Sunday, 3 January 2021

January 3, 2021

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Gulbahar!

500 years ago


Pope Leo X issued the bull Decet Romanum Pontificem, formally excommunicating Martin Luther from the Roman Catholic Church.

320 years ago

Died on this date
Luigi I, 58
. Prince of Monaco, 1662-1701. Luigi I acceded to the throne upon the death of his grandfather Onorato II. He took the oath to King Louis XIV of France in 1668, and went to Rome in 1699 as Louis XIV's ambassador extraordinary. Luigi I died in Rome, and was succeeded by his son Antonio I.

160 years ago

Born on this date
Ernest Renshaw
; William Renshaw. U.K. tennis players. Ernest and William Renshaw won five doubles titles at Wimbledon from 1884-1889. Ernest, the elder by 15 minutes, won the men's singles title at Wimbledon in 1888, while William won the men's singles title at Wimbledon seven times from 1881-1889, including a record six straight years (1881-1886). Ernest died on September 2, 1899 at the age of 38 from the effects of carbolic acid, while William died on August 12, 1904 at the age of 43 from epileptic convulsions. The brothers were inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1883.

Delaware voted not to secede from the United States.

150 years ago

French troops led by General Louis Faidherbe forced a Prussian retreat in the Battle of Bapaume.

120 years ago

Born on this date
Ngô Đình Diệm
. 1st President of South Vietnam, 1955-1963. Diệm, a Roman Catholic, was Governor of Bình Thuận (1929-1933) and Interior Minister (1933) under Emperor Bảo Đại, but became a Vietnamese nationalist and denounced Bảo Đại as an instrument of French colonial rule. Diệm lived in exile in Rome from 1950-1953, but returned to Vietnam, serving as Prime Minister (1954-1955) and then as President upon the establishment of the Republic of Vietnam. By November 1963, Diệm had alienated his country's Buddhist minority and had lost the support of the United States. He was 62 when he and his brother Ngô Đình Nhu were assassinated on November 2, 1963 by Nguyễn Văn Nhung, the aide of General Dương Văn Minh, in a military coup that deposed his government.

During a book tour of Canada, British war correspondent Winston Churchill soke at Massey Hall in Toronto about his exploits in the Boer War.

110 years ago

The Siege of Sidney Street, a six-hour gunfight in the East End of London between two Latvian revolutionaries and a combined force of police and miltary, resulted in the deaths of the revolutionaries and London Fire Brigade Superintendent Charles Pearson. The siege was the culmination of events that begun with an attempted jewel robbery in the City of London in December 1910. U.K. Home Secretary Winston Churchill was at the scene of the siege, prompting a debate over the extent of his involvement.

A magnitude 7.7 earthquake destroyed the city of Almaty in Russian Turkestan.

90 years ago

Boston 3 @ Montreal Maroons 5

Nels Stewart set a National Hockey League record by scoring 2 goals in 4 seconds as he helped the Maroons defeat the Bruins at the Montreal Forum.

80 years ago

Died on this date
William Lane
. U.S. automobile executive. Mr. Lane introduced the Lane Steamer in 1901.

Sergei Rachmaninoff's Symphonic Dances were given their premiere performance by the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Eugene Ormandy.

Australian troops launched an attack on Bardia, Libya. The Irish government protested German bombing of Curragh, Julianstown, duleck, and Burris, and demanded reparations; Germany denied the charges.

Canada and the United States acquired air bases at Gander and Goose Bay, Newfoundland on a 99-year lease.

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Harry Hopkins as his personal representative to the United Kingdom.

Politics and government
The 77th United States Congress convened, with Sam Rayburn (Democrat--Texas) re-elected as Speaker of the House of Representatives.

The U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Un-American activities, chaired by Rep. Martin Dies (Democrat--Texas), urged Congress to outlaw all political organizations under foreign control, and to deport aliens advocating "any basic change in the form of our government."

Dr. Norman Plummer reported that the use of the sulfanilamide family of drugs had resulted in a dramatic decrease in the death rate for pneumonia.

U.S. President Roosevelt suspended the eight-hour workday for workers constructing army and navy bases in the Atlantic and Caribbean areas.

75 years ago

Died on this date
William Joyce, aka Lord Haw Haw, 39
. U.S.-born U.K. traitor. Mr. Joyce, a native of Brooklyn who moved to Ireland with his parents at an early age, acquired his nickname from British listeners to his Germany Calling propaganda broadcasts from Berlin during World War II. He was arrested by Allied authorities at the end of the war and was hanged as a traitor at Wandsworth Prison in London after issuing a statement attacking Jews and Russians and praising Nazism. Recordings of some of his broadcasts may be downloaded free from Internet Archive.

