Monday, 21 January 2019

January 21, 2019

1,080 years ago

Died on this date
Yang Pu, 38 or 39
. King of Wu, 920-927; Emperor of Wu, 927-937. Yang Pu, posthumously renamed Emperor Rui, was the last ruler of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Wu, and the only one who claimed the title of Emperor. His adoptive son Xu Zhigao forced Yang Pu to abdicate in favour of him; Xu Zhigao then founded the Southern Tang dynasty. The cause of Yang Pu's death is unknown.

270 years ago

The Teatro Filarmonico in Verona was destroyed by fire; it was rebuilt in 1754.

230 years ago

The Power of Sympathy by William Hill Brown, widely considered to be the first American novel, was published in Boston by Isaiah Thomas and Company.

210 years ago

Died on this date
Josiah Hornblower, 79
. U.K.-born U.S. politician. Mr. Hornblower was a steam an mining engineer who moved to New Jersey in the 1750s. He sat in the New Jersey Assembly (1777-1780), serving as Speaker in 1780). Mr. Hornblow sat in the New Jersey Legislative Council (1781-1784), and was one of the state's delegates to the Continental Congress (1785-1786).

150 years ago

Born on this date
Grigori Rasputin
. Russian mystic and political adviser. Mr. Rasputin first met Czar Nicholas II in 1905, and appeared to possess supernatural powers, demonstrated in healing young prince Alexei, who was a hemophiliac. Mr. Rasputin acquired increasing influence at the royal court, attracting increasing opposition from parliamentary politicians. On December 30, 1916, 22 days before his 48th birthday, Mr. Rasputin was shot several times, beaten, and finally drowned, as he proved very difficult to kill. The assassins were a loyalist group led by Prince Felix Yusupov. Mr. Rasputin's body was discovered in a Moscow river three days later.

125 years ago

Died on this date
Guillaume Lekeu, 24
. Belgian composer. Mr. Lekeu was a pianist who composed about 50 works, mainly chamber music. He died the day after his 24th birthday, of typhoid fever resulting from contaminated sherbet. Many of his works remained unfinished.

100 years ago

Died on this date
Ahmed Muhtar Pasha, 79
. Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1912). Ahmed Muhtar Pasha had a distinguished military career, rising to the rank of Field Marshal. He served as Governor of Crete (1875-1876, 1878) and took office as Grand Vizier on July 22, 1912, after an opposition group known as the Saviour Officers voided the parliamentary elections--which they regarded as corrupt--and seized power. Ahmed Muhtar Pasha resigned on October 29, 1912, after just four months in office, as a result of the government being taken by surprise at the eruption of the First Balkan War earlier in October.

Gojong, 66. King of Joseon, 1863-1897; Emperor of Korea, 1897-1907. Gojong succeeded Cheoljong as King of Joseon, with his father, the Heungseon Daewongun, serving as regent during his minority. In 1897, Gojong proclaimed the Empire of Korea, and proclaimed himself Emperor Gwangmu. He was forced to abdicate in favour of his son Sunjong in 1907, two years after Korea had lost her independence as a result of the Russo-Japanese War, and three years before Japan annexed Korea. Former Emperor Gwangmu died suddenly; many suspected that he had been poisoned by Japanese officials, and the March First Movement for Korean independence began as a result.

Members of the Irish Volunteers (or Irish Republican Army, IRA) ambushed Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) officers who were escorting a consignment of gelignite explosives at Soloheadbeg, County Tipperary, resulting in the deaths of two RIC officers and the seizure of their weapons. This is widely regarded as the first engagement of the Irish War of Independence.

Politics and government
The First Dáil Éireann first convened at the Mansion House in Dublin, adopting a Declaration of Independence, calling for a new sovereign state: the Irish Republic.

75 years ago

A Soviet offensive in the Leningrad area resulted in the capture of Mga, Vitino, and Mutakyuya. Australian troops advanced to the watershed of the Faria River in Ramu Valley, New Guinea, while Allied planes attacked Japanese positions on the upper reaches of the river. Aleutian-based U.S. bombers twice raided Japan's Paramushiro Island in the Kuriles.

Politics and government
The U.S.A. and U.K. reached an agreement with the Norwegian government-in-exile in London on terms of restoring civil administration once the Germans were driven out.

Bolivian President Gualberto Villaroel denied that his regime was sympathetic to fascism and that U.S. State Secretary Cordell Hull did not understand the reasons for its revolution.

