Sunday, 26 May 2019

May 25, 2019

375 years ago

Ming general Wu Sangui formed an alliance with the invading Manchus and opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhaiguan pass, letting the Manchus through toward the capital city of Beijing, leading to the foundation of the Qing dynasty.

360 years ago

Politics and government
Richard Cromwell resigned as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth of England.

210 years ago

World events
The Chuquisaca Revolution against the Spanish Empire took place in Chuquisaca, Bolivia (modern day Sucre), sparking the Latin American wars of independence.

200 years ago

Politics and government
The Argentine Constitution of 1819 was promulgated.

170 years ago

Died on this date
Benjamin D'Urban, 71 or 72
. U.K. military officer and politician. Lieutenant General Sir Benjamin served with distinction in the Peninsular War against the French forces of Emperor Napoleon I, and then held various colonial offices beginning with Governor of Antigua (1819-1826). He also became Governor of Demerara-Essequibo in 1824, and oversaw its amalgamation with Berbice in 1831 to become British Guiana, which he governed until 1833. Lt. Gen. Sir Benjamin was Governor of Cape Colony (1834-1838), but was dismissed after complaints about the treatment of black South Africans. He remained there in a military capacity until 1846, and then accepted an appointment as commander of British forces in British North America, being based in Montreal from 1847 until his death. The city of Durban, South Africa is name in his honour.

140 years ago

Born on this date
Max Aitken, Lord Beaverbrook, 85
. Canadian-born U.K. newspaper magnate and politician. Mr. Aitken, a native of Maple, Ontario, grew up in Newcastle, New Brunswick, and founded businesses such as Calgary Power before moving to England in 1910. He became involved in politics and became a newspaper tycoon as owner of the Daily Express, Sunday Express, and London Evening Standard. He was granted a peerage in 1917 as Lord Beaverbrook and served as a cabinet minister in governments in both world wars, becoming one of the most influential people in Great Britain. Lord Beaverbrook died on June 9, 1964, 15 days after his 85th birthday.

130 years ago

Born on this date
Günther Lütjens
. German military officer. Admiral Lütjens joined the Reichsmarine in 1907, and served in both world wars. He was commanding the battleship Bismarck when it was sunk in combat against the British Royal Navy, and went down with the ship on May 27, 1941, two days after his 52nd birthday.

Igor Sikorsky. Russian-born U.S. aviator. Mr. Sikorsky designed and flew the Russky Vityaz--the world's first multi-engine fixed-wing aircraft--in 1913, and Ilya Muromets--the world's first airliner--in 1914. After coming to the U.S.A. in 1919, he pioneered flying boats in the 1930s and designed and flew the Vought-Sikorsky VS-300--the first viable American helicopter--in 1939. Mr. Sikorsky died on October 26, 1972 at the age of 83.

At Recreation Park in Columbus, Ohio, Columbus Solons' first baseman Dave Orr was ejected by umpire Fred Goldsmith, but refused to leave the field. Mr. Goldsmith then forfeited the game to the visiting Brooklyn Bridegrooms. The teams refused to abide by the forfeit, and the game was eventually resumed with a substitute for Mr. Orr. The Bridegrooms won the American Association game 6-3.

120 years ago

Horse racing
Jean Bereaud, with Richard Clawson up, won the 33rd running of the Belmont Stakes at Morris Park Racecourse in Morris Park, New York in a time of 2:23, a head ahead of Half Time, with Glengar finishing third in the four-horse field.

Deacon Phillippe, in only his seventh major league game, threw a no-hitter as the Louisville Colonels defeated the New York Giants 7-0 at Eclipse Park in Louisville. The Colonels scored their 7 runs on just 4 hits off losing pitcher Ed Doheny.

110 years ago

Born on this date
Alfred Kubel
. German politician. Mr. Kubel joined the left-wing Internationaler Sozialistischer Kampfbund in 1925, opposed the Nazis when they came to power in 1933, and served a year in prison in the late 1930s for high treason. He was drafted into the Volkssturm militia in 1944, but deserted. Mr. Kubel joined the Social Democratic Party, and was appointed Prime Minister of Braunschweig (Brunswick) by Allied occupation authorities in 1946, holding the office for several months until the region was absorbed into Lower Saxony. He held various cabinet-level offices in Lower Saxony in the 1950s and '60s, and was Minister President of Lower Saxony from 1970-1976. Mr. Kubel died on May 22, 1999, three days before his 90th birthday.

