Tuesday, 26 January 2021

January 27, 2021

710 years ago

Died on this date
Külüg Khan (Wuzong), 29
. Khagan of the Mongol Empire; Emperor of China, 1307-1311. Külüg Khan, known as Emperor Wuzong of the Yuan dynasty in China, was born Khayishan, and acceded to the throne following the death of his uncle Temür Khan, who left no heir. Külüg Khan's title as Great Khan was only nominal because of the division of the Mongol Empire at the time. He died suddenly, and was succeeded by his younger brother Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan.

450 years ago

Born on this date
Abbas I
. Shah of Persia, 1588-1629. Abbas "the Great" acceded to the throne when his father Mohammad Khodabanda was deposed. Abbas I was the fifth Shah of the Safavid dynasty, and is regarded as one of Persia's greatest rulers. He incorporated foreign slave-soldiers into the military and civil service, which helped him to record military victories over Ottoman and Uzbek forces, regaining provinces that had been lost in wars. Shah Abbas moved the Persian capital from Qazvin to Isfahan. He was generally tolerant of Christianity, and initiated diplomatic contacts with Europe in order to help defeat the Ottomans. Shah Abbas eventually became suspicious of his three surviving sons, and had them either executed or blinded. After a brief illness, Shah Abbas I died on January 19, 1629, eight days before his 58th birthday, and was succeeded by his grandson Safi.

170 years ago

Died on this date
John James Audubon, 65
. Haitian-born U.S. naturalist and artist. Mr. Audubon, born Jean-Jacques Rabin, was raised in France, and emigrated to the United States in 1803, anglicizing his name. He became famous for his paintings and drawings of North American birds, which were published in series as The Birds of America (1827-1838). Mr. Audubon co-authored the influential book Ornithological Biographies (1827-1839). Mr. Audubon's final work dealt with mammals; he co-authored The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America (1845–1849). He died after suffering from what may have been Alzheimer's disease. Mr. Audubon has been accused of plagiarism and fraud, and recent research has tended to support the accusations. The National Audubon Society was founded in 1905 after several similar organizations had been named after Mr. Audubon; the NAS is devoted to conservation, although Mr. Audubon wasn't a conservationist, but shot and posed the birds that he painted.

120 years ago

Born on this date
Willy Fritsch
. German actor. Mr. Fritsch was a leading man and character actor in more than 120 movies from 1921-1964. He mainly appeared in comic roles, but also appeared in dramas such as Spione (Spies) (1928) and Frau im Mond (Woman in the Moon) (1929). Mr. Fritsch died of a heart attack on July 13, 1973 at the age of 72.

Art Rooney. U.S. football executive. Mr. Rooney played minor league baseball in the 1920s and founded the Pittsburgh Pirates of the National Football League in 1933, renaming them the Steelers in 1941. It took Mr. Rooney's team more than four decades to win a championship, but they won four Super Bowls in six years from 1975-1980. Mr. Rooney was inducted into the Professional Football Hall of Fame in 1964, and died on August 25, 1988 at the age of 87.

Died on this date
Giuseppe Verdi, 87
. Italian composer. Mr. Verdi, whose name translates into English as "Joe Green," was one of the most prominent opera composers in the 19th century. His operas included Rigoletto (1851); La Traviata (1853); Aida (1871); Otello (1887); and Falstaff (1893).

100 years ago

Born on this date
Donna Reed
. U.S. actress. Miss Reed, born Donna Mullenger, won the Academy Award for her supporting performance in From Here to Eternity (1953), but was perhaps best remembered for her co-starring role in It's a Wonderful Life (1946) and the television comedy series The Donna Reed Show (1958-1966). She died of pancreatic cancer on January 14, 1986, 13 days before her 65th birthday.

Died on this date
Maurice Buckley, 29
. Australian soldier. Sergeant Buckley was a private when he served with the Imperial Australian Army in Egypt in 1915, but he contracted a venereal disease and was sent home. He escaped from a medical detention facility, and was declared a deserter. Using the name Gerald Sexton, he re-enlisted and was sent to France early in 1917. Sgt. Buckley, still using his assumed name, earned the Victoria Cross for his actions on Septembe 18, 1918, when, facing machine-gun fire, he rushed enemy posts, captured enemy guns, and took 30 German prisoners. He disclosed his true identity before receiving the VC from King George V in May 1919, and was discharged that December. Sgt. Buckley died 12 days after suffering severe injuries in a riding accident, when he tried to jump his horse over a railway gate.

