Monday, 31 July 2017

July 31, 2017

525 years ago

The Jews were expelled from Spain when the Alhambra Decree took effect.

350 years ago

Representatives of England, the United Provinces (Netherlands), France, and Denmark–Norway signed the Treaty of Breda, ending the Second Anglo-Dutch War in favour of the Dutch. Provisions of the treaty included the return of Acadia to France. The conquest in 1664 of New Netherland by the English was confirmed, producing the colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.

240 years ago

The U.S. Second Continental Congress passed a resolution that the services of Gilbert du Motier, the Marquis de Lafayette, "be accepted, and that, in consideration of his zeal, illustrious family and connexions, he have the rank and commission of major-general of the United States."

150 years ago

Born on this date
S. S. Kresge
. U.S. department store magnate. Sebastian Spering Kresge founded the S.S. Kresge Company in 1899, and opened the first Kmart store in 1962. The company he founded became known as Kmart Corporation in 1977. Mr. Kresge died on October 18, 1966 at the age of 99.

125 years ago

Born on this date
Herbert W. Armstrong
. U.S. religious leader and "Ambassador for World Peace." Mr. Armstrong founded the Worldwide Church of God (originally known as the Radio Church of God) in 1933, and began The World Tomorrow radio broadcasts in 1934. Mr. Armstrong's theology was a hodgepodge of error and heresy; see my post on Mr. Armstrong at Suspicious Berean. Mr. Armstrong died on January 16, 1986 at the age of 93.

100 years ago

Field Marshal Earl Haig mounted a Passchendaele offensive with British and Anzac troops.

75 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): (There'll Be Bluebirds Over) The White Cliffs of Dover--Vera Lynn; Jean Cerchi (1st month at #1)

German, Romanian, and Slovak forces crossed the lower Don River on a 155-mile front. The U.S. Navy announced that approximately 10,000 Japanese troops were in three occupied Aleutian islands. The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously refused a writ of habeas corpus to accused German saboteurs, declaring that the charges against them were within the purview of military authorities.

The 25,000-ton U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS Essex was launched at Newport News, Virginia.

Sugar Ray Robinson (33-0) won a 10-round unanimous decision over world lightweight champion Sammy Angott (68-17-5) in a welterweight bout at Madison Square Garden in New York.

70 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): They Say it's Wonderful--Bing Crosby; Perry Como (1st month at #1)

On the radio
Mystery in the Air, starring Peter Lorre, on NBC
Tonight's episode: A Piece of String

Enraged by the previous day's murders of two British soldiers by Irgun Zvai Leumi terrorist, British troops rioted in Tel Aviv, killing five Jews.

The Italian parliament ratified the country's peace treaty after a seven-day debate.

The princely states of Hyderabad and Travancore announced that they would join the Dominion of India.

Politics and government
Dutch authorities in Batavia established autonomous areas in the tin-producing islands of Billiton and Bangka and the bauxite-rich Riow Archipelago, formerly considered part of Indonesia.

U.S. Senator Robert Taft (Republican--Ohio) launched his campaign for the 1948 Republican Party U.S. presidential nomination in a speech to 1,300 Ohio Republican leaders in Columbus.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Export-Import Bank approved a $13-million loan to Austria.

Congress of Industrial Organizations President Philip Murray wrote to American Federation of Labor President William Green, reiterating his proposal that the two organizations take common action on economic and political problems without waiting for a corporate merger.

60 years ago

Former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill called for a reform of the United Nations charter to save "the whole structure" from collapse.

The West German government recalled Rudolf Lahr, chief of the W.G. delegation to Soviet-German political and economic talks in Moscow, following the Soviet refusal to discuss repatriation of an estimated 80,000 Germans still in the U.S.S.R.

The United States announced its recognition of the Republic of Tunisia.

U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower defended the appointment of businessman Maxwell Gluck as U.S. Ambassador to Ceylon, denying that Mr. Gluck's political contributions to the Republican Party had been mentioned when his name was submitted for the post.

The joint U.S.-Canada DEW (Distant Early Warning) Line of radar stations began operating in the Northwest Territories.

Politics and government
Madeo Sabbatini, leader of Argentina's People's Radical Party, called on the Intransigent Radicals to join him to create a force capable of winning the 1958 presidential and legislative elections.

Saskatchewan (1-0) 30 @ Toronto (0-1) 9

The Roughriders scored 20 points in the 2nd quarter as they overcame a 9-0 deficit and defeated the Argonauts before 16,073 fans at Varsity Stadium. Pete O'Garro and Bobby Kuntz of the Argonauts and Ron Atchison of the Roughriders were ejected with about 5 minutes remaining in the game, as the game degenerated into violence, prompting referee Seymour Wilson to consider calling the game.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): La Caza--Juan y Junior (3rd week at #1)

On television tonight
Coronet Blue, starring Frank Converse, on CBS
Tonight's episode: Saturday

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: My Broken Souvenirs--Pussycat (5th week at #1)

