Sunday, 17 January 2021

January 17, 2021

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Tanya Sokolova!

270 years ago

Died on this date
Tomaso Albinoni, 79
. Italian composer. Mr. Albinoni was best known in his own time as a composer of operas, but is known today for his instrumental music, especially his concertos. The most famous piece attributed to him, Adagio in G Minor, is widely believed today to have been composed by Remo Giazotto, a 20th century musicologist and biographer of Mr. Albinoni.

240 years ago

Continental Army troops under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan defeated British forces under Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton in the Battle of Cowpens in South Carolina.

210 years ago

A heavily-outnumbered Spanish force of 6,000 troops defeated nearly 100,000 Mexican revolutionaries in the Battle of Calderón Bridge in present-day Zapotlanejo, Jalisco.

160 years ago

Died on this date
Lola Montez, 39
. U.K.-born dancer. Miss Montez, born Eliza Gilbert in Ireland, began using her stage name in 1843, and achieved success on stage in Europe. She arrived in Munich in 1846 and became the mistress of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, who made her Countess of Landsfeld in 1847. Miss Montez exercised considerable influence over King Ludwig until he was forced to abdicate in March 1848. She spent a brief time in Switzerland and then in London before moving to the United States in 1851. Miss Montez's theatrical career declined, and by 1857 she was delivering lectures on morality. She engaged in rescue work among women before tertiary effects of syphilis led to her death in Brooklyn, New York, a month before her 40th birthday. Miss Montez has been the subject of numerous works in popular culture.

A mass meeting in Montreal protested the forced return of escaped slave John Anderson to the United States; Mr. Anderson was later permitted to remain in Canada.

150 years ago

Born on this date
David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty
. U.K. military officer and politician. Lord Beatty joined the Royal Navy as a cadet in 1884 and served in Sudan in the Mahdist War (1896-1898) and in China after the Boxer Rebellion (1900). He commanded the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron at the Battle of Jutland in 1916, and became commander-in-chief of the Grand Fleet in December 1916, receiving the surrender of the German High Seas Fleet in November 1918. Lord Beatty served as First Sea Lord from November 1919-July 1927, longer than anyone else in the office. He was involved in negotiating the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. Lord Beatty died after a long battle with influenza on March 12, 1936 at the age of 65.

Nicolae Iorga. Prime Minister of Romania, 1931-1932. Mr. Iorga co-founded the Democratic Nationalist Party. He supported King Carol II and opposed the fascist Iron Guard, and was one of 64 of the arrested king's aides and other political dissidents executed by the Iron Guard in Jihlava military prison in Bucharest in reprisal for the killing of hundreds of Iron Guardists killed during the last years of King Carol's regime. Mr. Iorga was 69 when he was executed on November 27, 1940.

Andrew Smith Hallidie of San Francisco patented an improved "Endless Wire Roadway," a key component in the city’s first cable car system.

140 years ago

The Interprovincial Bridge opened between Hull, Québec, and Ottawa.

130 years ago

Died on this date
George Bancroft, 90
. U.S. scholar and politician. Mr. Bancroft was United States Secretary of the Navy from 1845-1846 in the administration of President James K. Polk, and established the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland. He served as U.S. Minister to the United Kingdom from 1846-1849. Professor Bancroft was also known for his multi-volume History of the United States, from the Discovery of the American Continent (1834-1874).

120 years ago

The Conseil fédéré des métiers (Federated Trades Council) (CFM) in Quebec elected a new executive.