William Dewart, 36. U.S. newspaper publisher. Mr. Dewart was the publisher of the New York Sun; he was killed in a plane crash near Reno, Nevada.

George Woolf, 35. Canadian-born U.S. jockey. Mr. Woolf, a native of Cardston, Alberta, was best known for riding Seabiscuit to victories in 1938. Mr. Woolf died the day after falling from his horse in a race at Santa Anita Park in California. He was inducted into the U.S. National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 1955 and Canada's Sports Hall of Fame in 1956.

The French government of President Charles de Gaulle accepted the U.S.-U.K.-U.S.S.R. proposal to hold the European peace conference in Paris, but asked how mauch authority France would have at the conference. The U.S. War Department revealed that the Allies had surpassed the Axis in biological warfare research during World War II and would have used these methods if the enemy had resorted to them first. At the Nazi war crimes trial in Nuremberg, former Nazi police General Otto Ohlendorf testified that his mobile unit had entered Poland and Russia, executing 90,000 Jewish men, women, and children from June 1941-June 1942. At the hearings of the United States Senate committee on the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, U.S. Navy Admiral Harold Stark testified that U.S. ships had served with British convoys in the North Atlantic Ocean after August 1941, with "shoot on sight orders."

United Press reported that insurgent Vietnamese forces had suffered more than 4,000 casualties since the "shooting war" with French forces had begun in September 1945.

Chinese Communists accepted Nationalist Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's proposal to have U.S. Army General George Marshall serve as mediator in their dispute.

The Mexican government of President Manuel Ávila Camacho sent a draft of an inter-American defense pact, calling for peaceful settlement of disputes, to all American states.

World events
Lieutenant General Sir Frederick Morgan, United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation chief in Germany, denied that his remarks the previous day were "an attack on the motives of European Jewry." Simon Rifkind, adviser to the U.S. miltary goernment in Germany, claimed that Jews were leaving Poland "under a sense of compulsion."

Politics and government
U.S. President Harry Truman asked the public to spur congressional action on domestic problems, where legislative progress "has been distressingly low."

The U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development reported the discovery of the synthetic drug SN7618, which relieved malarial attacks three times as quickly as atabrine or quinine.

Economics and finance
France and the U.S.S.R. signed a five-year agreement in Moscow for the resumption of trade on a most-favoured-nation basis.

A strike by 17,000 employees shut down 27 Western Electric plants in New York and New Jersey.

70 years ago

South Korean President Syngman Rhee and his cabinet left Seoul for Pusan, touching off a panicky flight of the last 300,000 civilians from the city.

U.S. President Harry Truman established a Defense Production Administration under General William Henry Harrison. He also created a Defense Mobilization Board to advise and aid Mobilization Director Charles Wilson.

Politics and government
The administration of U.S. President Truman suffered a defeat in the House of Representatives when a coalition of Republicans and Southern Democrats won restoration of the House Rules Committee's power to kill legislation by pigeon-holing it.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Truman signed a compromise tax bill expected to raise $3.3 billion per year through a 77% levy on excess corporate profits.

Flooding on the Rhab Plain of Morocco caused 71 deaths, with 60 people reported missing.

A delayed dynamite blast set off an avalanche near the coastal town of Chimbote, Peru, killing 132 railway workers.

Former world heavyweight champion Joe Louis (60-2) scored a technical knockout over Freddie Beshore (28-11-1) at Olympia Stadium in Detroit when referee Johnny Weber stopped the bout at 2:48 of the 4th round on the advice of the ring doctor; Mr. Beshore was bleeding from his nose and had a bad cut on his left eyelid.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Norway (VG-lista): It's Now or Never--Elvis Presley (5th week at #1)

On television tonight
Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond, hosted by John Newland, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Executioner, starring Crahan Denton, Buzz Martin, and Jeremy Slate

Alfred Hitchcock Presents, on NBC
Tonight's episode: The Changing Heart, starring Nicholas Pryor, Anne Helm, and Abraham Sofaer

Thriller, hosted by Boris Karloff, on NBC
Tonight's episode: The Hungry Glass, starring William Shatner, Russell Johnson, Joanna Heyes, and Donna Douglas