100 years ago

Died on this date
Eliza Pollock, 78
. U.S. archer. Miss Pollock won a gold medal in the team round and bronze medals in the Double National and Double Columbia rounds at the 1904 Summer Olympic Games in St. Louis, and remains, at age 63 years 333 days, the oldest woman to win an Olympic gold medal.

Chicago White Sox' center fielder Happy Felsch started a triple play in the top of the 8th inning, then the White Sox rallied for 3 runs in the bottom of the inning to beat Walter Johnson and the Washington Nationals 6-5 at Comiskey Park in Chicago.

75 years ago

Molly Kool of Alma, Ontario became Canada's first woman sea captain; after receiving her ticket, Capt. Kool took command of the vessel Jean K, and worked the coastal trade throughout the Bay of Fundy until after World War II.

Carl Storck was named President of the National Football League, succeeding Joe Carr, who had died five days earlier.

Bob Feller pitched a 1-hitter to improve his 1939 record to 7-2, and third baseman Ken Keltner hit solo home runs in his last 3 at bats, as the Cleveland Indians beat the Boston Red Sox 11-0 before 5,600 fans at Fenway Park in Boston. The only Boston hit was a single in the 2nd inning by second baseman Bobby Doerr. Cleveland first baseman Hal Trosky batted 3 for 5 with a home run, 3 runs, and 4 runs batted in.

The Philadelphia Phillies withstood a 3-run 9th-inning rally as they defeated the Chicago Cubs 8-7 before 5,015 fans at Wrigley Field in Chicago. Hugh "Losing Pitcher" Mulcahy allowed 7 hits and 7 earned runs in 8+ innings and managed to get the win; he helped his own cause by singling in a run and driving in another with a squeeze bunt.

75 years ago

On the radio
Suspense, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Donovan's Brain: Part Two, starring Orson Welles

On television tonight
WPTZ in Philadelphia presented an all-star telecast that was also seen in New York over WNBT, featuring cut-ins from their Rockefeller Center studios. One of the performers, Eddie Cantor, was told to cut his song We're Havin' a Baby, My Baby and Me because of its supposedly risqué lyrics. Mr. Cantor refused, but the sound was cut and the picture blurred during certain portions of the song in the first reported instance of censorship in television.

German paratroops and glider-borne infantry captured Marshal Josip Broz Tito's headquarters near Drvar, Bosnia; Marshal Tito and Randolph Churchill, son of U.K. Prime Minister Winston Churchill, escaped. Advance elements of U.S. forces linked the Anzio beachhead with the main front when they met in the vicinity of Borgo Grappa. On the main Italian front, U.S. and French troops took Sonnino and Roccasecca de Volsci, while Canadian units cleaned out Pontecorvo. Reports from Ankara indicated that German forces were taking over strategic points in Bulgaria. The Chinese city of Loyang, Honan Province, fell to Japanese forces after a 20-day battle.

The U.S. Army and Navy announced the creation of a committee to investigate proposals for unification of the armed forces and report to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The board of managers of the U.S. National Congress of Parents and Teachers announced that the organization opposed the drafting of 17-year-olds.

70 years ago

Died on this date
Simon Spoor, 47
. Dutch military officer. General Spoor was Chief of Staff of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army and the Royal Dutch Army in the Dutch East Indies from 1946-1949, during the Indonesian Revolution, having emigrated to Australia during World War II in order to help the Allies after the capitulation of the Dutch East Indies high command to occupying Japanese forces in 1942. Gen. Spoor died suddenly, with some maintaining that he was poisoned.

Communist forces occupied Shanghai, China's largest city and chief port. Nationalist forces kept a toehold in the northern part of the city and an escape route to the Yangtze River port of Woosung.

The U.S. State Department revealed that it had begun consultations with 13 Western nations on means of restricting the spread of Communism in Asia and forestalling "hasty recognition" of the Communist Chinese government.

