Wednesday, 29 May 2019

May 26, 2019

375 years ago

Portuguese and Spanish forces both claimed victory in the Battle of Montijo in Spain.

150 years ago

Boston University was chartered by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

140 years ago

Russia and the United Kingdom signed the Treaty of Gandamak, establishing an Afghan state.

125 years ago

Born on this date
Paul Lukas
. Hungarian-born U.S. actor. Mr. Lukas, born in Budapest as Pál Lukács, began his stage and screen career in his native country, but also worked in Germany and Austria before moving to Hollywod in 1927. He appeared in numerous films, plays, radio programs, and television programs, but was best known for playing anti-Nazi German émigré in the play (1941) and film (1943) Watch on the Rhine, winning the Academy Award for his starring screen performance. Mr. Lukas was visiting Tangier, Morocco, apparently searching for a place to spend his retirement years, when he died on August 15, 1971 at the age of 77.

120 years ago

Born on this date
Antonio Barrette
. Canadian politician and diplomat. Mr. Barrette, a member of the Union Nationale, represented Joliette in the Legislative Assembly of Quebec from 1936-1960, and served as Minister of Labour in the governments of Premiers Maurice Duplessis and Paul Sauvé from 1944-1960. On January 8, 1960, six days after the sudden death in office of Mr. Sauvé, Mr. Barrette succeeded him as Premier of Quebec, holding the office until the UN were defeated by the Liberals, led by Jean Lesage, in the provincial election six months later. Mr. Barrette resigned from politics on September 15, 1960; he served as Canadian Ambassador to Greece from 1963-1966, and died on December 15, 1968 at the age of 69.

Muriel McQueen Fergusson. Canadian politician. Mrs. Fergusson, a lawyer and then a probate court judge, became the first woman to serve on the City Council of Fredericton, New Brunswick. She was appointed to the Senate by Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent in 1953 and sat as a Liberal, representing Fredericton until her retirement in 1975. Mrs. Fergusson became the first female Speaker of the Senate, serving from 1972-1974. She died on April 11, 1997 at the age of 97.

110 years ago

Born on this date
Adolfo López Mateos
. President of Mexico, 1958-1964. Mr. López opposed the governing Partido Revolucionario Institucional (Institutional Revolutionary Party) (PRI), but joined the party in the late 1920s. He represented the State of Mexico in the Senate (1946-1952) and served as Secretary of Labour and Social Welfare (1952-1957) before being elected President. Mr. López nationalized electric companies, opened museums, and supported a foreign policy of non-intervention in the internal affairs of other nations. He suffered from aneurysms, and his health declined toward the end of his presidency. Mr. López died of an aneurysm on September 22, 1969 at the age of 60.

Matt Busby. U.K. soccer player and manager. Sir Matt played for Manchester City from 1928-1936 and Liverpool from 1936-1941, but was best known as manager of Manchester United from 1945-1969 and 1970-1971. He died on January 20, 1994 at the age of 84.

Orval Overall outduelled George Bell as the Chicago Cubs beat the Brooklyn Superbas 2-0 at Washington Park in Brooklyn.

100 years ago

Roland Groome piloted the first newspaper delivery flight from Regina to Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan.

Winnipeg City Council voted to prohibit sympathetic strikes by city firemen during the Winnipeg General Strike.

Phil Douglas pitched a 1-hitter to win the pitchers' duel over Dick Rudolph as the Chicago Cubs edged the Boston Braves 1-0 at Braves Field. Pete Kilduff doubled home Les Mann for the game's only run in the 4th inning.

80 years ago

Died on this date
Charles Mayo, 73
. U.S. physician. Dr. Mayo and his brother William were among the founders of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.

75 years ago

At the movies
The Scarlet Claw, directed by Roy William Neill, and starring Basil Rathbone as Sherlock Holmes and Nigel Bruce as Dr. Watson, opened in theatres. It was the only one of the Sherlock Holmes series to be set in Canada.

Died on this date
Herbert Thompson, 85
. U.K. Egyptologist. Sir Herbert lectured at University College London, and was an expert in hieroglyphics.

