Saturday, 27 February 2021

February 28, 2021

775 years ago

The siege of Jaén ended in the context of the Spanish Reconquista, resulting in the Castilian takeover of the city from the Taifa of Jaen.

160 years ago

U.S. President James Buchanan signed an act creating the territory of Colorado.

130 years ago

Died on this date
George Hearst, 70
. U.S. magnate and politician. Mr. Hearst became wealthy through mining activities in the western United States, especially with silver in Utah. A Democrat, he represented California in the United States Senate from March-August 1886 and 1887 until his death. Mr. Hearst was the son of publishing magnate William Randolph Hearst.

125 years ago

Born on this date
Philip Showalter Hench
. U.S. physician. Dr. Hench was the head of the Department of Rheumatic Diseases at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. He shared the 1950 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology with Mayo Clinic colleague Calvin Kendall and Swiss chemist Tadeus Reichstein "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects." In particular, they won for the discovery of the hormone cortisone. Dr. Hench died of pneumonia while on vacation in Jamaica on March 30, 1965 at the age of 69.

120 years ago

Born on this date
Linus Pauling
. U.S. chemist. Dr. Pauling was awarded the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances" and the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize "for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing". He lost a libel suit against National Review when the magazine, in 1962, accused him of being a "fellow traveller" in sympathy with Soviet Communism. Dr. Pauling received his reward, however, when he was one of seven winners of the 1968-1969 International Lenin Peace Prize from the U.S.S.R. In his later years, Dr. Pauling was a prominent advocate of the use of large amounts of vitamin C for health and longevity. He died on August 19, 1994 at the age of 93.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Marah Halim Harahap
. Indonesian military officer and politician. Major General Harahap held various military positions from 1945-1966, and was Governor of North Sumatra from 1967-1978, presiding over an economic recovery. He died on December 3, 2015 at the age of 94.

90 years ago

The Canadian Rugby Union adopted the forward pass; it had been used in the Western Canada Rugby Football Union since 1929.

80 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): The Woodpecker Song--Kate Smith; Glenn Miller and his Orchestra (4th month at #1)

Died on this date
Alfonso XIII, 54
. King of Spain, 1886-1941. Alfonso XIII was King from birth, his father Alfonso XII having died the previous year. Alfonso XIII's mother Maria Christina of Austria served as regent until Alfonso XIII's 16th birthday in 1902. King Alfonso XIII supported the government of dictator Le Marqués de Estella from 1923-1930, but fled the country in 1931 when the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed. Living in exile in Rome,Alfonso XIII maintained his claim to the throne until six weeks before his death, when abdicated in favour of his third son Juan.

A Japanese spokesman said that France must accept Japan's mediation proposal in the Thailand-Indochina dispute today or face the consequences.

U.S. consulates in the Italian cities of Naples and Palermo were closed on the Italian government's request, and their staffs were transferred to the consulate general in Rome.

A U.S. federal grand jury in Honolulu indicted 80 people, most of them Japanese, for conspiring to violate laws on registration of sampans, which were frequently seen in the area when the U.S. fleet was maneuvering.

A blizzard resulting in 12-foot snowdrifts swept the eastern U.S. seaboard from Maine to Virginia.

Economics and finance
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission member Gerhard Gesell and commissioner Sumner Pike recommended to the Temporary National Economic Committee (TNEC) that a federal insurance advisory council be created.

U.S. Office of Production Management Director William Knudsen submitted a three-point plan to curb strikes in defense industries, providing for federal mediation; a 60% strike vote; and a 40-day delay for OPM to investigate and report.

World lightweight champion Lew Jenkins (48-16-5) scored a technical knockout of former champion Lou Ambers (91-8-7) at 2:26 of the 7th round of a non-title fight at Madison Square Garden in New York. Mr. Jenkins knocked Mr. Ambers down twice in the 7th round. Mr. Jenkins had scored a 3rd-round TKO on May 10, 1940 to win the championship from Mr. Ambers. This was Mr. Ambers' last professional fight.