110 years ago

Born on this date
Busher Jackson
. Canadian hockey player. Harvey Jackson played left wing with the Toronto Maple Leafs (1929-39); New York Americans (1939-41); and Boston Bruins (1941-44), scoring 475 points on 241 goals and 234 assists in 636 regular season games and 30 points on 18 goals and 12 assists in 30 playoff gmaes. He was a First Team All-Star four times and a Second Team All-Star once, led the National Hockey League in scoring in 1931-32, and helped the Maple Leafs win the Stanley Cup that year. Mr. Jackson, centre Joe Primeau, and right wing Charlie Conacher comprised the "Kid Line" with the Maple Leafs. Mr. Jackson became the first NHL player to score 4 goals in one period, accomplishing the feat in the 3rd period of a 5-2 win over the St. Louis Eagles on November 20, 1934. He lived a lifestyle of drinking and parties off the ice, which led to a decline in his standard of play in his later years, and problems after his playing career. Mr. Jackson's drinking led to serious health problems, ending in his death on June 25, 1966 at the age of 55. Former Maple Leafs' owner Conn Smythe prevented Mr. Jackson's election to the Hockey Hall of Fame for many years, but resigned from the Hall's board of directors when they overruled him and elected Mr. Jackson to the Hall of Fame in 1971.

John McCain, Jr. U.S. military officer. Admiral McCain, the son of a U.S. Navy admiral, served with the U.S. Navy from 1931-1972, commanding submarines in World War II and serving as Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Command (CINCPAC), commanding all U.S. forces in the Vietnam theatre from 1968-1972. He and his father both achieved the rank of four-star admiral. Adm. McCain died of a heart attack on March 22, 1981 at the age of 70.

George Stigler. U.S. economist. Dr. Stigler, a key figure in the Chicago School of Economics, was awarded the 1982 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences "for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation." He died on December 1, 1991 at the age of 80.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Antonio Prohías
. Cuban-born U.S. cartoonist. Mr. Prohias was the foremost cartoonist in Cuba in the 1940s and '50s, but ran afoul of Fidel Castro shortly after Mr. Castro seized power in 1959. Mr. Prohias went to New York in 1960, and found work with Mad magazine, writing and drawing the Spy vs. Spy feature from 1961-1986. He died on February 24, 1998 at the age of 77.

80 years ago

Vichy French forces inflicted a decisive defeat over the Royal Thai Navy in the Battle of Ko Chang. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill said that the United Kingdom needed American weapons, ships, and airplances to defeat the Axis powers.

U.S. War Secretary Henry Stimson said that Lend-Lease was "very probably" necessary to prevent a British defeat by the Axis powers. U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull announced that the United Kingdom had agreed to U.S. establishment of an airbase on the island of St. Lucia in the British West Indies.

Panamanian Ambassador to the United States Carlos Brin denied that President Arnulfo Arias was a dictator, and declared that Panama was ready to aid in defense of the Panama Canal.

Politics and government
The Chilean Radical, Democratic, and Radical Socialist parties, excluding the Communists, signed a pact to uphold democratic and republican ideals.

The Congress of Industrial Organizations-Farm Equipment Workers went on strike at the International Harvester Company plant at East Moline, Illinois. protesting what they called a lockout.

Fritzie Zivic (104-24-5) retained his world welterweight title with a technical knockout of former champion Henry Armstrong (111-14-7) 52 seconds into the 12th round of a scheduled 15-round bout before 23,190 fans at Madison Square Garden in New York. Mr. Armstrong, who was fighting for the first time since losing the title to Mr. Zivic on a unanimous decision on October 4, 1940, later announced his retirement from the ring, but resumed his career in 1942.

75 years ago

Dr. Ba Maw, Naingandaw Adipadi (Head of State) during the Japanese occupation of Burma from 1943-1945, surrendered at Allied headquarters in Tokyo. At the hearings of the United States Senate committee on the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, Sens. Homer Ferguson (Republican--Michigan) and Ralph Brewster (Republican--Maine) offered a motion to call former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill as a witness on British policy toward Japan in 1941.

The United Nations Security Council held its first meeting, at Church House, Westminster in London. British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin announced to the UN General Assembly that the United Kingdom would place its mandated territories of Tanganyika, the Cameroons, and Togoland under UN trusteeship. The Assembly also approved a motion urging member nations to sever ties with the Spanish regime of Generalissimo Francisco Franco.