Christian Wirth, 58. German war criminal. SS-Sturmbannführer (Major) Wirth was a major figure in the Action T4 program--in which people with disabilities were murdered by gassing or lethal injection--and Operation Reinhard, the program to exterminate Poland's Jews. He was killed by Yugoslav Partisans while travelling in an open-topped car on an official trip to Fiume.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued invitations to 41 governments and the French Committee of National Liberation to send delegates to a United Nations monetary conference to open July 1 at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire.

A U.S. Senate Judiciary subcommittee report investigating President Roosevelt's decision to seize Montgomery Ward & Company's Chicago plant was called absurd by Attorney General Francis Biddle, who said that the report failed to take into account court decisions supporting his advice to the President.

The U.S. Army said that 100,000 prisoners of war would be available for farm work and as labourers on projects not in war production.

70 years ago

Politics and government
U.S. President Harry Truman signed a State Department reorganization bill, appointing George Kennan and Dean Rusk to the new posts of State Department counsellor and deputy undersecretary for substantive matters.

The U.S. Senate passed and sent to the House of Representatives a bill to strengthen unification of the armed forces by increasing the Defense Secretary's authority over the three services, and creating the posts of deputy defense secretary and civilian controller of military expenditures.

Pope Pius XII issued a bull proclaiming 1949-1950 a Holy Year.

Economics and finance
The U.S. House of Representatives passed and sent to the Senate a $5.6 billion foreign aid appropriation, including funds for the Marshall Plan and Greek-Turkish aid programs.

The Chicago, Cleveland, and St. Louis stock exchanges announced plans to merge into a single Midwestern exchange.

The Brazilian government bought the British-owned Leopoldina and Great Western railroads for $54.7 million.

The U.S. Justice Department accused Northern Pacific Railway Company of violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by selling and leasing land under "traffic clauses" requiring purchasers to ship exclusively on the Northern Pacific.

The New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that the state's no-strike law for public utility workers was unconstitutional.

60 years ago

On television tonight
Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Captain's Guests, starring Robert Webber, Nancy Hadley, Thomas Coley, and Felix Locher

Died on this date
Philip Kassel, 82
. U.S. gymnast. Mr. Kassel won a gold medal as a member of the American team that won the team competition at the 1904 Summer Olympic Games in St. Louis. He finished 11th in the individual all-around competition, 19th in the gymnastics triathlon event, and 6th in the athletics triathlon event.

Ed Walsh, 78. U.S. baseball pitcher. Mr. Walsh played with the Chicago White Sox (1904-1916) and Boston Braves (1917), compiling a record of 195-126 with an earned run average of 1.82 in 430 games, batting .194 with 3 home runs and 68 runs batted in in 459 games. He had four seasons of 20 or more wins, with his most memorable season being 1908, when he was 40-15 with a 1.42 ERA in 66 games, pitching 464 innings. Mr. Walsh remains the major leagues' last 40-game winner, and his career ERA is the lowest in history. He helped the White Sox win the 1906 World Series, and won both his starts in the Series. Mr. Walsh eventually wore out his arm, and pitched in only 33 games from 1913-1917. He umpired in 87 American League games in 1922, and coached with the White Sox (1923-1924, 1928-1929), filling in as manager of the White Sox for 3 games in 1924, compiling a 1-2 record. Mr. Walsh was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1946, and died 12 days after his 78th birthday.

U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower submitted to Congress agreements under which the United Stats would help Canada, West Germany, the Netherlands, and Turkey to develop nuclear weapons capability.

The U.K. Foreign Office rejected Chinese Communist charges that the Laotian government violated the 1954 Geneva armistice accord by attempting to disarm Pathet Lao guerrillas before incorporating them into the Laotian Army.

Politics and government
South African Bantu Development Minister M.D.C. de Wet Nel inaugurated the Transkeian Territorial Authority, the first all-African local government unit created in an effort to divide South Africa into segregated white and African enclaves.

French Prime Minister Michel Debre renewed warnings to the National Assembly not to attempt to reassert its power to vote resolutions on government policies.