Democratic national committeemen from 12 Midwestern U.S. states adopted a resolution endorsing Franklin D. Roosevelt for a fourth term as President of the United States.

Esquire magazine sued in U.S. federal district court to restrain U.S. Postmaster General Frank Walker from revoking its second class mailing privileges.

Stevens Institute of Technology President Harvey Davis announced plans to establish the Stevens Research Foundation for postwar work on new products, uses for old ones, and better manufacturing methods.

Construction magnates Joseph Maney, Guido Rugo, and Louis Perini, nicknamed the "Three Little Steam Shovels," bought control of the Boston Braves from the other members of the syndicate that had owned the National League baseball team.

70 years ago

On television tonight
Your Show Time, hosted and narrated by Arthur Shields, on NBC
Tonight's episode: The Necklace, starring Stanley Andrews and Fay Baker

This was the first episode of the series, which was the first U.S. television series to be shot on film instead of being shown live. The Necklace won an Emmy Award in 1950, making Your Show Time the first series to win an Emmy Award.

Died on this date
J.H. "Jimmy" Thomas, 74
. U.K. politician. Mr. Thomas was a trade unionist who was elected to the House of Commons in 1910 as a member of the Labour Party, representing Derby. He was Secretary of State for the Colonies from January-November 1924 in the government of Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. Mr. Thomas was expelled from the Labour Party in 1931 when he chose to remain in Mr. MacDonald's National Government, serving again in his cabinet post from August-November 1931 and November 1935-May 1936. Mr. Thomas was forced to resign from politics when it was revealed that he had been entertained by stock exchange speculators and had dropped heavy hints as to tax changes planned in the budget.

World events
The South Korean government reported an anti-Communist rising in the North Korean town of Haeju near the 38th parallel boundary.

The U.S.A. granted recognition to the military governments of Venezuela and El Salvador, emphasizing that the action did not "imply any judgment whatsoever as to the domestic policies" of either regime.

Politics and government
Chinese President Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek resigned, turning over leadership of the Nationalist government to Vice President Li Tsung-jen. Chiang immediately left Nanking and flew to his home in Fenghwa. His brother-in-law, T.V. Soong, resigned as Governor of Kwangtung Province in southern China.

The Polish government demoted Deputy Premier Wladyslaw Gomulka to assistant budget director for deviating from the Communist Party line on farm collectivization and Yugoslavia, while Socialist leader Edward Osubka-Morawski resigned as public administration minister for opposing the recent merger of the Communist and Socialist Parties.

South Dakota became the 22nd American state to ratify a proposed constitutional amendment limiting the U.S. President to two terms.

National Football League directors approved the transfer of the Boston Yanks to New York.

Unable to reach an agreement on a merger with the National Football League, the All-America Football Conference announced plans to operate as a seven-team league in 1949.

60 years ago

Died on this date
Cecil B. DeMille, 77. U.S. movie producer and director. Mr. DeMille made over 70 films from 1914-1958, and was known for making large-scale spectacles that were commercially successful. His movies included The Ten Commandments (1923); Union Pacific (1939); and The Ten Commandments (1956). Mr. DeMille won the Academy Award for Best Picture for The Greatest Show on Earth (1952). He died after a series of heart attacks.

Frances Gertrude McGill, 76. Canadian physician. Dr. McGill, a native of Minnedosa, Manitoba, became Saskatchewan's provincial bacteriologist in 1918 and provincial pathologist in 1920, serving in those capacities until 1942. She worked closely with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for many years as a forensic pathologist until her retirement in 1946.

Carl "Alfalfa" Switzer, 31. U.S. actor. Mr. Switzer achieved fame as Alfalfa, the kid with the cowlick in the Our Gang comedies. He found acting work hard to come by as he got older, and became a skilled hunting and fishing guide. Mr. Switzer was shot to death, in what was ruled a justifiable homicide, by an acquaintance in a dispute over $50 that Mr. Switzer said was owed to him. Mr. Switzer was romantically teamed with Elizabeth Taylor in her first movie, There's One Born Every Minute (1942). His last part was a small role in The Defiant Ones (1958).