Politics and government
Chilean President Juan Antonio Rios stepped down temporarily because of ill health, and was replaced by Alfredo Duhalde.

The United States Navy and Coast Guard demonstrated the Loran, an electronic instrument that determined the position and windspeed of ships, measuring the difference in arrival time of two radio signals.

At the Soviet Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Prof. A.A. Lebedev demonstrated a six-foot electronic microscope capable of 50,000 power magnification.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Export-Import Bank approved a $33-million credit grant to China to help finance the import of American raw cotton and speed reconversion of China's cotton industry.

U.S. President Harry Truman proposed an 18.5c hourly wage increase to avert a strike in the steel industry, while Labor Secretary L.B. Schwellenbach appointed a fact-finding board to settle the meat industry dispute.

The American Association of Junior Colleges held its first meeting in Chicago, and reported that 300-500 junior colleges would be opened in the United States during the next 10 years, with facilities for 500,000 students.

70 years ago

Communist China turned down the latest United Nations appeal for a cease-fire in Korea.

French forces claimed victory over Viet Minh forces in the Battle of Vĩnh Yên in Vietnam.

The Philippine Army began "Operation Saber," an attempted roundup of Huk guerrillas in central and northern Luzon involving 15,000 men.

U.S. Defense Secretary George Marshall submitted legislation to Congress calling for all qualified 18-year-olds to begin 27 months of military service.

U.S. President Harry Truman received the credentials of Spanish Ambassador Jose Felix Leqerica, ending a five-year suspension of Spanish-American relations.

Egypt signed an agreement to buy 50,000 tons of Soviet wheat.

New York's third basketball scandal in five years began with the arrest of two co-captains of Manhattan College's 1949-50 team and three gamblers on bribery and conspiracy charges. The two players, Henry Poppe and John Byrnes, were accused of accepting $5,000 each for fixing five games.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Norway (VG-lista): Seemann--Lolita

Seemann is the original German title of the song that was released in English-speaking countries as Sailor (Your Home is the Sea).

On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Erling Lindahl and Einar Vaage, on Norsk Rikskringkasting (Norwegian State Broadcasting Corporation)

On television tonight
Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond, hosted by John Newland, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Dead Man's Tale, starring Lonny Chapman, Jean Engstrom, and Lucy Prentis

Thriller, hosted by Boris Karloff, on NBC
Tonight's episode: Man in the Cage, starring Philip Carey, Diana Millay, and Eduardo Ciannelli

Died on this date
Joseph Okito, 50
. Congolese politician. Mr. Okito, a member of the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC), represented Kasai Province in the Senate from May 1960 and was its Vice President from June 22, 1960 until his assassination with Patrice Lumumba and Maurice Mpolo, 19 days before his 51st birthday.

Patrice Lumumba, 35. Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1960. Mr. Lumumba, born Élias Okit'Asombo, was a member of the Liberal Party of Belgium before co-founding the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC) in 1958 and becoming its leader, advocating independence for the Congo from Belgian rule, Africanization of the government, state-led economic development, and neutrality in foreign affairs. He was imprisoned for allegedly inciting an anti-colonial riot late in 1959, but the MNC won a convincing majority in local Congolese elections in December, allowing Mr. Lumumba to attend the Congolese Round Table Conference in Brussels in January 1960. The conference resulted in a declaration of independence for the Belgian Congo, with elections scheduled for May 11-25 and independence to take effect on June 30. On June 24, Mr. Lumumba was recognized as Prime Minister, with rival Joseph Kasavubu as President. Military mutinies soon began, and Europeans fled to Katanga Province, which, led by Moise Tshombe, declared its independence on July 11, supported by the Belgian government and mining companies. The new Congolese government broke off relations with Belgium on July 14. Mr. Lumumba was unsuccessful in obtaining United Nations military assistance in dealing with the rebels, and declared a state of emergency on August 9. Presidene Kasavubu dismissed Prime Minister Lumumba on September 5, but the Chamber of Deputies annulled the dismissal, and granted Mr. Lumumba emergency powers on September 13. Joseph Mobutu, meanwhile, launched a "peaceful revolution" on September 14, neutralizing the government until December 31. Mr. Lumumba launched an attempt to regain power, but was caught by Mr. Mobutu's troops on December 1 and held in custody at Camp Hardy, 100 miles from Léopoldville. Belgian Minister of the Colonies Harold Charles d'Aspremont Lynden ordered Mr. Lumumba and colleagues Joseph Okito and Maurice Mpolo to be transferred by President Kasavubu’s government to what was described as a more secure prison in Jadotville, Katanga. The three men were beaten and tortured by provincial police upon their arrival in Katanga, and were finally executed by firing squads, reportedly in the presence of Mr. Tshombe and four Belgian officers under the command of Katangan authorities. No official statement was made confirming the deaths until February 13. Evidence revealed years later supported claims that the United States desired the "elimination" of Mr. Lumumba, and that the Belgian government requested his execution.