The World Court ruled that it had no jurisdiction over Israeli compensation claims resulting from the shooting down of an El Al airliner over Bulgaria in 1951.

The Florida legislature approved a bill authorizing school boards to segregate pupils by sex, a move designed to avert sex problems should Florida schools be required to racially integrate.

The New York Yankees traded pitchers Tom Sturdivant and Johnny Kucks, infielder Jerry Lumpe, and a player to be named later, to the Kansas City Athletics for pitcher Ralph Terry and second baseman Hector Lopez. Mr. Sturdivant was 0-2 with an earned run average of 5.04 in 7 games with the Yankees in 1959, while Mr. Kucks was 0-1 with an 8.47 ERA in 9 games; Mr. Lumpe was batting .222 with no home runs and 2 runs batted in in 18 games with New York. Mr. Terry was 2-4 with a 5.28 ERA in 9 games with Kansas City in 1958, while Mr. Lopez was batting .281 with 6 home runs and 24 runs batted in in 35 games with the Athletics. This was one of the deals that produced accusations that the Yankees were using the Athletics as a farm team.

The Washington Senators traded center fielder Albie Pearson, the previous year's American League Rookie of the Year, to the Baltimore Orioles for outfielder Lenny Green. Mr. Pearson was batting .188 with no home runs and 2 runs batted in in 25 games with Washington in 1959; he had been bothered by a hernia and had lost his job to rookie Bob Allison. Mr. Green was batting .292 with 1 home run and 2 RBIs in 27 games with Baltimore in 1959.

In one of the most memorable performances in major league history, Harvey Haddix of the Pittsburgh Pirates pitched a perfect game for 12 innings, only to lose 1-0 to the Milwaukee Braves in the 13th inning before 19,194 fans at County Stadium in Milwaukee. The perfect game ended when second baseman Felix Mantilla led off the 13th inning by reaching first base on a throwing error by third baseman Don Hoak. Eddie Mathews then advanced Mr. Mantilla to second on a sacrifice, and Mr. Haddix issued an intentional walk to Hank Aaron. Braves' first baseman Joe Adcock then hit the ball into the right-center field seats for an apparent 3-0 Milwaukee win. However, Hank Aaron had cut across the field and neglected to touch third base when Mr. Adcock's blast had left the park. Mr. Adcock was called out for passing Mr. Aaron, and Mr. Aaron was also called out, although he returned to touch third base and home plate. Since Mr. Mantilla scored before the third out was made, the run counted, and the final score was 1-0 for the Braves. Mr. Aaron's baserunning lapse ended up costing him in the record book. If his run had counted, his career total would have been 2,175. He ended his career with 2,174 runs, tying him for the record with Babe Ruth. Lou Burdette pitched all 13 innings for the Braves, giving up 12 hits for his 8th win of the season. The Braves set a National League record by leaving only one man on base in the entire game. Years later, Milwaukee pitcher Bob Buhl admitted that the Braves had stolen signs from Pittsburgh catcher Smoky Burgess because Mr. Burgess was too fat to squat properly. The Braves in the bullpen placed a towel on the fence in such a way as to signal whether the next pitch would be a fastball or breaking ball. The chicanery didn't help the Braves until Mr. Adcock's game-ending blow.

Leon Wagner's pinch-hit grand slam with 1 out in the bottom of the 9th inning gave the San Francisco Giants a 6-4 win over the Los Angeles Dodgers before 18,471 fans at Seals Stadium in San Francisco.

Bill Veeck, who had employed midget Eddie Gaedel as a pinch-hitter with the St. Louis Browns in 1951, brought Mr. Gaedel back as part of an on-field stunt before 40,018 fans at Comiskey Park in Chicago. Mr. Veeck, now the owner of the White Sox, had a helicopter land behind second base shortly before the White Sox played the Cleveland Indians. Mr. Gaedel and three other midgets, dressed as spacemen, jumped out, and "captured" Chicago second baseman Nelie Fox and shortstop Luis Aparicio. In the game, Don Ferrarese gave up just 3 hits in 6 1/3 innings and hit 3 doubles, driving in 2 runs, as the Indians blanked the White Sox 3-0.