80 years ago

Japanese Prime Minister Prince Fuminaro Konoye told the Diet that there was no sign of a solution to the conflict in China.

Politics and government
Vichy French Prime Minister Marshal Philippe Petain promulgated a new law requiring all Vichy ministers and high officials to personally swear allegiance to him in his presence.

A communique from Rome reported that Italian Foreign Minister Count Galeazzo Ciano had returned to active military service.

The United States Senate confirmed the appointment of Frank Walker as Postmaster General.

Wendell Willkie, 1940 Republican Party candidate for President of the United States, visited British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in London.

A regional conference on the River Plate opened in Montevideo.

The United States Senate passed without dissent a House of Representatives-approved $300-million appropriation to modernize Navy ships against air attack.

Dr. Alex Hardlisha of the Smithsonian Institution claimed that larger and broader skulls, lower cheekbones, and dark hair were the physical characteristics that distinguished the nation's "best minds."

U.S. Attorney General William F. Smith filed a civil antitrust action in Trenton, New Jersey against General Electric, Westinghouse Electric, and 10 other concerns on charges of monopolizing the electric light bulb industry.

75 years ago

At the trial in Nuremberg of accused Nazi war criminals, General George Thomas of the German General Staff charged that Reinhard Heydrich had staged the 1939 Munich beer cellar explosion to break up a peace movement in the army.

Politics and government
King Farouk of Egypt intervened to prevent a dissolution of the cabinet after Prime Minister Mahmoud Fahmy Nokrashy Pasha threatened to resign over a dispute on the right to appeal to the United Nations against the United Kingdom.

Transjordanian Emir Abdullah Ibn Hussein hailed the British independence plan as putting an end to a Zionist plot to take over the country.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Office of Price Administration gave the Federal Housing Administration power to set rent ceilings on housing built with priority aid under the veterans' preference system and on FHA-insured homes.

Radio Corporation of America signed with the Congress of Industrial Organizations United Electrical Radio and Machine Workers for a 17½c hourly wage increase for 8,000 workers in Camden, New Jersey.

The World Conference of Churches Provisional Committee announced that it would meet in Geneva from February 20-24 to draft plans for a world assembly of Protestant church representatives.

The U.S.S.R.'s Stalin Prize went to Sergei Vasilov, Igor Tamm, Pavel Cherenkov, and Alya Frank for their work with radiation electrons; and to Konstantin Petrozhak and Georgi Floryov for bringing about the spontaneous fission of uranium in 1943.

70 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Bewitched--Gordon Jenkins and his Orchestra; Doris Day

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): The Tennessee Waltz--Patti Page (Best Seller--5th week at #1; Disc Jockey--4th week at #1; Jukebox--4th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 The Tennessee Waltz--Patti Page (5th week at #1)
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Les Paul and Mary Ford
--Jo Stafford
2 My Heart Cries for You--Guy Mitchell
--Dinah Shore
--Vic Damone
--Jimmy Wakely
3 The Thing--Phil Harris
4 A Bushel and a Peck--Perry Como and Betty Hutton
--Margaret Whiting and Jimmy Wakely
5 Harbor Lights--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
--Bing Crosby
6 Thinking of You--Don Cherry
--Eddie Fisher
7 Nevertheless (I’m in Love with You)--Paul Weston and his Orchestra
--The Mills Brothers
--Ralph Flanagan and his Orchestra
--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
8 Oh, Babe!--Kay Starr
--Louis Prima and Keely Smith
9 All My Love (Bolero)--Patti Page
--Percy Faith and his Orchestra
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Bing Crosby
10 You’re Just in Love--Perry Como

Singles entering the chart were Zing Zing - Zoom Zoom by Perry Como (#27); Tell Me Tonight by Tony Martin (#32); Get Out Those Old Records by Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians (#33); Hot Rod Race, with versions by Tiny Hill and his Orchestra; and Red Foley (#37); and The One Rose by Eddy Howard (#40). Zing Zing--Zoom Zoom was the B-side of If, charting at #14. The One Rose was the B-side of To Think You've Chosen Me, charting at #13.