75 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Rum and Coca-Cola--The Andrews Sisters (1st month at #1)

Died on this date
Béla Imrédy, 54
. Prime Minister of Hungary, 1938-1939. Mr. Imrédy, a member of the Unity Party, originally had a pro-British foreign policy, but turned increasingly pro-German and pro-Italian. He founded the Party of Hungarian Renewal in 1940, and was executed by a firing squad after being convicted by a People's Tribunal in 1945 of war crimes and collaboration with the Nazis.

At the trial in Nuremberg of accused Nazi war criminals, chief U.S. prosecutor Robert H. Jackson demanded that 2,040,155 members of six Nazi orgnizations be found guilty of war crimes. Former Governor of Bessarabia General Constantin Voiculescu and 10 Romanian officers were sentenced to life imprisonment for crimes against Jews.

The French government accepted the U.S. proposal to condemn the Spanish regime of Generalissimo Francisco Franco for the execution of 10 Spanish veterans of the French resistance movement, but revealed that it had asked for U.S.-U.K.-U.S.S.R. support of its plan to submit the Spanish issue to the United Nations Security Council on March 21.

France signed a treaty with the Chinese government in Chungking ending French extraterritorial rights in Peking, Amoy, Shanghai, Tientsin, Hankow, and Canton.

U.S. Secretary of State James Byrnes told the Overseas Press Club that the United States wanted friendship with the U.S.S.R., but warned that it "cannot show aggression to be accomplished by coercion or pressure or by subterfuge."

The U.S. Army Air Forces revealed that they had been experimenting with radar detection of captured German V-2 bombs to find a defense against atomic bomb raids.

United Air Lines revealed that it had ordered a jet plane for commercial use.

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics revealed that 1.4 million workers were on strike in January, a record high for any single month.

70 years ago

Composer Igor Stravinsky was awarded the Gold Medal for Music by the National Institute and American Academy of Arts and Letters.

Politics and government
The French cabinet of Prime Minister Rene Pleven resigned when it failed to agree on single-ballot or runoff elections for the National Assembly.

The U.S. Senate Crime Investigating Committee said that at least two major crime syndicates operated in the United States: one run by Frank Costello and Joe Adonis between New York and Miami, and the other by Tony Acardo, Rocco and Charles Fischetti, and Jake "Greasy Thumb" Guzik between Chicago and Miami.

The American Cancer Society revealed that more men than women were dying of cancer for the first time since statistics on all causes of death had been kept.

Organized labour in the United States withdrew its representatives from all mobilization agencies in protest against the 10% ceiling on wage raises, alleged domination of the defense effort by big business, and Defense Mobilization Director Charles Wilson's "arrogant seizure of control over manpower."

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Norway (VG-lista): Seemann--Lolita (7th week at #1)

On television tonight
Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond, hosted by John Newland, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Stranger, starring Bill Nagy, Peter Dynely, and Patrick McAlinney

Alfred Hitchcock Presents, on NBC
Tonight's episode: The Throwback, starring

Thriller, hosted by Boris Karloff, on NBC
Tonight's episode: Well of Doom, starring Ronald Howard, Henry Daniell, and Torin Thatcher

The three major groups in the Congo that were opposed to the faction loyal to recently-deposed and assassinated Premier Patrice Lumumba signed a pact establishing a "common bloc against the danger of UN trusteeship, Communist tyranny and a Korean-style war." The leaders were newly-installed Congolese Premier Joseph Ileo; Moise Tshombe, president of the secessionist province of Katanga; and Albert Kalonji of the province of South Kasai. They said they had invited Antoine Gizenga, recognized by 20 Communist and neutral countries as the leader of Congo’s "legitimate" government, and his associates to a meeting of all factions to take place in March in Tananarive, Malagasy Republic.

50 years ago

The Beach Boys performed at Symphony Hall in Boston. David Marks, who had been a member of the group from 1962-1963 and was currently studying music in Boston, rejoined the group for an encore.