U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower announced that the United States had severed diplomatic and consular relations with Cuba. In announcing the break, President Eisenhower referred to a demand by the Cuban government of dictator Fidel Castro that the U.S. reduce its embassy and consulate personnel in Havana to 11 people, and said, "This unusual action...can have no other purpose than to render impossible the conduct of normal diplomatic relations with that government...This calculated action on the part of the Castro government is only the latest of a long series of harassments, baseless accusations, and vilification. There is a limit to what the United States in self-respect can endure. That limit has now been reached." The White House announced that the United States would retain its Guantanamo Naval Base in Cuba. Cuba blamed the Eisenhower administration for the break in relations, and the Soviet news agency Tass said the U.S. action was a "plot to commit aggression against the revolutionary Cuban government."

A protest by agricultural workers in Baixa de Cassanje, Portuguese Angola, turned into a revolt, opening the Angolan War of Independence, the first of the Portuguese Colonial Wars.

Aero Flight 311, a Douglas DC-3 en route from Kronoby to Vaasa, Finland, crashed in Kvexlax, killing all 25 people aboard. The investigation revealed that the pilot and co-pilot were drunk and in no shape to fly.

Three U.S. military technicians were killed when an atomic reactor exploded at National Reactor Testing Station at Idaho Falls, Idaho

50 years ago

The U.S. National Board of Review announced its awards for 1970. The winners included: Film: Patton; Foreign Film: The Wild Child; Director: François Truffaut (The Wild Child); Actor: George C. Scott (Patton); Actress: Glenda Jackson (Women in Love); Supporting Actor: Frank Langella (Diary of a Mad Housewife, The Twelve Chairs); Supporting Actress: Karen Black (Five Easy Pieces).

AFC Championship
Oakland 17 @ Baltimore 27

Norm Bulaich rushed 22 times for 71 times and touchdowns of 2 and 11 yards as the Colts advanced to the Super Bowl with a win over the Raiders before 54,799 fans at Memorial Stadium. Baltimore quarterback Johnny Unitas completed just 11 of 30 passes, but for 245 yards, including a 68-yard touchdown to Ray Perkins in the fourth quarter to restore the 10-point lead after Oakland had scored a converted touchdown to cut the lead to 20-17. Jim O’Brien converted all 3 Baltimore touchdowns and added field goals of 16 and 23 yards. Daryle Lamonica started at quarterback for the Raiders, but left early in the 2nd quarter with a pulled thigh muscle after completing just 1 of 4 passes for 6 yards. George Blanda took over at quarterback for the Raiders and completed 17 of 32 for 271 yards and touchdowns of 38 yards to Fred Biletnikoff in the 3rd quarter and 15 yards to Warren Wells in the 4th quarter. Mr. Blanda converted both touchdowns and added a 48-yard field goal in the 2nd quarter. Mr. Blanda threw 3 interceptions, 2 of which came in the 4th quarter when the Raiders were trailing 20-17 and still had a chance to win or tie the game. Eddie Hinton of the Colts led all receivers with 115 yards on 5 receptions; Mr. Wells, in what turned out to be his last game, led the Raiders with 5 catches for 108 yards. In the off-season, Mr. Wells was sentenced to a year in prison for rape, and when he returned to the Raiders in 1972, his speed was gone, and he was cut from the team early in training camp. Hewritt Dixon led the Oakland rushing game with 10 carries for 51 yards.

NFC Championship
Dallas 17 @ San Francisco 10

Duane Thomas rushed 13 yards for one touchdown and Craig Morton completed a 5-yard pass to Walt Garrison for another as the Cowboys held off the ‘49ers to advance to the Super Bowl for the first time in their 11-year history. Both Dallas touchdowns came in the 3rd quarter after Lee Roy Jordan and Mel Renfro had made interceptions off San Francisco quarterback John Brodie. Mike Clark, who had kicked a 21-yard field goal in the 2nd quarter, converted both to give the Cowboys a 17-3 lead. The ‘49ers promptly struck back before the end of the quarter on a 26-yard touchdown pass from Mr. Brodie to Dick Witcher; Bruce Gossett, who had begun the scoring with a 16-yard field goal in the 1st quarter, converted to cut the Cowboys’ lead to 17-10. The ‘49ers were unable to mount a scoring drive in the 4th quarter. Mr. Thomas rushed 27 times for 143 yards and added 24 yards on 2 pass receptions. Mr. Garrison gained 71 yards on 17 carries, and led the Cowboys with 51 yards on 3 pass receptions. Ken Willard led the ‘49ers with 42 yards on 13 carries, while Gene Washington of San Francisco led all receivers with 6 receptions for 88 yards. Mr. Morton, who was playing with a sore arm, completed just 7 of 22 passes for 101 yards. Mr. Brodie was 19 for 30 for 262 yards. 59,364 were in attendance at the last NFL game at Kezar Stadium.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Anna Dai Capelli Rossi--I Ragazzi Dai Capelli Rossi