The same night that Harvey Haddix was having his perfect game broken up in extra innings, Dick Stigman of the San Diego Padres of the Pacific Coast League had a no-hitter going against the Salt Lake City Bees at Westgate Park in San Diego until Ken Toothman singled with 2 out in the top of the 11th. Mr. Stigman allowed 1 more hit before leaving the game after 12 innings. Pete Wojey then pitched 3 scoreless innings and got the win when a squeeze bunt drove in the game's only run as the Padres won 1-0 in the bottom of the 15th.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Yoake no Scat--Saori Yuki (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Mama--Jean Jacques (2nd week at #1)

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 Get Back--The Beatles with Billy Preston (2nd week at #1)
2 Love (Can Make You Happy)--Mercy
3 The Boxer--Simon & Garfunkel
4 Hair--The Cowsills
5 The River is Wide--The Grassroots
6 Pinball Wizard--The Who
7 Oh Happy Day--The Edwin Hawkins Singers
8 Where's the Playground Susie--Glen Campbell
9 More Today than Yesterday--The Spiral Starecase
10 Gitarzan--Ray Stevens

Singles entering the chart were No Matter What Sign You Are by Diana Ross and the Supremes (#63); The Minotaur by Dick Hyman and his Electric Eclectics (#68); Tomorrow Tomorrow by the Bee Gees (#83); Love Me Tonight by Tom Jones (#85); Feelin' Alright by Joe Cocker (#86); Don't Let the Joneses Get You Down by the Temptations (#88); Too Experienced by Eddie Lovette (#90); I Threw it All Away by Bob Dylan (#93); Hushabye by Jay and the Americans (#94); Some Velvet Morning by the Vanilla Fudge (#95); You Don't Need Me for Anything Anymore by Brenda Lee (#96); Without Her by Herb Alpert (#97); I Can Sing a Rainbow/Love is Blue by the Dells (#98); Pack it In by Buckstone Hardware (#99); and Brown Arms in Houston by Orpheus (#100).

On the radio
The Challenge of Space, on Springbok Radio
Tonight's episode: My Destiny--The Stars

Died on this date
Allan Lockheed, 80
. U.S. aviation engineer. Mr. Lockheed, born Allan Loughead, flew and designed planes, and with his brother Malcolm founded Alco Hydro-Aeroplane Company in 1912. The company folded in 1921, but Allan co-founded Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in 1926. He died of liver cancer.

Kathryn Minner, 77. U.S. actress. Mrs. Minner played "little old ladies" in several movies and television programs in the 1950s and '60s, and was best known for starring in Clio Award-winning commercials for Southern California Dodge in the mid-1960s. She appeared in the front and back cover photographs of Jan & Dean's album The Little Old Lady from Pasadena (1964). Mrs. Minner died of a heart attack.

Paul Hawkins, 31. Australian auto racing driver. Mr. Hawkins drove in several Formula One races, but was mainly a sports car driver, winning or sharing in victories in three events in 1967 and two in 1968. He was killed in a crash during the Royal Automobile Club Tourist Trophy Race at the Oulton Park circuit in England.

The Apollo 10 crew of Tom Stafford, Gene Cernan, and John Young ended their 8-day mission with a splashdown in the Pacific Ocean, where they were picked up by USS Princeton.

Popular culture
John Lennon and Yoko Ono began their second Bed-In for Peace, this one a week-long stay in room 1742 of the Queen Elizabeth Hotel in Montréal. Their first Bed-In had taken place at the Amsterdam Hilton Hotel two months earlier.

A Milwaukee courtroom erupted in bedlam after a jury found 12 war protesters, part of the "Milwaukee 14," guilty of theft, burglary, and arson in the destruction of draft records. Extra police were summoned as 150 spectators applauded, wept, linked arms, and sang protest songs.

Former world middleweight and light heavyweight champion Dick Tiger (59-18-3) won a 10-round unanimous decision over current middleweight champion Nino Benvenuti (78-3-1) at Madison Square Garden in New York. Both fighters were over the 160-pound weight limit for middleweights, and no title was on the line.