Died on this date
Stacy Moskowitz, 20
. U.S. crime victim. Miss Moskowitz was shot to death, and her date, Robert Violante, was seriously wounded, as they sat in a parked car in Brooklyn, New York, becoming the final victims of David Berkowitz, who committed the crimes using the alias "Son of Sam." He was arrested 10 days later.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): It's a Sin--Pet Shop Boys (3rd week at #1)

Died on this date
Joseph E. Levine, 81
. U.S. film producer. Mr. Levine was producer or executive producer (often uncredited) for such movies as Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956); Two Women (1960); Long Day's Journey Into Night (1962); Zulu (1964); The Carpetbaggers (1964); Santa Claus Conquers the Martians (1964); Darling (1965); The Oscar (1966); The Graduate (1967); The Producers (1968); The Lion in Winter (1968); Carnal Knowledge (1971); and A Bridge Too Far (1977).

Hit parade
One Love, the first single by London’s Michelle Iurman, was added to the playlist of London radio station CJBK.

27 people were killed, 253 injured, and hundreds left homeless when a tornado struck southeastern Edmonton. Property damage was in excess of $250 million. It was the second worst tornado disaster in Canadian history—after the Regina cyclone of 1912—and Canada’s worst natural disaster since Hurricane Hazel claimed 80 lives in Ontario in 1954. The 1988 World Almanac and Book of Facts neglected to mention the Edmonton tornado among the year’s disasters.

World events
Hundreds of people were killed or injured as Iranian Muslim pilgrims battled Saudi police near the Grand Mosque in Mecca. The Iranians had reportedly shouted denunciations of the U.S.A., U.S.S.R., and Israel, and had raised portraits of Iran’s Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, in defiance of a prohibition on political demonstrations during the annual pilgrimage.

The U.S.S.R. presented to the arms-control talks in Geneva a draft treaty on replacing long-range nuclear weapons, two months after the U.S.A. had presented a similar draft treaty. The Soviet Union linked such an agreement to curbs on the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative.

British Attorney General Sir Patrick Mayhew announced a suit against the London newspaper Sunday Telegraph in an attempt to prevent publication of details from the book Spycatcher by Peter Wright.

Economics and finance
The Dow Jones industrial average closed at a record high of 2,572.07.

British Columbia (4-1) 20 @ Hamilton (3-3) 21

Bernie Ruoff’s single on a 35-yard missed field goal attempt with 1:37 remaining in regulation time gave the Tiger-Cats their win over the Lions before 18,088 fans at Ivor Wynne Stadium. The turning point in the game came in the 3rd quarter. The Lions led 17-13, and Larry Crawford’s 87-yard punt return for a B.C. touchdown was called back on a penalty. Two plays later, Hamilton middle linebacker Ben Zambiasi intercepted a Roy Dewalt pass and returned it 22 yards for a touchdown to put the Tiger-Cats ahead. Steve Stapler scored the other Tiger-Cat touchdown on a 34-yard pass from Tom Porras in the 1st quarter. Jim Sandusky scored both B.C. touchdowns, on a 21-yard pass from Mr. Dewalt in the 1st quarter, and a 31-yard pass from Mr. Dewalt in the 3rd quarter.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Germany (Media Control): It's My Life--Dr. Alban

Died on this date
G. Harrold Carswell, 72
. U.S. judge. Mr. Carswell was chief judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Florida from 1958-1969 and a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit from 1969-1970. He was nominated for the Supreme Court of the United States by President Richard Nixon in 1970 but was rejected by the U.S. Senate by a vote of 51-45. Opposition to Judge Carswell's nomination centred around his support for racial segregation during an unsuccessful bid for the Georgia legislature in 1948, and especially, the fact that 58% of his decisions as a district court judge had been reversed by higher courts. Mr. Carswell resigned from the bench to run for the Republican party nomination for a U.S. Senate seat in Florida but was unsuccessful, and he eventually returned to the practice of law.

The republic of Georgia joined the United Nations.

Thai Airways International Flight 311, an A310-304, crashed into a mountain north of Kathmandu, Nepal, killing all 113 people on board.

20 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): I'll Be Missing You--Puff Daddy featuring Faith Evans and 112 (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): D'You Know What I Mean--Oasis (2nd week at #1)

Montreal (3-3) 8 @ Toronto (5-1) 46
Saskatchewan (3-3) 34 @ Edmonton (5-1) 37

Tony Burse rushed 2 yards for his second touchdown of the game with 6:48 remaining in regulation time, and Danny McManus completed an 11-yard TD pass to Eddie Brown with 3:19 remaining as the Eskimos overcame a 27-20 deficit to defeat the Roughriders before 30,917 fans at Commonwealth Stadium. Willie Pless rushed 1 yard for another Edmonton touchdown, and Sean Fleming added 4 converts and 3 field goals.

10 years ago

Operation Banner, the presence of the British Army in Northern Ireland, and the longest-running British Army operation ever, came to an end after 38 years.

The United Nations Security Council unanimously approved the establishment of Operation Saturn, a peacekeeping operation in Darfur, Sudan, with assistance from the African Union; Canada sent a small contingent, providing monitoring, humanitarian aid and armoured vehicle training.

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