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Santa Maria--Roland Kaiser

#1 single in Ireland: There's No-one Quite Like Grandma--St Winifred's School Choir (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): There's No One Quite Like Grandma--St Winifred's School Choir (2nd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Santa Maria--Roland Kaiser (3rd week at #1)
2 Lola (Live)--The Kinks
3 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
4 Passion--Rod Stewart
5 Super Trouper--ABBA
6 Baggy Trousers--Madness
7 Runaway Boys--Stray Cats
8 Rovers Return--The Korgis
9 Happy Xmas (War is Over)--John & Yoko/The Plastic Ono Band with the Harlem Community Choir
10 Mama He's a Soldier Now--Saskia & Serge

Singles entering the chart were Funkin' for Jamaica (N.Y.) by Tom Browne (#29); Looking for Clues by Robert Palmer (#30); Vrede by Vader Abraham & Donna Lynton m.m.v. het koor "Standfaste" (#37); and De Roos by Bonnie St. Claire (#39).

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Cash Box): (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Record World): (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Canada (RPM): (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (3rd week at #1)

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (2nd week at #1)
2 Whip It--Devo
3 Hungry Heart--Bruce Springsteen
4 More than I Can Say--Leo Sayer
5 Ashes to Ashes--David Bowie
6 Generals and Majors--XTC
7 Passion--Rod Stewart
8 Don't Stand So Close to Me--The Police
9 Switchin' to Glide--The Kings
10 Never be the Same--Christopher Cross

Singles entering the chart were Turn Me Loose by Loverboy (#29); and I Love a Rainy Night by Eddie Rabbitt (#30).

Died on this date
Alice, Countess of Athlone, 97
. Princess Alice was the daughter of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany and granddaughter of Queen Victoria. She married Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone, in 1904, and was viceregal consort when he served as Governor General of South Africa (1924-1930) and Governor General of Canada (1940-1946).

Michael P. Hammer; Mark David Pearlman. U.S. aid workers. Mr. Hammer and Mr. Pearlman, who had been working in El Salvador's land redistribution program, were shot in a hotel coffee shop by right-wing assassins.

Heavy fighting began in El Salvador between between leftist guerillas and the military on the mountain slopes on the northwest edge of San Salvador.

Politics and government
It was reported that Deng Xiaoping, deputy chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, had taken over Chairman Hua Guofeng's job as head of the Communist Party's Military Commission.

Economics and finance
Citing an increase in loan demand by business, banks across the United States announced that they would cut their prime lending rate from 21½%-20½%.

Toronto 1 @ Edmonton 4

NFC Divisional Playoff
Minnesota 16 @ Philadelphia 31

AFC Divisional Playoff
Buffalo 14 @ San Diego 20

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): The Christmas No 1--Zig and Zag (4th week at #1)

The British government expelled eight Iraqi embassy officials--seven diplomats and one security guard--after threats of attacks on Western targets.

U.S. Secretary of Health Louis Sullivan removed acquired immune deficiecy sydrome (AIDS) from the list of diseases that would automatically bar an infected person from entering the United States. Leprosy, syphilis, gonorrhea, and three other diseases were also dropped from the list.

Los Angeles 6 @ New York Islanders 3

Wayne Gretzky scored his 700th, 701st, and 702nd career regular season National Hockey League goals to lead the Kings over the Islanders at Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Uniondale.

25 years ago

Politics and government
Prince Edward Island Premier Catherine Callbeck stated that other Maritime premiers had agreed to extend participation in their veto over constitutional changes to her province.

20 years ago

Economics and finance
The U.S. Federal Reserve Board cut the federal funds rate--the overnight rate banks charge each other--from 6.5%-6% as a response to indications of a faltering economy. The cut followed a series of rate increases.

Orange Bowl @ Miami
Oklahoma 13 Florida State 2

The Sooners, the only NCAA Division 1-A team to go unbeaten during the regular season, captured the national championship with this victory.

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