Maurice Mpolo, 32. Congolese politician. Mr. Mpolo, a member of the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC), represented Lac Léopold II in the Chamber of Deputies from June 1960, and was Minister of Youth and Sports from June 24, 1960 until his assassination with Patrice Lumumba and Joseph Okito.

Politics and government
U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower delivered his farewell address to the nation over radio and television from the White House. Pointing out that the U.S.A. had been compelled to create a vast permanent armaments industry and to maintain a large defense establishment, he warned: "In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex." He also warned against the "prospect of domination of the nation’s scholars by federal employment, project allocations and the power of money." President Eisenhower said that he laid down his official responsibilities in the field of disarmament "with a definite sense of disappointment," adding, "I wish I could say tonight that a lasting peace is in sight. Happily, I can say that war has been avoided." He concluded with a prayer for the well-being of "all the peoples of the world." Mr. Eisenhower was due to leave office on January 20 after eight years as President, to be succeeded by John F. Kennedy.

Canadian officials returned Polish national treasures that had been stored in Canadian vaults for safekeeping during World War II.
Canadian Prime Minister John Diefenbaker and U.S. President Eisenhower signed the Columbia River Treaty on the development and operation of dams in the upper Columbia River basin for power and flood control benefits in both countries.

Cassius Clay (3-0) celebrated his 19th birthday with a technical knockout of Tony Esperti (9-7-2) at 1:30 of the 3rd round in a heavyweight bout at the Auditorium in Miami Beach, Florida. Mr. Esperti was on his feet and seemingly not badly hurt, but referee Mike Kaplan stopped the fighth because Mr. Esperti "was beginning to bust up around the eyes," according to the Miami News. The fight had been scheduled for a maximum of 8 rounds.

