Thursday, 18 February 2021

February 18, 2021

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Paul Jelley and Ezra Levant!

475 years ago

Died on this date
Martin Luther, 62
. German theologian. Fr. Luther was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1507, but eventually rejected many of the teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church, especially the selling of indulgences. He published his views in his Ninety-Five Theses (1517); when he refused to recant his teachings before the Diet of Worms (1521), he was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church by Pope Leo X and regarded as an outlaw by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Later in the 1520s, Fr. Luther organized what became the Lutheran Church, and became the leader of the Protestant Reformation, translating the Bible into the German vernacular and writing numerous hymns. His later years were marked by various health problems, which may have influenced his writings, the most notorious of which, On the Jews and Their Lies (1543), has been repudiated by modern Lutherans. Fr. Lutheran died of a stroke, three days after delivering his last sermon, which was a polemic against Jews.

240 years ago

Captain Thomas Shirley opened his British expedition against Dutch colonial outposts on the Gold Coast of Africa (present-day Ghana).

230 years ago

The United States Congress passed a law admitting the state of Vermont to the Union, effective March 4, 1791, after that state had existed for 14 years as a de facto independent largely unrecognized state.

160 years ago

With Italian unification almost complete, Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont, Savoy and Sardinia assumed the title of King of Italy.

Politics and government
Jefferson Davis was sworn in as provisional President of the Confederate States of America in Montgomery, Alabama.

150 years ago

Born on this date
Harry Brearley
. U.K. metallurgist. Mr. Brearley, a native and resident of Sheffield, England, was researching how to reduce erosion of the internal surfaces of gun barrels in 1912, nd noticed that adding chromium to steel raised the alloy's melting point; the result became known as "stainless steel," and was first manufactured in 1913, bringing affordable cutlery to the greater population while increasing Sheffield's cutlery trade. Mr. Brearley died on July 14, 1948 at the age of 77.

125 years ago

Born on this date
Li Linsi
. Chinese diplomat. Li Linsi, born Li Jiaxiang, was an advisor to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in the 1930s, and was the leader of Chinese non-violent resistance against Japan during World War II, aiding Jewish refugees in Shanghai, while conducting research on Japanese and German military works. After the Communists took power in China in 1949, Li Linsi was a professor at Shanghai International Studies University until his death on October 21, 1970 at the age of 74.

Politics and government
The Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and the Dominion Women's Franchise Association held a mock parliament in the Allan Gardens in Toronto to promote female suffrage.

120 years ago

Politics and government

Four days after taking his seat as the Member of Parliament for Oldham, 26-year-old Winston Churchill delivered his first speech in the British House of Commons, consisting largely of a survey of the problems and prospects of South Africa resulting from the Boer War. He received congratulations from both sides of the House (see Blood, Toil, Tears & Sweat: The Speeches of Winston Churchill, edited by David Cannadine, 1989.

The first official flight with airmail took place from Allahabad, India when Henri Pequet, 23, delivered 6,500 letters to Naini, about 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) away.

The Interprovincial Bridge, built by the Ottawa Interprovincial Bridge Company, was officially inaugurated; the name was changed in September 1901 to the "Royal Alexandra Bridge" to honour the new Queen during the visit of her son, the Duke of Cornwall and York, later King George V. Designed primarily to carry Canadian Pacific Railways trains, the bridge also had a track for electric trolley service between Ottawa and Hull, Quebec, and a lane for carriage traffic. In 1966, with the closure of Ottawa Union Station, it became exclusively a vehicular-pedestrian bridge.

110 years ago

Competitors from Montreal won both events in a ski-jumping championship before 4,000 fans at the Montreal Ski Club. Participants also came from Ottawa, Sherbrooke, and New Hampshire.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Brian Faulkner
. Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, 1971-1972; Chief Executive of Northern Ireland, 1974. Mr. Faulkner was a member of the Ulster Unionist Party who was first elected to the Parliament of Northern Ireland in 1949, and held various cabinet posts before succeeding James Chichester-Clark as Prime Minister on March 23, 1971. Mr. Faulkner put several Roman Catholics into his government, but relations worsened when he imposed a policy of internment on August 9 in response to decreasing security. The fatal shooting of 14 unarmed civilians by British soldiers during a protest march in Londonderry on January 30, 1972--popularly known as "Bloody Sunday"--effectively finished Mr. Faulkner's government. The Parliament was prorogued, and the British government of Prime Minister Edward Heath introduced direct rule. Elections for held for a new devolved Northern Ireland Assembly in 1973, leading to the creation of the Northern Ireland Executive in 1974. Mr. Faulker served as Chief Executive from January 1 until May 28, when the N.I. Executive collapsed. Mr. Faulkner was ousted as UUP leader and formed the Unionist Party of Northern Ireland, but he was the only UPNI candidate elected in 1975. He quit active politics in 1976 and was elevated to the House of Lords as Baron Faulkner of Downpatrick on February 9, 1977, but was killed in an accident on March 3, 1977, 13 days after his 56th birthday, when he was thrown from his horse while hunting in County Down.