The California Angels, with a record of 11 wins and 28 losses, fired Bill Rigney, the only manager in the team’s nine-year history. Coach Lefty Phillips was named to succeed Mr. Rigney.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Rhodesia (Lyons Maid): Chiquitita--ABBA (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Il Carrozzone--Renato Zero (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland: Sunday Girl--Blondie

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Sunday Girl--Blondie

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 I Want You to Want Me--Cheap Trick (2nd week at #1)
2 Bright Eyes--Art Garfunkel
3 Some Girls--Racey
4 When You're in Love with a Beautiful Woman--Dr. Hook
5 Does Your Mother Know--ABBA
6 Hooray! Hooray! It's a Holi-Holiday--Boney M.
7 Casanova--Luv'
8 Pop Muzik--M
9 One Way Ticket--Eruption
10 Happiness--Pointer Sisters

Singles entering the chart were Shine a Little Love by Electric Light Orchestra (#27); Hot Stuff by Donna Summer (#28); Reunited by Peaches & Herb (#31); Boys Keep Swinging by David Bowie (#35); Say When by Lene Lovich (#36); Lydia by Dean Friedman (#38); Bless You by Lee Towers (#39); and Cool for Cats by Squeeze (#40).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Reunited--Peaches & Herb (4th week at #1)
2 Hot Stuff--Donna Summer
3 In the Navy--Village People
4 Love You Inside Out--Bee Gees
5 Goodnight Tonight--Wings
6 We are Family--Sister Sledge
7 Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground)--The Jacksons
8 Just When I Needed You Most--Randy Vanwarmer
9 Stumblin' In--Suzi Quatro & Chris Norman
10 Love is the Answer--England Dan and John Ford Coley

Singles entering the chart were Bad Girls by Donna Summer (#55); I was Made for Lovin' You by Kiss (#70); Shadows in the Moonlight by Anne Murray (#71); I Can't Stand it No More by Peter Frampton (#72); Do it or Die by Atlanta Rhythm Section (#79); Weekend by Wet Willie (#80); If You Can't Give Me Love by Suzi Quatro (#81); Go West by Village People (#82); Music Box by Evelyn "Champagne" King (#85); Church by Bob Welch (#86); Head First by the Babys (#87); Lead Me On by Maxine Nightingale (#89); and If I Said You Have a Beautiful Body Would You Hold it Against Me by the Bellamy Brothers (#90).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Reunited--Peaches & Herb (4th week at #1)
2 Hot Stuff--Donna Summer
3 Heart of Glass--Blondie
4 In the Navy--Village People
5 Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground)--The Jacksons
6 Love You Inside Out--Bee Gees
7 Goodnight Tonight--Wings
8 Just When I Needed You Most--Randy Vanwarmer
9 We are Family--Sister Sledge
10 The Logical Song--Supertramp

Singles entering the chart were Bad Girls by Donna Summer (#51); I Can't Stand it No More by Peter Frampton (#64); Do it or Die by Atlanta Rhythm Section (#74); I was Made for Lovin' You by Kiss (#77); Weekend by Wet Willie (#84); Go West by Village People (#85); If You Can't Give Me Love by Suzi Quatro (#86); Rock Me by Nick Gilder (#87); Church by Bob Welch (#88); and If I Said You Have a Beautiful Body Would You Hold it Against Me by the Bellamy Brothers (#89).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Reunited--Peaches & Herb
2 In the Navy--Village People
3 Goodnight Tonight--Wings
4 Heart of Glass--Blondie
5 Knock on Wood--Amii Stewart
6 He's the Greatest Dancer--Sister Sledge
7 Blow Away--George Harrison
8 Love You Inside Out--Bee Gees
9 Hot Stuff--Donna Summer
10 Take Me Home--Cher

Singles entering the chart were Minute by Minute by the Doobie Brothers (#83); You Take My Breath Away by Rex Smith (#88); Good Timin' by the Beach Boys (#97); Dance the Night Away by Van Halen (#98); Dancin' Fool by Frank Zappa (#99); and Don't Ever Wanna Lose Ya by New England (#100).