50 years ago

20 Japanese holiday skaters fell through ice on Lake Shojin; four drowned and five were missing.

Super Bowl V @ Orange Bowl, Miami
Baltimore 16 Dallas 13

Rookie Jim O’Brien kicked a 32-yard field goal with 5 seconds remaining in regulation time to give the Colts--American Football Conference champions in the first season after the NFL had merged with the AFL--their first Super Bowl victory over the National Football Conference champion Cowboys before 80,055 fans. The winning score was set up by an interception by linebacker Mike Curtis, who intercepted a pass by Dallas quarterback Craig Morton on the Cowboys’ 41-yard line and returned it to the 28 with 1:09 remaining. The Colts and Cowboys combined for 11 turnovers in a sloppily-played game. Mike Clark kicked a 14-yard field goal in the 1st quarter and a 30-yard field goal in the 2nd quarter to give Dallas a 6-0 lead. Baltimore quarterback Johnny Unitas threw a long pass intended for Eddie Hinton, but the ball bounced off Mr. Hinton’s hands, grazed the fingertips of Dallas defensive back Mel Renfro, and was caught by Baltimore tight end John Mackey, who raced to the end zone for a 75-yard touchdown. Mr. O’Brien’s extra-point attempt was blocked, leaving the score tied 6-6. On the Colts’ next possession, Mr. Unitas lost a fumble when he was hit by George Andrie of the Cowboys, and Mr. Unitas was forced to leave the game with bruised ribs. Mr. Morton, playing with a sore arm, completed the drive with a 7-yard touchdown pass to Duane Thomas. Mr. Clark converted to give Dallas a 13-6 halftime lead. The 3rd quarter was scoreless, but the Cowboys blew a golden opportunity when they recovered a fumble by Jim Duncan of the Colts on the second-half kickoff on the Baltimore 31-yard line. The Cowboys drove to the 2-yard line, but Mr. Thomas fumbled, and the Colts recovered on the 1. With 8 minutes remaining in the 4th quarter, a pass from Mr. Morton bounced off the hands of running back Walt Garrison into the hands of Baltimore defensive back Rick Volk at the Dallas 20-yard line, and Mr. Volk returned it to the 3. Tom Nowatzke rushed 2 yards for a touchdown, and Mr. O’Brien converted to tie the score 13-13. Mr. Garrison led all rushers with 65 yards on 12 carries, while Mr. Thomas was held to 35 yards on 18 carries. Mr. Nowatzke led the Colts with 33 yards on 10 carries, while Norm Bulaich was held to 28 yards on 18 carries. Mr. Mackey led all receivers with 80 yards on 2 receptions, while Roy Jefferson caught 3 for 52, Mr. Hinton caught 2 for 51, and Mr. Nowatzke 1 for 45. Dan Reeves led the Cowboys with 46 yards on 5 receptions, and Bob Hayes caught 1 pass for 41 yards. Mr. Morton completed 12 of 26 passes for 127 yards and 3 interceptions. Mr. Unitas was 3 for 9 for 88 yards and 2 interceptions, while backup Earl Morrall was 7 for 15 for 147 yards and an interception, and Baltimore halfback Sam Havrilak completed his only pass for 25 yards. In addition to those by Mr. Curtis and Mr. Volk, Jerry Logan had one for the Colts; linebacker Chuck Howley, who was named the game’s most valuable player, made 2 interceptions for the Cowboys for 22 yards, while Mr. Renfro also made an interception. The Colts fumbled 5 times and lost 3, while Mr. Thomas’s fumble was the only one for the Cowboys.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Anna Dai Capelli Rossi--I Ragazzi Dai Capelli Rossi (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Santa Maria--Roland Kaiser (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland: (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Imagine--John Lennon (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Imagine--John Lennon (2nd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Lola (Live)--The Kinks (2nd week at #1)
2 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
3 Santa Maria--Roland Kaiser
4 Runaway Boys--Stray Cats
5 Baggy Trousers--Madness
6 Happy Xmas (War is Over)--John & Yoko/The Plastic Ono Band with the Harlem Community Choir
7 Mama He's a Soldier Now--Saskia & Serge
8 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
9 Stop the Cavalry--Jona Lewie
10 Funkin' for Jamaica (N.Y.)--Tom Browne

Singles entering the chart were If You Could Read My Mind (Special U.S. Disco-Mix) by Viola Wills (#28); San Salvador by Azoto (#30); Always Look on the Bright Side of Life by Monty Python (#32); I'm Coming Out by Diana Ross (#33); I Believe in You by Don Williams (#35); and Latin America by the Gibson Brothers (#39). Always Look on the Bright Side of Life was from the movie Life of Brian (1979).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (4th week at #1)
2 Love on the Rocks--Neil Diamond
3 Guilty--Barbra Streisand (Duet with Barry Gibb)
4 The Tide is High--Blondie
5 Hungry Heart--Bruce Springsteen
6 Every Woman in the World--Air Supply
7 Passion--Rod Stewart
8 Tell it Like it Is--Heart
9 Lady--Kenny Rogers
10 De Do Do Do, De Da Da Da--The Police