Oscar Feltsman. U.S.S.R. composer. Mr. Feltsman played violin and piano, and began as a classical composer, but ended up writing popular songs for circuses and children's shows. He died on February 3, 2013, 15 days before his 92nd birthday.

Politics and government
Henry William Newlands took office as Lieutenant-Governor of Saskatchewan.

90 years ago

Died on this date
Louis Wolheim, 50
. U.S. actor. Mr. Wolheim appeared in plays such as The Hairy Ape (1922) and What Price Glory? (1924), but was best known for his performances in movies such as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1920); Two Arabian Knights (1927); The Racket (1928); and All Quiet on the Western Front (1930). He was preparing to act in the movie The Front Page (1931) when he died of apparent stomach cancer.

80 years ago

Japanese spokesman Koh Ishii said that Japan was ready to mediate both the European and Far Eastern wars. Australian troops landed in Singapore and manned already-prepared defense positions on the Malayan peninsula.

U.S. Senator Hiram Johnson (Republican--California) submitted the minority report of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, listing seven objections to the Lend-Lease bill. U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Averell Harriman as special defense "expediter" in London.

Politics and government
The U.S. House of Representatives voted 210-143 to reapportion itself in accordance with the 1940 United States census, using the "equal proportions" formula instead of the "major fractions" method.

Mexican Interior Minister Miguel Aleman announced that after the settlement of the expropriation question, foreign capital would be permitted to "participate" in the development of new oil fields.

Robert Boltz pled guilty in Philadelphia to embezzlement and fraud.

75 years ago

Hit parade
U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Symphony--Freddy Martin and his Orchestra with Clyde Rogers (5th week at #1)
--Bing Crosby
--Jo Stafford
--Benny Goodman and his Orchestra
2 Let it Snow! Let it Snow! Let it Snow!--Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra with Vaughn Monroe and the Norton Sisters
--Woody Herman and his Orchestra
3 I Can't Begin to Tell You--Bing Crosby with Carmen Cavallaro
--Harry James and his Orchestra
--Andy Russell
4 Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief--Betty Hutton
--Les Brown and his Orchestra
5 Personality--Johnny Mercer
6 I'm Always Chasing Rainbows--Perry Como
--Dick Haymes and Helen Forrest
7 It Might as Well Be Spring--Dick Haymes
--Paul Weston and his Orchestra with Margaret Whiting
--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
8 Dig You Later (A Hubba-Hubba-Hubba)--Perry Como and the Satisfyers
9 Day by Day--Frank Sinatra
10 You Won't Be Satisfied (Until You Break My Heart)--Les Brown and his Orchestra
--Perry Como

Singles entering the chart were the version of Oh! What it Seemed to Be by Dick Haymes and Helen Forrest (#16, charting with the versions by Frankie Carle and his Orchestra; and Frank Sinatra); the version of Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief by Les Brown and his Orchestra; You Can Cry on Somebody Else's Shoulder by Charlie Spivak and his Orchestra (#30); I Wish I Could Tell You by Dick Haymes (#33); and Cotton Tail by Bobby Sherwood and his Orchestra (#37).

On the radio
The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on MBS
Tonight's episode: The Camberwell Poisoners

Died on this date
Benjamin, 78
. Turkish religious leader. Patriarch Benjamin was the leader of the Greek Orthodox Church. He died in Istanbul.

At the Nuremberg trial of accused Nazi war criminals, the Soviet prosecution charged that the Germans had burned bodies in an effort to conceal mass killings. At the hearings of the United States Senate committee on the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, former Asiatic Fleet Commander Thomas Hart testified that the November 27, 1941 war warning from Washington was enough to prepare him for war.

Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Japan General Douglas MacArthur announced the nine judges who would sit on the international military tribunal for the Far East, including jurists from Australia; Canada; China; the Netherlands; the U.S.S.R.; the United Kingdom; France; and the United States.