Died on this date
George Brent, 75
. U.K.-born U.S. actor. Mr. Brent, born George Brendan Nolan, was a native of Ireland and involved with the Irish Republican Army during the Irish War of Independence from 1921-1922. He left Ireland after the British government set a bounty on him, and settled in the United States in 1921. Mr. Brent appeared in various plays before making his way to Hollywood, beginning his movie career in 1930. He became known as a leading man in movies featuring prominent female actors such as Barbara Stanwyck, Kay Francis, and especially, Bette Davis. Mr. Brent's films included Jezebel (1938); Dark Victory (1939) and In This Our Life (1942). He served in the U.S. Coast Guard during World War II, and failed to reclaim his popularity in later years, although he appeared in numerous television programs. Mr. Brent died after a long battle with emphysema.

At the peace talks between Egypt and Israel at Beersheba, United States Secretary of State Cyrus Vance pledged support for the Palestinian cause in hopes of bringing West Bank and Gaza leaders into the negotiations. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat was given a tumultuous welcome in the Sinai capital of El Arish, the day after Israel had returned the Sinai to Egypt.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): The Look--Roxette

U.S. House of Representatives majority whip Tony Coelho (Democrat--California) announced his resignation as majority whip and from the House. Mr. Coelho had become a potential subject of ethical inquiries concerning the possible use of $100,000 in campaign funds to buy junk bonds underwritten by Drexel Burnham Lambert, Inc. Mr. Coelho denied using campaign funds for that purpose, but admitted that he had not reported on his financial disclosure forms a $50,000 loan used to cover half the bond purchase.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): The Real Thing--2 Unlimited (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Riverdance--Bill Whelan (4th week at #1)

Married on this date
U.S. pop music star Michael Jackson and Lisa Marie Presley, daughter of Elvis Presley, were married in the Dominican Republic.

20 years ago

Died on this date
Paul Sacher, 93
. Swiss orchestra conductor. Mr. Sacher founded and conducted the Basler Kammerorchester (1926–1987). He was known for championing new music, commissioning works from composers such as Richard Strauss, Béla Bartók, Bohuslav Martinů, and Arthur Honegger.

Jack Wells, 88. Canadian sportscaster. "Cactus Jack," a native of Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, made his name with several radio and television stations in Winnipeg, broadcasting football, hockey, and curling. He was the first television voice of western Canadian Football League telecasts. Mr. Wells was inducted into the media wing of the Canadian Football Hall of Fame in 1981, and died in Winnipeg, 13 days after his 88th birthday.

New fighting flared in Kashmir, which was claimed by both India and Pakistan. Some 500 armed Islamic militants had occupied positions on the India side of the cease-fire line, and India accused Pakistan of backing the militants. India began attacking the militants from the air.

UEFA Champions League Final @ Camp Nou, Barcelona
Manchester United 2 Baynern Munich 1

The English club Manchester United completed an unprecedented treble as they added their second European Cup triumph to their Premier League and FA Cup success, becoming the first and only English club to achieve the feat in the same season.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Peter Zezel, 44
. Canadian hockey player. Mr. Zezel, a native of Scarborough, Ontario, played centre with seven National Hockey League clubs from 1984-99, scoring 608 points on 219 goals and 389 assists in 873 regular season games and 64 points on 25 goals and 39 assists in 131 playoff games. His best season was 1986-87 with the Philadelphia Flyers, when he scored 33 goals and 39 assists in 71 regular season games and 3 goals and 10 assists in 25 playoff games as the Flyers lost the Stanley Cup finals in 7 games to the Edmonton Oilers. Injuries shortened Mr. Zezel's career, and he was mainly a defensive and faceoff specialist in later years. He died after a long battle with hemolytic anemia, a rare blood disorder.

Canadian authoress Alice Munro won the Man Booker International Prize for lifetime achievement.

U.S. President Barack Obama nominated federal appeals judge Sonia Sotomayor to be the first Hispanic justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.

California's Supreme Court upheld the Proposition 8 sodomite/lesbian marriage ban, but ruled that the 18,000 same-sex weddings that had taken place before the prohibition passed were still valid.

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