Died on this date
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, 83
. State Regent of Finland, 1918-1919; President of Finland, 1944-1946. Baron Mannerheim was a career officer in the Imperial Russian Army, rising to the rank of lieutenant general, but after Finland declared her independence following the Bolshevik revolution in 1917, he commanded the anti-Bolshevik Whites against the pro-Bolshevik Reds in the Finnish Civil War (1918), and served as Regent until a constitution went into effect. Baron Mannerheim was Commander-in-Chief of Finnish Defense Forces from 1939-1945, leading his country against the U.S.S.R. in the Winter War (1939-1940) and Continuation War (1941-1944). He then served as President of Finland until resigning because of ill health, which continued until his death in Lausanne, Switzerland from a bowel obstruction. Baron Mannerheim was regarded as the father of modern Finland, and a poll in 2004 named him the greatest Finn.

East Germany and Poland signed a boundary treaty in Frankfurt-on-the-Oder confirming the transfer of the Oder-Neisse territory to Poland.

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission began Operation Ranger, setting off the first in a series of atomic explosions at an Air Force testing range in Nevada.

U.S. federal agents in New York, Boston, and Miami arrested five suspects as key figures in a huge international diamond and gold smuggling ring.

Canada's Post Office Department announced that commencing April 1, 1951, home mail deliveries would be reduced to once per day.

Economics and finance
New York Stock Exchange prices soared in reaction to the wage-price freeze, but futures trading in cotton, wool, and other commodities was suspended pending clarification of the freeze order.

The U.S. National Production Authority issued orders designed to cut non-defense use of tin by one-third.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Are You Lonesome To-night?--Elvis Presley

On television tonight
The Twilight Zone, on CBS
Tonight’s episode: The Invaders, starring Agnes Moorehead

Jerry Goldsmith’s score for this episode was released in 1983 on the album The Twilight Zone: The Original Television Scores, Volume I. This episode of The Twilight Zone bore no relation to the later series of the same name.

The United States Navy assured Hector Galvao, leader of a band of pirates who were holding almost 1,000 people hostage aboard the Portuguese cruise ship Santa Maria in the Atlantic Ocean, that it would take no action against him and his men if they debarked the ship’s passengers.

Montréal started to build Le Métro subway, at an estimated cost of $300 million; the government of Québec agreed to help with financing.

The Soviet submarine S-80 sank when its snorkel malfunctioned, flooding the sub. All 68 men aboard perished, but their fate remained unknown until 1968, when the wreckage was discovered by a salvage ship.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison

Died on this date
Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán, 57
. President of Guatemala, 1951-1954. Mr. Árbenz was Guatemala's Defense Minister from 1944-1951 before being elected President. His Marxist views and agrarian reforms threatened the finaincial interests of the United Fruit Company, and the U.S. government and Central Intelligence Agency engineered a coup that toppled Mr. Árbenz and replaced him with a military junta led by Colonel Carlos Castillo. Mr. Árbenz died in his bathtub in exile in Mexico.

40 years ago

Delegates to a 37-nation conference of Islamic countries at Taif, Saudi Arabia approved a resolution calling for immediate withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan.

An Indonesian passenger ship caught fire in a storm and sank in the Java Sea; 87 were killed, and little hope was held out for the rescue of the 287 people listed as missing.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Do the Bartman--The Simpsons

#1 single in Switzerland: Sadeness Part I--Enigma (7th week at #1)

Austria's Top 10 (Ö3)
1 Sadeness Part I--Enigma (8th week at #1)
2 Keep on Running--Milli Vanilli
3 Unchained Melody--The Righteous Brothers
4 Ice Ice Baby--Vanilla Ice
5 Fantasy--Black Box
6 I'll Be Your Baby Tonight--Robert Palmer and UB40
7 To Love Somebody--Jimmy Somerville
8 Hello Afrika--Dr. Alban featuring Leila K.
9 Crazy for You--David Hasselhoff
10 The Joker--Steve Miller Band

Singles entering the chart were How I Miss You So by P.M. Sampson (#26); and Let's Swing Again by Jive Bunny and the Mastermixers (#27).

Died on this date
Dale Long, 64
. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Long was a first baseman with the Pittsburgh Pirates (1951, 1955-1957); St. Louis Browns (1951); Chicago Cubs (1957-1959); San Francisco Giants (1960); New York Yankees (1960, 1962-1963); and Washington Senators (1961-1962), batting .267 with 132 home runs and 467 runs batted in in 1,013 games. His best season was 1956, when he hit .263 with 27 homers and 91 RBIs. From May 19-28, 1956, Mr. Long homered in 8 straight games, setting a major league record, tied by Don Mattingly of the New York Yankees in 1987 and Ken Griffey, Jr. of the Seattle Mariners in 1993. Mr. Long was with the Yankees when they won the World Series in 1962.