Singles entering the chart were Woman by John Lennon (#36); Treat Me Right by Pat Benatar (#68); Flash's Theme aka Flash by Queen (#79); Watching You by Slave (#90); Somebody's Knockin' by Terri Gibbs (#94); and Long Time Lovin' You by McGuffey Lane (#97).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (4th week at #1)
2 Lady--Kenny Rogers
3 The Tide is High--Blondie
4 Love on the Rocks--Neil Diamond
5 More Than I Can Say--Leo Sayer
6 Hungry Heart--Bruce Springsteen
7 Hit Me with Your Best Shot--Pat Benatar
8 Guilty--Barbra Streisand (Duet with Barry Gibb)
9 Every Woman in the World--Air Supply
10 Celebration--Kool & The Gang

Singles entering the chart were Woman by John Lennon (#51); Treat Me Right by Pat Benatar (#63); (Ghost) Riders in the Sky by the Outlaws (#78); Flash's Theme aka Flash by Queen (#85); Wynken, Blynken and Nod by the Doobie Brothers (#89); Somebody's Knockin' by Terri Gibbs (#97); and Precious to Me by Phil Seymour (#98). Wynken, Blynken and Nod was released in the U.S.A. on the Sesame Street label; in Canada it was released several months later on the Warner Brothers label as the B-side of Here to Love You.

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (3rd week at #1)
2 Another One Bites the Dust--Queen
3 Love on the Rocks--Neil Diamond
4 Every Woman in the World--Air Supply
5 More than I Can Say--Leo Sayer
6 Guilty--Barbra Streisand (Duet with Barry Gibb)
7 The Tide is High--Blondie
8 Lady--Kenny Rogers
9 Hit Me with Your Best Shot--Pat Benatar
10 Passion--Rod Stewart

Singles entering the chart were Woman by John Lennon (#43); Treat Me Right by Pat Benatar (#72); (Ghost) Riders in the Sky by the Outlaws (#81); Wynken, Blynken and Nod by the Doobie Brothers (#89); Keep it Hot by Cameo (#94); Boogie Body Land by the Bar-Kays (#96); Agony of Defeet by Parliament (#97); and Full of Fire by Shalamar (#100).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (4th week at #1)
2 Passion--Rod Stewart
3 Switchin' to Glide--The Kings
4 Whip It--Devo
5 The Tide is High--Blondie
6 Tell it Like it Is--Heart
7 Hungry Heart--Bruce Springsteen
8 De Do Do Do, De Da Da Da--The Police
9 Love on the Rocks--Neil Diamond
10 Looking for Clues--Robert Palmer

Singles entering the chart were Wasn't That a Party by the Rovers (#29); and Skateaway by Dire Straits (#30).

World events
Philippines President Ferdinand Marcos ended the state of martial law that he had imposed eight years and four months earlier. Mr. Marcos apparently ended martial law in hopes of improving relations with the United States and in honour of the coming visit of Pope John Paul II. Mr. Marcos also freed 341 prisoners and transferred his own legislative powers to the Philippine National Assembly.

Montreal 5 @ Toronto 6

Pat Hickey scored 3 goals for the Maple Leafs and was named the game's first star in the national Hockey Night in Canada game at Maple Leaf Gardens.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Sadeness Part I--Enigma

Died on this date
Olav V, 87
. King of Norway, 1957-1991. King Olav V, who succeeded his father Haakon VII on the throne, won a gold medal at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam for yachting. He was succeeded by his son Harald V.

Under the command of U.S. General Norman Schwarzkopf, the first planes in the United Nations attack on Iraq left their base in Saudi Arabia at 12:50 A.M. Iraqi time and began striking targets at 2:30 A.M. The first Tomahawk cruise missile was launched toward Baghdad from the deck of the USS Wisconsin. Iraq attacked Israel with eight Soviet-made Scud missiles. Two of the missiles hit Tel Aviv, three hit the Haifa area, and three fell in open fields. Israel began enforcing a sweeping curfew on Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip; they were restricted to their homes except for a few hours every few days, when they were able to buy food. Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein announced in a brief radio message that "the mother of all battles had begun."