World events
Ecuador had seized, fined, and released seven U.S. tuna boats on charges of fishing within Ecuadorian territorial waters since February 10.

Jack Nicklaus won the Professional Golfers Association Championship for the second time, becoming the first golfer to win each of the four major tournaments at least twice. The 1971 PGA Championship was held at the PGA National Golf Club course at North Palm Beach, Florida.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Woman in Love--Barbra Streisand

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Shine Up--Doris D and the Pins

#1 single in Ireland: Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Shaddap You Face--Joe Dolce Music Theatre (2nd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Stars on 45--Stars on 45 (2nd week at #1)
2 Shine Up--Doris D and the Pins
3 Amoureux Solitaires/Dis Moi que Tu M'aimes--Lio
4 If You Could Read My Mind - Special U.S. Disco-Mix--Viola Wills
5 Embarrassment--Madness
6 Flip Fluitketel/Er Staat Een Paard in de Gang--André Van Duin
7 Imagine--John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band
8 Rock this Town--Stray Cats
9 Ik Wil Op M'n Kop Een Kamerbreed Tapijt--Barry Hughes & De Kwaffeurs
10 While You See a Chance--Steve Winwood

Singles entering the chart were It's a Love Thing by the Whispers (#25); Don't Stop the Music by Yarbrough & Peoples (#28); I Can Dance by Sugar and the Lollipops (#31); My Girl by Rod Stewart (#32); Hokie Pokie (All Over the World) by Big John Russel (#34); and Leila (The Queen of Sheba) by Dolly Dots (#37).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
2 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
3 Woman--John Lennon
4 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
5 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
6 The Best of Times--Styx
7 The Tide is High--Blondie
8 Giving it Up for Your Love--Delbert McClinton
9 Same Old Lang Syne--Dan Fogelberg
10 The Winner Takes it All--ABBA

Singles entering the chart were I Can't Stand It by Eric Clapton and his Band (#63); The Party's Over (Hopelessly in Love) by Journey (#73); Mister Sandman by Emmylou Harris (#83); Hold on Loosely by 38 Special (#85); Hold On by Badfinger (#86); Lovers After All by Melissa Manchester and Peabo Bryson (#88); and Burn Rubber (Why You Wanna Hurt Me) by the Gap Band (#95).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
2 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
3 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
4 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
5 Woman--John Lennon
6 The Tide is High--Blondie
7 The Best of Times--Styx
8 Same Old Lang Syne--Dan Fogelberg
8 Rapture--Blondie
10 Giving it Up for Your Love--Delbert McClinton

Singles entering the chart were I Can't Stand It by Eric Clapton and his Band (#63); The Party's Over (Hopelessly in Love) by Journey (#84); Ch Ch Cherie by the Johnny Average Band featuring Nikki Wills (#86); Walking on Thin Ice by Yoko Ono (#88); and Hold On by Badfinger (#90).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 9 to 5--Dolly Parton (2nd week at #1)
2 Celebration--Kool & The Gang
3 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
4 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
5 Woman--John Lennon
6 The Tide is High--Blondie
7 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
8 Hello Again--Neil Diamond
9 Same Old Lang Syne--Dan Fogelberg
10 Rapture--Blondie

Singles entering the chart were I Can't Stand It by Eric Clapton and his Band (#72); I Love You by Climax Blues Band (#87); The Party's Over (Hopelessly in Love) by Journey (#88); Bon Bon Vie (Gimme the Good Life) by T.S. Monk (#89); and Thighs High (Grip Your Hips and Move) by Tom Browne (#97).