Politics and government
Saar Premier Egon Reinert's cabinet resigned shortly before the scheduled opening of talks in Bonn on measures to begin the Saar's economic integration within West Germany under a Franco-German agreement.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Switzerland (Swiss Hitparade): Eloise--Barry Ryan (6th week at #1)

A U.S. Navy patrol boat sank 45 small basket-like boats south of Danang after 125 of them had been challenged and broke for the beach. A Communist rocket killed 2 U.S. sailors and wounded 14 others.

Clay Shaw, 55, owner of the International Trade Mart in New Orleans, went on trial in New Orleans, two years after he had been arrested by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison and charged with conspiracy in the 1963 assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy.

FLQ terrorists set off a bomb on Boulevard Crémazie in Montréal.

Johnny Famechon (48-4-6) won the World Boxing Council world featherweight title with a 15-round decision over defending champion Jose Legra (108-6-4) at Royal Albert Hall, Kensington, London.

All-Star Game @ Montreal Forum
West 3 East 3

Claude Larose of the Minnesota North Stars scored with 2:53 remaining in the game to give the West its tie against the East before 16,260 fans in the first All-Star Game played under a divisional format. Red Berenson of the St. Louis Blues scored the first Western goal in the 1st period, and St. Louis teammate Jim Roberts scored in the 2nd period. Frank Mahovlich of the Detroit Red Wings scored in the 1st and 3rd periods, and was named the game's most valuable player. Norm Ullman of the Toronto Maple Leafs scored the third Eastern goal in the 3rd period.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Too Much Heaven--Bee Gees

#1 single in Switzerland: Y.M.C.A.--Village People

Super Bowl XIII @ Orange Bowl, Miami
Pittsburgh 35 Dallas 31

Terry Bradshaw completed 17 of 30 passes for 318 yards and 4 touchdowns to lead the Steelers over the Cowboys before 79,484 fans in the best Super Bowl played to date. Mr. Bradshaw's first 2 touchdown passes were to John Stallworth, covering 28 and 75 yards. Dallas quarterback Roger Staubach completed 17 of 30 passes for 228 yards and 3 touchdowns; he almost had a fourth TD pass in the 3rd quarter, but tight end Jackie Smith, playing the last game of his 16-year Hall of Fame career, dropped a sure touchdown pass in the Pittsburgh end zone, and the Cowboys had to settle for a field goal.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): C'è da spostare una macchina--Francesco Salvi (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): First Time--Robin Beck

#1 single in France (SNEP): High--David Hallyday (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Especially for You--Kylie Minogue and Jason Donovan (3rd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Can't Stay Away from You--Gloria Estefan and Miami Sound Machine (2nd week at #1)
2 Tonight - Live--Tina Turner (Duet with David Bowie)
3 First Time--Robin Beck
4 Good Life--Inner City
5 Bring Me Edelweiss--Edelweiss
6 Something's Gotten Hold of My Heart--Marc Almond
7 The Way to Your Heart--Soulsister
8 Especially for You--Kylie and Jason
9 Say a Little Prayer--Bomb the Bass featuring Maureen
10 Two Hearts--Phil Collins

Singles entering the chart were Baby Don't Forget My Number by Milli Vanilli (#23); You Got It by Roy Orbison (#26); Skin to Skin by Harry Belafonte featuring Jennifer Warnes (#29); Keeping the Dream Alive by Freiheit with the London Symphony Orchestra (#32); Doe Ze Thuis de Hartelijke Groeten by Doe Ze Thuis De Hartelijke Groeten (#33); Stakker Humanoid by Humanoid (#35); and My Best Friend by Loïs Lane (#37).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Two Hearts--Phil Collins
2 Don't Rush Me--Taylor Dayne
3 Armageddon It--Def Leppard
4 My Prerogative--Bobby Brown
5 When I'm with You--Sheriff
6 Every Rose Has its Thorn--Poison
7 Smooth Criminal--Michael Jackson
8 The Way You Love Me--Karyn White
9 When the Children Cry--White Lion
10 Put a Little Love in Your Heart--Annie Lennox and Al Green

Singles entering the chart were Lost in Your Eyes by Debbie Gibson (#42); Just Because by Anita Baker (#62); You're Not Alone by Chicago (#65); Give Me the Keys (And I'll Drive You Crazy) by Huey Lewis and the News (#66); You Got It by Roy Orbison (#85); Tears Run Rings by Marc Almond (#89); Orinoco Flow by Enya (#93); Across the Miles by Survivor (#94); The Last Mile by Cinderella (#96); Stand by R.E.M. (#97); and (Believed You Were) Lucky by 'Til Tuesday (#98).