Crowds in the tens of thousands marched in the streets of Paris, London, Rome, Washington, and San Francisco to protest the Gulf War. More than 100,000 organized in Germany on the sixth day of protests there.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control announced that three patients of deceased Florida dentist David Acers had apparently become infected with the AIDS virus as a result of contact with him. The CDC could not say exactly how the patients had become infected, but Dr. Acer was known to have lapsed in some sanitary procedures and may have infected the patients through contact between their mouths and blood from a cut on his hand, or through contaminated instruments. The American Medical Association and American Dental Association appealed to doctors and dentists to warn patients or give up surgery if they had the virus.

With the outbreak of war in the Persian Gulf, prices plunged $10.56 per barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange.

Economics and finance
The Dow Jones Industrial Average rose 114.60, the second-highest one-day point gain ever.

The United States Commerce Department reported that housing construction in 1990 had dropped to its lowest level in eight years.

25 years ago

Died on this date
Barbara Jordan, 59
. U.S. politician. Miss Jordan, a Democrat, was a lawyer and civil rights leader before serving in the Texas state Senate from 1967-1973 and representing Texas' 18th District in the United States House of Representatives from 1973-1979. She was the first Negro woman elected to the Texas Senate since the 19th century, and the first southern Negro woman to be elected to the House of Representatives. Miss Jordan died after a long battle with multiple sclerosis and leukemia.

The Czech Republic applied for membership of the European Union.

Politics and government
The Newfoundland Liberal Party elected former Canadian Fisheries Minister Brian Tobin as party leader, replacing retiring Premier Clyde Wells.

Montreal 3 @ Ottawa 0
Colorado 2 @ Detroit 3

The Canadiens shut out the Senators in the first game ever played at the Palladium, soon to be renamed Corel Centre.

Steve Yzerman scores his 500th career National Hockey League goal to help his Red Wings beat the Avalanche at Joe Louis Arena in Detroit.

20 years ago

U.S. President Bill Clinton created six new national monuments and expanded two others. The new ones included Minidoka International NM in Idaho, commemorating the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II; Pompeys Pillar NM in Montana, a tall sandstone formation sighted by the Lewis and Clark expedition; and the Upper Missouri River Breaks NM in Montana, the only lengthy portion of the river still in a natural state.

Parts of California were plunged into darkness after utility companies failed to deliver sufficient amounts of energy. Pacific Gas and Electric Company and Southern California Edison Company--$12 billion in debt--had been forced to buy power at ever-increasing rates while being barred by law from passing higher costs on to their customers. California Governor Gray Davis declared a state of emergency and directed the Department of Water Resources to buy energy and sell it cheaply to utilities.

The 400-page report of the Clair Commission on health and social services in Quebec was tabled, containing 36 recommendations and 59 proposals.

Economics and finance
The Bank of Canada unveiled the new Canadian $10 bill, with enhanced security features.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Don Kirshner, 76
. U.S. music publisher and producer. Mr. Kirshner achieved success in the 1950s and '60s as co-owner of Aldon Music, employing songwriters such as Carole King, Gerry Goffin, Barry Mann, Cynthia Weil, Neil Sedaka, Howard Greenfield, Phil Spector, Neil Diamond, and Paul Simon. Mr. Kirshner was a music consultant for various television series in the '60s and '70s, and got his songwriters to provide material for the Monkees when the group began recording in 1966. The Monkees achieved tremendous success with the songs provided by Mr. Kirshner, but they wanted more control over their recordings, and they fired Mr. Kirshner when he released the single A Little Bit Me, A Little Bit You in 1967 without their consent. Mr. Kirshner then went on to have success producing records for the Archies, using studio musicins for an animated television series. He produced and hosted the syndicated program Don Kirshner's Rock Concert (1973-1981). Mr. Kirshner died of heart failure; he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2012.

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