Politics and government
Francis Matthews took office as U.S. Secretary of the Navy.

The Rabbinical Council of America ended a three-day meeting in Atlantic City after deciding that the Chief Rabbinate of Israel was now the central religious authority for all Jews.

The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church U.S.A. ended a seven-day meeting in Buffalo after voting to reorganize into 12 synods based on population.

Dr. Benjamin Pasamanik of Kings County Hospital in Brooklyn, New York received the $1,500 Lester Hofheimer Research Award for a study showing that Negroes had the same mental capacity as other races.

Economics and finance
The Argentine government ordered U.S. imports reduced to 25% of the 1947-1948 average due to a shortage of dollars.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Diana--Paul Anka (3rd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Kansas City--Wilbert Harrison (2nd week at #1)
2 The Battle of New Orleans--Johnny Horton
3 Dream Lover--Bobby Darin
4 Sorry (I Ran All the Way Home)--The Impalas
5 Kookie, Kookie (Lend Me Your Comb)--Edward Byrnes & Connie Stevens
6 The Happy Organ--Dave "Baby" Cortez
7 A Teenager in Love--Dion and the Belmonts
8 Quiet Village--Martin Denny
9 Personality--Lloyd Price
10 Only You--Franck Pourcel's French Fiddles

Singles entering the chart were Bobby Sox to Stockings (#60)/A Boy Without a Girl (#63) by Frankie Avalon; I Must Be Dreaming by Nat "King" Cole (#75); What a Diff'rence a Day Makes by Dinah Washington (#77); Hushabye by the Mystics (#81); The Battle of New Orleans by Vaughn Monroe (#87); There is Something on Your Mind by Big Jay McNeely and Band (#89); Lonely Saturday Night by Don French (#92); Straight Flush by the Frantics (#96); and Waterloo by Stonewall Jackson (#98).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKWX)
1 The Battle of New Orleans--Johnny Horton (2nd week at #1)
2 Kansas City--Wilbert Harrison
3 Three Stars--Tommy Dee with Carol Kay and the Teen-Aires
4 Dream Lover--Bobby Darin
5 Enchanted--The Platters
6 (Now and Then There's) A Fool Such as I/I Need Your Love Tonight--Elvis Presley
7 Guitar Boogie Shuffle--The Virtues
8 Personality--Lloyd Price
9 Kookie, Kookie (Lend Me Your Comb)--Edward Byrnes & Connie Stevens
10 Tell Him No--Travis and Bob

Singles entering the chart were Along Came Jones by the Coasters (#34); Bongo Rock by Preston Epps (#35); Lonely Boy by Paul Anka (#46); The Wonder of You by Ray Peterson (#48); La Plume de Ma Tante by Hugo and Luigi (#49); The Class by Chubby Checker (#50); Tall Cool One by the Wailers (#53); Waterloo by Stonewall Jackson (#54); and Bobby Sox to Stockings/A Boy Without a Girl by Frankie Avalon (#55).

Canadian Prime Minister John Diefenbaker told the House of Commons that the U.S.-Canadian nuclear defense agreement provided for "the transfer at some future time to Canada of military reactors and any special nuclear materials required for them."

The Nationalist Chinese News Agency reported that 10,000 peasants had rioted and killed 80 Communist officials near Nanking.

Politics and government
Dissident Rhodesian Dominion Party members announced the formation of a Constitutional Development Party, dedicated to "separate development" of white and African areas of Southern Rhodesia on the model of South Africa.

Little Rock voters ousted three segregationist school board members who had dismissed 44 teachers in the absence of a quorum.

In a case brought by Negro light heavyweight boxer Joe Dorsey, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the 1958 ruling of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals that Louisiana's ban on boxing matches between whites and Negroes, enacted in 1956, was unconstitutional.

Economics and finance
The United Nations released its 1958 World Economic Survey, showing that Communist economies were growing at a faster rate than those in the West.