Canada’s Top 10 (RPM)
1 The Tide is High--Blondie (4th week at #1)
2 Keep on Loving You--REO Speedwagon
3 Hey Nineteen--Steely Dan
4 Passion--Rod Stewart
5 The Best of Times--Styx
6 Woman--John Lennon
7 (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon
8 Tell it Like it Is--Heart
9 Games People Play--Alan Parsons Project
10 He Can’t Love You--Michael Stanley Band

Singles entering the chart included Crying by Don McLean (#48); and Banana Republic by the Boomtown Rats (#50).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 Turn Me Loose--Loverboy
2 Wasn't That a Party--The Rovers
3 I Love a Rainy Night--Eddie Rabbitt
4 9 to 5--Dolly Parton
5 Every Woman in the World--Air Supply
6 Teacher Teacher--Rockpile
7 Miss Sun--Boz Scaggs
8 Stealin' the Night--J.C. Stone
9 The Best of Times--Styx
10 Hey Nineteen--Steely Dan

Singles entering the chart were Giving it Up for Your Love by Delbert McClinton (#27); and Cover Girl by Prism (#30).

A high-level diplomatic mission including the presidents of Bangladesh, Gambia, Guinea, and Pakistan, as well as high-ranking officials from Malaysia, Senegal, Turkey, and the Palestine Liberation Organization arrived in Tehran to attempt to end the war between Iran and Iraq. The mission was scheduled to have talks with Iranian President Abolhassan Bani-Sadr and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher promised her nation’s support for U.S. president Ronald Reagan’s blocking of Soviet encroachment in El Salvador, Africa, and the Persian Gulf.

Toronto 3 @ Montreal 5

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Do the Bartman--The Simpsons (6th week at #1)

Just before the Gulf War cease-fire went into effect, 800 U.S. tanks clashed with 300 Iraqi tanks north of Kuwait. Iraq reportedly lost 200 tanks and the U.S. lost none. According to a U.K. white paper issued in July 1991, allied combat deaths in the war were as follows: U.S.A., 147; Saudi Arabia, 33; U.K., 24; Egypt, 10; United Arab Emirates, 6; France, 2; Kuwait, 1, for a total of 223. A U.S. Defense Department spokesman said on July 17 that the U.S. had suffered 148 combat deaths and 120 non-combatant deaths during the war, and another 13 after the cease-fire. U.S. personnel wounded in combat totalled 458. 11 U.S. women were killed in combat and 4 in non-combat situations, according to the spokesman.

25 years ago

At the 38th annual Grammy Awards presentation in Los Angeles, Ottawa native Alanis Morissette won four Grammys: best rock song and best female rock vocal for You Oughta Know, and album of the year and rock album of the year for Jagged Little Pill. Canadians picked up a total of 11 Grammys, including two by Joni Mitchell for her album Turbulent Indigo.

The Supreme Court of Canada restored former Alberta teacher Jim Keegstra's conviction for promoting anti-Semitism.

20 years ago

Soldiers from Rwanda and Uganda began withdrawing from front-line positions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Economics and finance
U.S. President George W. Bush submitted a budget to Congress for fiscal 2002 of $1.96 trillion, projecting surpluses for the next 10 years of $5.6 trillion. Defense spending was to increase by $14.2 billion to $310.5 billion, but the departments of Transportation, Energy, Interior, and Agriculture would have their budgets cut. The overall budget called for an increase in spending of 4%.

10 people were killed and more than 70 injured when a high-speed passenger train travelling from Newcastle to London collided with a goods engine on the East Coast Main Line in North Yorkshire.

250 people were injured when an earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale whose epicentre was near Olympia, Washington damaged buildings and pavement in Seattle, with tremors being felt in Vancouver, British Columbia and Salt Lake City. Damage, at $3 billion, was considered modest.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Jane Russell, 89
. U.S. actress and singer. Miss Russell, known for her ample bosom, was known for her appearances in movies such as The Outlaw (1943); The Paleface (1948); and Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953). She made several recordings, and was a nightclub singer in the late 1950s. Miss Russell died of a respiratory-related illness.

Annie Girardot, 79. French actress. Miss Girardot appeared in almost 150 movies, often playing strong-willed and independent women. She won César Awards for her starring performances in Docteur Françoise Gailland (1976) and her supporting performances in Les Misérables (1995); and La Pianiste (The Piano Teacher) (2001). Miss Girardot won two Molière Awards for her theatre work. She died after a long battle with Alzheimer's disease.

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