In an attempt to stop the flow of oil in to the Persian Gulf, the United States bombed installations that controlled the flow of oil from storage facilities.

Super Bowl XXV @ Tampa Stadium
New York Giants 20 Buffalo 19

Buffalo’s Scott Norwood missed a 47-yard field goal attempt with 4 seconds remaining in regulation time that would have given the Bills their first Super Bowl win.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Jesus to a Child--George Michael (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (VRT): Knockin'--Double Vision (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Wallonia (Ultratop 40): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (9th week at #1)

#1 single in France (SNEP): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (9th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Ademnood--Linda, Roos & Jessica (8th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Spaceman--Babylon Zoo

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men (9th week at #1)
2 Exhale (Shoop Shoop)--Whitney Houston
3 Missing--Everything But the Girl
4 Hey Lover--LL Cool J
5 Name--Goo Goo Dolls
6 One of Us--Joan Osborne
7 Breakfast at Tiffany's--Deep Blue Something
8 You'll See--Madonna
9 Before You Walk Out of My Life/Like This and Like That--Monica
10 Be My Lover--La Bouche

Singles entering the chart were Wonderwall by Oasis (#21); Glycerine by Bush (#39); Not Gon' Cry by Mary J. Blige (#59); Feels So Good (Show Me Your Love) by Lina Santiago (#64); and Everybody Be Somebody by Ruffneck featuring Yavahn (#89). Not Gon' Cry was from the movie Waiting to Exhale (1995).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 One Sweet Day--Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men (7th week at #1)
2 Exhale (Shoop Shoop)--Whitney Houston
3 Breakfast at Tiffany's--Deep Blue Something
4 Hey Lover--LL Cool J
5 Name--Goo Goo Dolls
6 Missing--Everything But the Girl
7 One of Us--Joan Osborne
8 Diggin' on You--TLC
9 Before You Walk Out of My Life/Like This and Like That--Monica
10 Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V.

Singles entering the chart were Not Gon' Cry by Mary J. Blige (#45); Cumbersome by Seven Mary Three (#63); Wonderwall by Oasis (#68); Energy by Devone (#73); 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins (#74); and Stayin' Alive by N-Trance (#85).

Died on this date
Ralph Yarborough, 92
. U.S. politician. Mr. Yarborough, a Democrat, represented Texas in the United States Senate from 1957-1971, and consistently supported liberal policies. He was riding with U.S. Vice President Lyndon Johnson in the motorcade two cars behind the car carrying President John F. Kennedy and Texas Governor John Connally in Dallas when Mr. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963.

World events
Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara led a military coup that deposed the first democratically elected president of Niger, Mahamane Ousmane.

Germany first observed International Holocaust Remembrance Day.

France conducted its sixth test of a nuclear device, continuing to defy international opinion.

Monica Seles won her first Grand Slam title since being stabbed in the back during a 1993 tournament, defeating Anke Huber of Germany in the women's singles final at the Australian Open. It was Miss Seles's fourth Australian title, the third having come three months before the attack.

20 years ago

Died on this date
Catherine MacLean
. Canadian crime victim. Ms. MacLean was walking along a sidewalk in Ottawa when she was struck by a car driven by Russian diplomat Andrey Knyazev, who was drunk. Mr. Knyazev claimed diplomatic immunity, but returned to Moscow, where the Russians said he would face charges under their legal system.

A 17-year-old girl was given 180 lashes for having premarital sex, even though she testified that her father had forced her to have sex with three of his friends. She had given birth to a girl three weeks before the flogging. She had married in an attempt to avoid the punishment, but a judge ruled that her current marital status was immaterial.

Politics and government
Lorne Calvert was elected leader of the provincial New Democratic Party in Saskatchewan, meaning that he would also become Premier, succeeding the retiring Roy Romanow.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Charlie Callas, 86
. U.S. comedian and musician. Mr. Callas, born Charles Callias, was a jazz drummer with bands including those of Tommy Dorsey and Buddy Rich, before becoming a standup comic. He was known for his rubbery face and use of vocal sound effects in routines that he used in appearances on numerous television talk and variety shows. Mr. Callas played Malcolm Argos in the television series Switch (1975-1978).

The Yemeni Revolution began as over 16,000 protestors demonstrated in Sana'a.

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