U.S.A. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Two Hearts--Phil Collins
2 Don't Rush Me--Taylor Dayne
3 Armageddon It--Def Leppard
4 I Remember Holding You--Boys Club
5 Put a Little Love in Your Heart--Annie Lennox and Al Green
6 Every Rose Has its Thorn--Poison
7 Smooth Criminal--Michael Jackson
8 My Prerogative--Bobby Brown
9 Born to Be My Baby--Bon Jovi
10 When I'm with You--Sheriff

Singles entering the chart were Paradise City by Guns n' Roses (#62); Lost in Your Eyes by Debbie Gibson (#70); Don't Tell Me Lies by Breathe (#72); The Love in Your Eyes by Eddie Money (#75); Just Because by Anita Baker (#80); Give Me the Keys (And I'll Drive You Crazy) by Huey Lewis and the News (#82); You're Not Alone by Chicago (#84); You Got It by Roy Orbison (#87); Stand by R.E.M. (#90); The Last Mile by Cinderella (#93); Across the Miles by Survivor (#94); and Let's Put the X in Sex by Kiss (#95).

Died on this date
Billy Tipton, 74
. U.S. musician. Miss Tipton, born Dorothy Lucille Tipton, was a jazz pianist and saxophonist, who disguised herself as male beginning in 1933, and whose true identity wasn't revealed until after her death. She led various bands in the Pacific Northwestern United States until retiring in the 1970s because of arthritis. Miss Tipton died of a hemorrhaging peptic ulcer 23 days after her 74th birthday, and the autopsy results shocked almost everyone who knew her.

Carl Furillo, 66. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Furillo played right field with the Brooklyn and Los Angeles Dodgers from 1946-1960, batting .299 with 192 home runs and 1,058 runs bartted in in 1,806 games. In 1953 he led the National League with a .344 batting average. Mr. Furillo played in seven World Series, and was on the winning side in 1955 and 1959. If Mr. Furillo had had just one more hit, he would have finished his major league career with a .300 average.

As warfare between Afghan rebels and he Soviet-supported Afghan regime approached, West Germany announced that it was removing its last three envoys from the capital city of Kabul.

Politics and government
Brian Peckford announced his resignation after 10 years as Premier of Newfoundland, his resignation to take effect after the forthcoming provincial election.

The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), led by M. Karunanidhi, won 150 of 234 seats in the legislature in the Tamil Nadu state election. DMK's total was an increase of 125 from their total in the most recent election in 1984. Most of DMK's increase came at the expense of the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, led by Janaki Ramachandran, who dropped from 97 seats to 2.

Montreal 4 Toronto 3
Pittsburgh 7 Edmonton 4

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): All for Love--Bryan Adams, Rod Stewart and Sting

Politics and government
The House of Councillors--the upper house of the Japanese Diet--voted 130-118 against Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa's package of political reforms that had been approved by the lower house. Some members of the Social Democratic Party, one of the partners in Mr. Hosokawa's coalition government, joined the Liberal Democrats in opposition, and Mr. Hosokawa's government appeared in danger of falling.

A jury in Manassas, Virginia, acquitted Loreena Bobbitt on charges of malicious and unlawful wounding for cutting off the penis of her husband John Bobbitt as he slept. Mr. Bobbitt had been acquitted of marital sexual assault in a trial in which Mrs. Bobbitt had testified that she had attacked her husband as a result of his abuse of her that morning and on other occasions. Mr. Bobbitt, whose penis had been reattached after surgery, had denied any sexual assault on his wife. After the acquittal of Mrs. Bobbitt, Prince William County Court Judge Herman Whisenant ordered her to undergo a psychiatric examination.

20 years ago

Died on this date
Susan Strasberg, 60
. U.S. actress. Miss Strasberg, the daughter of acting coach Lee Strasberg, began her career on stage as a teenager, and was nominated for a Tony Award for her performance as the title character in The Diary of Anne Frank (1955). She appeared in various plays, movies, and television programs, but her career never reached the heights expected after her promising beginning. Miss Strasberg died of breast cancer.

In one of the largest drug busts in American history, the United States Coast Guard intercepted a ship with over 9,500 pounds of cocaine on board.

10 years ago

Israeli forces withdrew from the Gaza Strip, officially ending a three-week war against Hamas. However, intermittent fire by both sides continued in the weeks to follow.

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