50 years ago

Died on this date
Jim Riley, 74
. Canadian-born U.S. hockey and baseball player. Mr. Riley, a native of Bayfield, New Brunswick, played with the Seattle Metropolitans of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association (1917-18, 1919-24), scoring 79 goals and 17 assists in 129 regular season games. He played in the National Hockey League with the Detroit Cougars (2 games) and Chicago Blackhawks (15 games) in 1926-27, scoring 2 assists in 17 games. He was an infielder in baseball with the St. Louis Browns (1921) and Washington Nationals (1923), batting .000 (0 for 14) with 3 bases on balls and 1 run in 6 games. He played at least 1,201 games in 11 seasons in the minor leagues from 1921-1932. Mr. Riley died on his 74th birthday.

World events
A group of middle-ranking military officers overthrew the Sudanese coalition government of Premier Mohammed Ahmed Mahgoub, replacing it with a 10-man junta headed by Col. Gafaar Mohamed al-Nimeiry and with Abubakr Awadallah as Premier and foreign minister. The junta dubbed the new regime a "democratic republic," and charged that the civilian government, which had replaced a military regime in 1964, had brought instability, corruption, and chaos to the country, and was soft on imperialism and Israel.

Nigeria said that it had staged raids on two Biafra airstrips in retaliation for Biafran attacks on Port Harcourt and Benin in the past several days.

Three newsmen and two Roman Catholic priests were among 18 arrested in Chicago after a small band of antiwar demonstrators pillaged the city’s largest draft board office, burning Selective Service records and dumping tar and paint in the files.

Bob Gibson pitched a 6-hit shutout to improve his 1969 record to 6-2, and the St. Louis Cardinals tied a National League single-game record with just 1 assist, as they beat the Los Angeles Dodgers 4-0 before 28,362 fans at Dodger Stadium. The Cardinals' only assist came on their first putout of the game, when second baseman Julian Javier threw to shortstop Dal Maxvill to force out Wes Parker at second base.

The Pittsburgh Pirates swept a doubleheader from the San Francisco Giants before 24,041 fans at Candlestick Park in San Francisco. Jim Bunning struck out 8 in getting his 200th career major league victory in the first game, 2-1 over Gaylord Perry, with both men pitching 5-hitters. Bill Mazeroski and Carl Taylor hit home runs in the second game as the Pirates won 6-2. For Mr. Taylor, it was his first major league home run. Bob Moose was the winning pitcher over Ray Sadecki.

Nate Colbert hit a grand slam and Ollie Brown and Al Ferrara also homered for the San Diego Padres as they beat the Chicago Cubs 10-2 in the first game of a doubleheader before 13,115 fans at San Diego Stadium. Ron Santo led off the top of the 9th inning with a home run for the only score as the Cubs won the second game 1-0. Bill Hands allowed 2 hits in 6 innings before Ted Abernathy pitched 3 innings, allowing 1 hit to get the win, improving his record for the season to 4-0. Losing pitcher Joe Niekro pitched a 6-hit complete game. Sonny Ruberto made his major league debut at catcher for San Diego in the second game, batting 1 for 3, and making 5 putouts and participating in a double play.

Bob Oliver led off the top of the 12th inning with a triple and Ellie Rodriguez followed with a double to break a 2-2 tie as the Kansas City Royals edged the Washington Senators 3-2 before 24,015 fans at Robert F. Kennedy Stadium in Washington.

The Minnesota Twins swept a doubleheader from the New York Yankees 2-1 and 3-2 before 57,445 fans at Yankee Stadium. Dave Boswell pitched a 3-hitter to win the pitchers' duel over Fritz Peterson in the first game, while Dick Woodson allowed 4 hits in 8+ innings to win the second game over Stan Bahnsen. Johnny Ellis singled home 2 runs with 1 out in the bottom of the 9th inning of the second game, but Frank Fernandez struck out and Tom Tresh grounded out to third base to end the game.

George Scott's solo home run in the 5th inning provided all the scoring as the Boston Red Sox edged the Chicago White Sox 1-0 before 7,110 fans at Comiskey Park in Chicago. Jim Lonborg allowed 4 hits in 7 innings to improve his 1969 record to 3-0, while Tommy John allowed just 2 hits in 7 innings in taking the loss.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Hallelujah--Milk & Honey (4th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Born to Be Alive--Patrick Hernandez (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): In the Navy--Village People (3rd week at #1)

Died on this date
John Spenkelink, 30
. U.S. criminal. Mr. Spenkelink was executed in "Old Sparky," the electric chair at Florida State Prison, three years after being convicted of the 1973 murder of small-time criminal Joseph Szymankiewicz. Mr. Spenkelink was the first person to be executed in the United States in two years, and the first since 1967 to be executed against his will. The United States Supreme Court refused six times to delay Mr. Spenkelink’s execution.