The United Nations Economic and Social Council created five commissions: Narcotic Drugs; Economic and Employment; Social and Statistical; Human Rights; and a 20-man committee to study the refugee problem.

Politics and government
The United States Senate confirmed W. John Kenney as assistant Secretary of the Navy in the administration of President Harry Truman.

Governor Sir John Higgins declared a state of emergency as strikes swept Jamaica after a weekend of unrest in Kingston.

Sailors of the Royal Indian Navy mutinied in Bombay harbour, from where the action spread throughout the provinces of British India, involving 78 ships, 20 shore establishments, and 20,000 sailors.

Boston Mayor James Curley was sentenced to 6-18 months in prison for mail fraud.

A secret consistory of the Sacred College of Cardinals approved 32 nominees of Pope Pius XII, including Francis Spellman of New York.

Economics and finance
U.S. Office of Price Administration Director Chester Bowles urged extension of price controls, and said that the government's new wage-price policy would prevent price increases on food, rent, and clothing.

The United States Senate confirmed George E. Allen as director of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and Horace Chapman as director of Contract Settlements.

John J. Raskob resigned as director and vice president of E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company, where he had begun work in 1902 as a stenographer.

Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation and other firms throughout the United States settled with the Congress of Industrial Organizations United Steel Workers for an 18½c hourly wage increase.

70 years ago

Chinese Communist forces abandoned their attempt to break through the United Nations front in central Korea.

Philippine President Elpidio Quirino offered amnesty and a chance to buy their own farms to peasants who quit the Hukbalahap guerrilla army.

A U.S. Senate Preparedeness subcommittee accused the Air Force of accepting more enlistments than it could handle.

The biggest point-shaving scandal in U.S. college basketball history began when three players--Eddie Roman, Alvin Roth, and Ed Warner--from City College of New York, the defending national champion, were charged with accepting bribes to fix games. They eventually admitted their involvement, as did 29 other players from six schools, including the powerhouse University of Kentucky.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Wonderland by Night--Bert Kaempfert and his Orchestra (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy: 24.000 baci--Adriano Celentano (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Ramona--Blue Diamonds (8th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): Are You Lonesome To-night?--Elvis Presley (4th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Calcutta--Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra (2nd week at #1)
2 Will You Love Me Tomorrow--The Shirelles
3 Shop Around--The Miracles
4 Exodus--Ferrante and Teicher
--[Mantovani & his Orchestra]
--[The Medallion Strings]
5 Calendar Girl--Neil Sedaka
6 Emotions--Brenda Lee
7 There's a Moon Out Tonight--The Capris
8 Wheels--The String-A-Longs
--[Billy Vaughn and his Orchestra]
9 Where the Boys Are--Connie Francis
10 Pony Time--Chubby Checker

Singles entering the chart included For My Baby by Brook Benton (#75); Havin’ Fun by Dion (#77); Happy Birthday Blues by Kathy Young with the Innocents (#96); Hearts of Stone by Bill Black's Combo (#97); Bewildered by James Brown and the Famous Flames (#99); Show Folk by Paul Evans (#100); and Teenage Vows of Love by the Dreamers (also #100). For My Baby was the B-side of Think Twice, charting at #54. Main Theme from Exodus by the Medallion Strings was listed with the versions by Ferrante and Teicher; and Mantovani and his Orchestra, but not charted.

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 Ebony Eyes--The Everly Brothers
2 Where the Boys Are--Connie Francis
3 Wheels--The String-A-Longs
4 Baby Sittin' Boogie--Buzz Clifford
5 There's a Moon Out Tonight--The Capris
6 Apache--Jorgen Ingmann and his Guitar
7 Good Time Baby--Bobby Rydell
8 A Scottish Soldier (Green Hills of Tyrol)--Andy Stewart
9 The Story of My Love--Paul Anka
10 Oh Joan--The Beau-Marks

Singles entering the chart were Gone from Me by Eddie Carroll (#34); Just for Old Time's Sake by the McGuire Sisters (#40); Take Good Care of Her by Adam Wade (#42); Honky Tonk (Part 2) by Bill Doggett (#44); Pony Express by Danny and the Juniors (#46); "D" in Love by Cliff Richard (#48); Pledge of Love by Curtis Lee (#49); and Not Me by U.S. Bonds (#50).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKWX)
1 Ebony Eyes--The Everly Brothers (2nd week at #1)
2 A Scottish Soldier--Andy Stewart
3 Where the Boys Are--Connie Francis
4 Baby Sittin' Boogie--Buzz Clifford
5 Surrender--Elvis Presley
6 Apache--Jorgen Ingmann and his Guitar
7 Wheels--The String-A-Longs
8 Calendar Girl--Neil Sedaka
9 The Touchables--Dickie Goodman
10 The Exodus Song--Pat Boone

