K. soccer player and manager. Sir Matt played for Manchester City from 1928-1936 and Liverpool from 1936-1941, but was best known as manager of Manchester United from 1945-1969 and 1970-1971.

Politics and government
Russian Premier Viktor Chernomyrdin said that his government would seek to "correct the course of reforms." Another reformer, Finance Minister Boris Fyodorov, resigned after blaming the central bank for the rising rate of inflation.

U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno appointed Robert Fiske, a former U.S. attorney from New York City, to head the inquiry into the involvement of President Bill Clinton and first lady Hillary Clinton with Whitewater Development Company, a failed real estate venture in Arkansas.

Telesat Canada's Anik E-1 communications satellite spun out of control, leaving newspapers, radio and television broadcasters scrambling to get news feeds.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that housing starts had increased 7.1% in 1993 to their highest level since 1989.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Stéphanos II, 88
. Egyptian religious leader. Stéphanos II, born Andraos Ghattas, succeeded Stéphanos I as Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandra, serving from 1986 until his retirement in 2006. He was succeeded by Antonios I.

Politics and government
Barack Obama was inaugurated as the 44th President of the United States of America, and Joe Biden was inaugurated as Vice President.

A protest movement in Iceland culminated as the 2009 Icelandic financial crisis protests began.

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