In the worst disaster in U.S. aviation history, an American Airlines jetliner lost its left engine and crashed shortly after takeoff from Chicago’s O’Hare International Airport, killing all 272 people aboard and 3 on the ground. Flight 191, bound for Los Angeles, rose from the runway, lost the engine on its left wing, achieved about 500 feet of elevation, rolled to the left, and plunged into the ground about ¼ mile from the end of the runway. The plane exploded on contact and burned for hours.

Israel returned the Sinai capital of El Arish to Egypt after 12 years of occupation as negotiations between Egypt and Israel formally opened at Beersheba, almost two months after the countries signed a peace treaty. The talks were to decide on the nature of Palestinian autonomy in the occupied territories and what methods would be used in the elections of West Bank and Gaza Strip authorities.

Manitoba's Court of Appeal ruled that an 1890 provincial law barring French in the legislature, courts and schools, was invalid; the Manitoba government began up-to-date translation of laws.

Economics and finance
British Agriculture Minister Peter Walker announced that the price of milk would be rising by more than 10% to 15p per pint at the beginning of June. The rise was far more than expected, and meant that the price of milk was now three times the price of five years earlier. Mr. Walker blamed the size of the increase on pre-election delays by his predecessor, John Silkin.

In a trade of two of the greatest pitchers in all recorded history, the Atlanta Braves traded Frank LaCorte, who had a career record at the time of 4 wins and 24 losses, to the Houston Astros for Bo McLaughlin, whose career record at the time was 9-15.

Joel Youngblood of the New York Mets led off the bottom of the 11th inning with a routine fly ball, but Pittsburgh Pirates' left fielder Bill Robinson lost sight of the ball in dense fog, and it went for a triple. The umpires then stopped the game, and after a 78-minute delay, called the game before 6,611 fans at Shea Stadium in New York, and it ended in a 3-3 tie. The Mets had tied the game with 2 runs in the 9th.

Lynn McGlothen allowed 4 hits in 8+ innings to win the pitching matchup with Nino Espinosa as the Chicago Cubs shut out the Philadelphia Phillies 3-0 before 34,456 fans at Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia. Barry Foote hit a 2-run home run in the 4th inning.

The Atlanta Braves hit 2 home runs in the top of the 4th inning, only to have the San Francisco Giants hit 3 in the bottom of the inning, tying a major league record. The Giants won 6-4 before 11,117 fans at Candlestick Park in San Francisco.

Seven different Los Angeles Dodgers, including rookie pitcher Rick Sutcliffe, hit home runs as the Dodgers hammered the Cincinnati Reds 17-6 before 49,372 fans at Dodger Stadium. Mr. Sutcliffe's blow came against losing pitcher Tom Seaver, who allowed 10 hits and 7 runs--all earned--in 2+ innings.

Gene Richards was hit by a pitch to lead off the bottom of the 10th inning and scored on a sacrifice fly by Dan Briggs to give the San Diego Padres a 2-1 win over the Houston Astros before 15,289 fans at San Diego Stadium.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Finnish Singles Chart): The Look--Roxette (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): I Shall Never Pass This Way Again--Various Artists (2nd week at #1)

Politics and government
Mikhail Gorbachev was elected President of the Soviet Union by the new Soviet parliament, the Congress of People’s Deputies. Some 2,250 deputies, most of them chosen in elections by the citizenry, attended the first session in the Kremlin. Most were supporters of the Communist party, but some 400 were radical reformers and ethnic nationalists. Before the presidential vote, many deputies, while endorsing Mr. Gorbachev, complained about economic conditions and the lack of progress under perestroika (restructuring). In a secret ballot, Mr. Gorbachev received 95.6% of the vote.