Singles entering the chart were Three Wheels on My Wagon by Dick Van Dyke (#24); Asia Minor by Kokomo (#28); Two by Del Erickson (#32); Happy Birthday Blues by Kathy Young with the Innocents (#38); Hard Rock Mine by Dorsey Burnette (#39); and Donald, Where's Your Troosers? by Andy Stewart (#40).

On television tonight
The Roaring 20's, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Lucky Charm

The United States launched Discoverer 21 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, by means of a Thor-Agena B rocket. The satellite carried instruments to chart infrared radiation information to aid the Midas early-warning satellite system. The engine of the rocket’s second stage was restarted by a radio signal from the ground while in orbit after it had coasted powerless on its first orbit of Earth.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in France (IFOP): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (6th week at #1)

A report issued by the United States Census Bureau showed that many Negroes were rising economically. The median income of Negro families in northern and western states was "more comparable to that of white families than was the case in the south," according to the study. The 532,000 young Negro couples under the age of 35 living outside the southern states had made the biggest gains, while the economic lot of all Negro families with both parents living in the home made substantial gains. The biggest problem of Negro families, however, was not geographical location, but the broken home. The report indicated that almost 1/3 of the Negro families in the U.S. were headed by only one parent. These broken families, usually headed by the mother--with the father missing--had made virtually no income gain in the previous decade, and more than half had incomes below the officially recognized "poverty" line.

40 years ago

Hit parade
Vancouver's Top 10 (CKLG)
1 9 to 5--Dolly Parton (2nd week at #1)
2 Woman--John Lennon
3 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
4 The Winner Takes it All--ABBA
5 The Tide is High--Blondie
6 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
7 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
8 A Little in Love--Cliff Richard
9 Turn Me Loose--Loverboy
10 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt

The only single entering the chart was Living in a Fantasy by Leo Sayer (#20).

Died on this date
Jack Northrop, 85
. U.S. aviation executive. Mr. Northrop worked with Lockheed Aircraft and Douglas Aircraft before founding Avion Corporation in 1929, which he was forced to sell to United Aircraft and Transport Corporation in 1930. In 1932, he founded Northrop Corporation, which became a subsidiary of Douglas several years later. Mr. Northrop founded another Northrop Corporation in Hawthorne, California in 1939. He promoted the flying wing as the next major step in aircraft design, but it wasn't adopted as the next generation bomber platform after World War II, and the disappointment led Mr. Northrop to retire from aviation in 1952. He suffered severe financial and health setbacks in later years, but was encouraged shortly before his death to find out that the company now known as Northrop Grumman had used the flying wing design for a stealth bomber.

Politics and government
Four Saskatchewan New Democratic Party MPs said that they would oppose the federal government's constitutional package.

The government of Poland negotiated and end to a 26-day student sit-in at the University of Lodz, granting the students the right to have a student union that could not be controlled by the Communist Party.

According to the results of a survey of high school seniors, the use of illicit drug use by young people in the United States ceased to rise in 1980. This was the first year since the beginning of the survey in 1975 that the upward climb had levelled off, and the number of students admitting to the use of marijuana had declined. A similar trend had been reported by the military.

Researchers at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee announced that marijuana contains a common household fungus that could lead to allergic reactions or lung damage when smoked, and could also cause lung-threatening infections. The fungus belongs to the aspegillus family and its spores are not damaged by burning.

Pope John Paul II, on his second day in Manila, celebrated the beatification of 16 martyrs killed for their faith in Japan in the 1630s, and spoke to the people in one of Manila’s slums.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Ronald Reagan proposed a budget of $695.5 billion for fiscal 1982, with a $45-billion deficit. The cuts he recommended, which would total $41.4 billion, would affect 83 major programs plus an annual tax cut for individuals of about 10% over the next three years. Only the military budget was to be increased, by $7.2 billion.

The British government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher withdrew plans to close 23 coal pits, averting a series of national miners’ strikes. The National Union of Miners called off unofficial work stoppages two days later.

St. Louis 2 @ Edmonton 9

Wayne Gretzky scored 5 goals--4 in the 3rd period--and added 2 assists to lead the Oilers over the Blues at Northlands Coliseum. Mike Liut started in goal for the Blues and gave up the first 3 of Mr. Gretzky’s goals, and backup Ed Staniowski gave up The Great One’s last 2 goals.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Oh! Yeah!/Love Story wa Totsuzen ni--Kazumasa Oda

#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): 3 A.M. Eternal--The KLF

#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Beinhart--Torfrock (4th week at #1)

U.S.S.R. President Mikhail Gorbachev offered a new peace proposal for the Gulf War after meeting with Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz in Moscow. The proposal called for an unconditional Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait, but U.S. President George Bush said that other conditions needed to be met and the U.S. would continue the war.

The Irish Republican Army exploded bombs in the early morning at Paddington station and Victoria station in London.

Economics and finance
U.S.S.R. Premier Valentin Pavlov submitted to parliament a plan for raising prices on most goods and services by an average of 60%. Wages and pensions would be increased to cover most of the added costs.

Algoma Steel Corporation escaped bankruptcy after receiving a $60-million loan from the Royal Bank of Canada and $15 million in loan guarantees from the governments of Canada and Ontario and Algoma’s parent company, Dofasco Inc.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Let's Groove--CDB

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Spaceman--Babylon Zoo

#1 single in Switzerland: Children--Robert Miles

#1 single in Scotland (OCC): Children--Robert Miles

Died on this date
Edward O'Brien
. U.K. terrorist. Mr. O'Brien was a bomber with the Irish Republican Army who was the only person to die when a bomb he was carrying accidentally exploded on a London bus, nine days after the Irish Republican Army has ended its cease-fire.

Two days of negotiations concluded in Rome among the parties in the Bosnian peace agreement.

Politics and government
British Columbia Employment and Investment Minister Glen Clark won the leadership of the British Columbia New Democratic Party, succeeding Mike Harcourt. Mr. Clark succeeded Mr. Harcourt as Premier on February 22.

Detroit 3 @ Toronto 2
Edmonton 1 @ Chicago 4

10 years ago

Died on this date
Eddie Mathews, 69
. U.S. baseball player, coach, and manager. Mr. Mathews played third base for the Boston/Milwaukee/Atlanta Braves (1952-1966); Houston Astros (1967); and Detroit Tigers (1967-1968), batting .271 with 512 home runs and 1,453 runs batted in in 2,391 games. He led the National League in home runs in 1953 (47) and 1959 (46), and led the NL four times in bases on balls. Mr. Mathews was the only man to play with the Braves in all three of their home cities, helping the Milwaukee Braves to the World Series championship in 1957 and the NL pennant in 1958. He ended his playing career with the Tigers when they won the World Series. Mr. Mathews coached with the Braves in 1971, and managed ghem from mid-season 1972 to mid-season 1974, compiling a record of 149-161 (.481). He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1978, and was a coach and scout with the Texas Rangers, Milwaukee Brewers, and Oakland Athletics in later years. Mr. Mathews died of complications from pneumonia.

Dale Earnhardt, Sr., 49. U.S. auto racing driver. Mr. Earnhardt was a stock car driver on the NASCAR Winston Cup circuit (1975-2001), winning 76 races and posting 428 top ten finishes, and winning the season championship seven times. He was in third place on the final lap of the 2001 Daytona 500 when his car hit the retaining wall after making contact with the cars of Sterling Marlin and Ken Schrader. An independent examination found that Mr. Earnhardt's death was the result of his inadequately restrained head and neck snapping forward.

Inter-ethnic violence between Dayaks and Madurese broke out in Sampit, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, ultimately resulting in more than 500 deaths and 100,000 Madurese displaced from their homes.

Veteran U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation agent Robert Hanssen was arrested and accused of spying for the U.S.S.R. for more than 15 years. He eventually pleaded guilty, and is serving 15 life sentences in prison without possibility of parole.

Auto racing
Michael Waltrip won the Daytona 500 at Daytona International Speedway, with Dale Earnhardt, Jr. finishing second and Rusty Wallace third. Dale Earnhardt, Sr., who was killed in a crash on the last lap, placed 12th. For Mr. Waltrip, driving for Dale Earnhardt, Inc., it was his first NASCAR win, coming in his 463rd race, setting a record for the greatest number of races before finally winning.

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