In Toronto, Dr. Jamie Astaphan, personal physician to disgraced Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson, took the stand at the Dubin Inquiry into drug use in amateur sport, and admitted giving steroids to Mr. Johnson.

Global Television reporter Doug Small leaked details of Canadian Finance Minister Michael Wilson's budget; after the opposition parties rejected Mr. Wilson's request for an evening sitting of the House of Commons, he was forced to announce the budget highlights at a news conference.

Former United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Samuel Pierce, testifying before a House of Representatives subcommittee investigating the payment of millions of dollars in consulting fees paid by HUD to former federal officials and other prominent Republicans, acknowledged that he had been lobbied by former officials, and that he had asked his staff to give "careful consideration" to certain projects, but he denied that any projects had received special treatment.

Economics and finance
U.S. President George Bush named Japan, Brazil, and India as unfair trading partners. He acted under a provision of the 1988 Trade Act. Japan was cited for restricting purchases of satellites, superconductors, and forest products. Reportedly, the others were named to avoid Japan being singled out. Under the law, if the three countries failed to eliminate the unfair practices within 18 months, they would be subject to U.S. trade retaliation.

The United States Commerce Department revised downward its calculation of the growth of the gross national product during the first quarter of 1989. The new figure, 4.3% compared with the previous 5.5%, was welcomed by the Bush administration and many economists, who believed that tightening of credit by the Federal Reserve would control inflation and slow the economy without causing a recession.

Stanley Cup
Calgary 4 @ Montreal 2 (Calgary won best-of-seven series 4-2)

Lanny McDonald scored the second Calgary goal in the final game of his 16-year NHL career--and his only goal of the 1989 playoffs--and Doug Gilmour scored twice in the 3rd period as the Flames became the first team to defeat the Canadiens on home ice to win the Stanley Cup, at the Montreal Forum. Calgary's Al MacInnis, with 31 points, became the first defenseman to lead the playoffs in scoring, and was awarded the Conn Smythe Trophy as the playoffs' most valuable player. The championship was the first for the Flames in their 17-year history, and they haven't come close to winning the Stanley Cup since then. The series remains the most recent Stanley Cup final series to be played between Canadian teams.

The Seattle Mariners traded pitcher Mark Langston to the Montreal Expos for pitchers Randy Johnson, Brian Holman, and Gene Harris. The trade turned out to be a disaster for the Expos, since Mr. Johnson went on to become one of the game's dominant pitchers with the Mariners, while Mr. Langston signed with the California Angels as a free agent after the 1989 season.

25 years ago

Stanley Cup
Eastern Conference Finals
New York Rangers 4 @ New Jersey 2 (Best-of-seven series tied 3-3)

Mark Messier scored 3 goals as the Rangers came from behind to defeat the Devils at Brendan Byrne Arena in East Rutherford.

20 years ago

A select committee of the United States House of Representatives, in a largely unclassified version of its report on Chinese espionage, asserted that China had stolen information on the most advanced American nuclear weapons. The Cox Report said that Chinese data thefts had continued since the 1970s and had included information about every U.S. nuclear warhead currently employed, and that Hughes Space and Communications International and Loral Space & Communications Ltd. had transferred "missile design information" to China without obtaining required licenses.

Kenneth Starr, the independent counsel investigating the activities of President Bill Clinton and first lady Hillary Clinton in the Whitewater Development Corporation, dropped pending charges against Susan McDougal, a former partner of the Clintons in Whitewater. A jury deadlocked on those charges, producing a mistrial. Mr. Starr also dropped charges of obstruction of justice and making false statements against Julia Hiatt Steele. Ms. Steele had confirmed, then contradicted, the story of Kathleen Willey, who accused Mr. Clinton of making an unwanted advance to her in the White House in 1993.

New York City police officer Justin Volpe pleaded guilty to six federal charges connected with torturing and sodomizing Haitian immigrant Abner Louima with a stick in a stationhouse restroom following Mr. Louima's arrest in a nighclub brawl.

Stanley Cup
Eastern Conference
Toronto 6 Buffalo 3

10 years ago

North Korea conducted a nuclear test and several other missile tests that were widely condemned by the international community, and led to sanctions from the United Nations Security Council.

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