Monday, 8 February 2021

February 9, 2021

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Heather Blacklock!

400 years ago

Alessandro Cardinal Ludovisi was acclaimed as Pope Gregory XV, succeeding Paul V. The shortest conclave in Roman Catholic Church history concluded the day after it opened. Gregory XV was the last Pope elected by acclamation.

280 years ago

Born on this date
Henri-Joseph Rigel
. German-born composer. Mr. Rigel moved to Paris in 1767, and spent the rest of his life there. He wrote 14 operas, plus oratorios, harpsichord pieces, string quartets, symphonies and concertos. Mr. Rigel died on May 2, 1799 at the age of 58.

240 years ago

Born on this date
Johann Baptist von Spix
. German zoologist and explorer. Dr. Spix was a physician before becoming a zoologist. He and botanist Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius went with Austrian naturalists to Brazil in 1817, and returned to Munich in 1820 with specimens of thousands of plants and animals, ethnographic objects, and two native children. Dr. Spix died on May 13, 1826 at the age of 45, possibly from a tropical disease.

160 years ago

Politics and government
Jefferson Davis was elected the Provisional President of the Confederate States of America by the Confederate convention at Montgomery, Alabama.

140 years ago

Died on this date
Fyodor Dostoyevsky, 59
. Russian author. Mr. Dostoyevsky (or Dostoevsky) wrote 12 novels, four novellas, 16 short stories, and numerous other works, and is regarded as one of the world's greatest psychological novelists, exploring philosophical and religious themes in novels such as Crime and Punishment (1866); The Idiot (1869); The Devils (1872); and The Brothers Karamazov (1880). He died 15 days after suffering a pulmonary hemorrhage.

130 years ago

Born on this date
Ronald Colman
. U.K.-born U.S. actor. Mr. Colman was a popular leading man in films such as Bulldog Drummond (1929); A Tale of Two Cities (1935); Lost Horizon (1937); The Prisoner of Zenda (1937); and Random Harvest (1942). He won the Academy Award for Best Actor for A Double Life (1947). Mr. Colman died on May 19, 1958 at the age of 67.

Died on this date
Johan Jongkind, 71
. Dutch artist. Mr. Jongkind was a painter and printmaker who was known for his marine landscapes, and was a forerunner of Impressionism.

The Canadian Pacific Railway opened its $200,000 Vancouver Opera House on Granville Street with the Emma Juch English Opera's performance of Lohengrin by Richard Wagner.

125 years ago

Born on this date
Alberto Vargas
. Peruvian-born U.S. artist. Mr. Vargas moved to the United States in 1916, and became known for his paintings of pin-up girls for Esquire (1940-1946) and Playboy (1959-1975) magazines, with the models becoming known as "Vargas Girls." He died on December 30, 1982 at the age of 86.

120 years ago

Born on this date
James Murray
. U.S. actor. Mr. Murray appeared more than 30 films--often in bit parts or as an extra--but was best known for his starring performance in The Crowd (1928). Heavy drinking destroyed his career and life, and probably contributed to his death by drowning after falling from the North River pier in New York City on July 11, 1936 at the age of 35.

Brian Donlevy. U.S. actor. Mr. Donlevy achieved success on stage in the 1920s and '30s before moving to Hollywood, where he appeared in movies, radio, and television programs through the 1960s, often in "tough guy" roles. He was nominated for an Academy Award for his supporting performance in Beau Geste (1939), and starred as the title character in The Great McGinty (1940). Mr. Donlevy appeared in films noir such as Impact (1949) and The Big Combo (1955), and played Professor Bernard Quatermass in The Quatermass Xperiment (1955) and Quatermass 2 (1957). He starred in the radio (1949, 1950-1953) and television (1951-1952) series Dangerous Assignment. Mr. Donlevy died of throat cancer on April 6, 1972 at the age of 71.

Mrs. Nicholas Flood Davin organized the Regina chapter of the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire, for the purpose of erecting a monument of the late Queen Victoria.

110 years ago

William O. Darby. U.S. military officer. Brigadier General Darby joined the United States Army in 1933, and commanded the 1st Ranger Battalion in World War II, most notably in Italy. The battalion became famous as "Darby's Rangers," conspicuous for their heroism. Brig. Gen. Darby, whose ultimate rank was conferred posthumously, was 34 when he was killed with one of his sergeants on April 30, 1945, when an artillery shell burst in the middle of the assembled officers and NCOs as he was giving orders for the attack on Trento to cut off a German retreat.

90 years ago

On the radio

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Richard Gordon and Leigh Lovell, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Mazarin Stone

Politics and government
Vere Brabazan Ponsonby, Earl of Bessborough was appointed Governor General of Canada, succeeding the Earl of Willingdon. He took office on April 4, 1931.

80 years ago

On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Hound of the Baskervilles, Part 5

The Book of the Month Club critics' poll selected the novel For Whom the Bell Tolls by Ernest Hemingway as the outstanding book of 1940.

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill said in a broadcast from London that the United Kingdom didn't need American armies: "Give us the tools, and we will finish the job." The Canadian Army converted the Vancouver-based Fifth Canadian Motorcycle Regiment, CASF, redesignating it as the British Columbia Dragoons. The American Youth Congress denounced the European war as an "imperialist exploitation of the masses."

Politics and government
The Vichy French regime appointed Admiral Jean Darian as Vice-Premier and Foreign Minister.

75 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Let It Snow! Let It Snow! Let It Snow!--Vaughn Monroe and His Orchestra with Vaughn Monroe and the Norton Sisters (Best Seller--3rd week at #1; Airplay--4th week at #1; Juke Box--1st week at #1); Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief--Betty Hutton with Paul Weston and his Orchestra (Airplay--1st week at #1); Symphony--Freddy Martin and his Orchestra with Clyde Rogers (Honor Roll of Hits--6th week at #1)

Speaking at a Communist Party conference, Soviet dictator Josef Stalin predicted a future conflict with the West, and announced a new five-year plan to put the U.S.S.R. on a war footing.

Argentine presidential candidate Juan Peron released a 4,000-word document calling for closer relations with the United States, and invited U.S. capital investments in Argentina.

Politics and government
The Japanese cabinet, acting on orders from Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Japan General Douglas MacArthur, barred nearly nine-tenths of the current Diet members from the March 31, 1946 elections.

Astronomers at Yerkes Observatory in Wisconsin announced that they had observed the explosion of a nova at the western edge of Corona Borealis, trillions of miles from Earth.

Dr. Ludwig Schoop announced that 72 scholars under his direction were preparing a 72-volume edition of the writings of the Roman Catholic Church fathers.

The Congress of Industrial Organizations Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers settled with General Motors for an 18½c hourly wage increase.

70 years ago

On the radio
Hear it Now, hosted by Edward R. Murrow, on CBS

Tonight's program included news about the recent fatal wreck of the commuter train The Broker in New Jersey, and an appeal for blood donations.

Died on this date
Eddy Duchin, 41
. U.S. musician. Mr. Duchin was a jazz pianist who performed with Leo Reisman's band before leading a band of his own, achieving commercial success in the 1930s and '40s as a "sweet" band. He served with the U.S. Navy during World War II, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Commander, but was unable to regain his musical popularity after the war. Mr. Duchin died of leukemia.

Married on this date
Former U.S. Military Academy football star Glenn Davis and actress Terry Moore were married in Glendale, California.

Two days after massacring 705 unarmed civilians in the counties of Sancheong and Hamyang, South Gyeongsang Province, the South Korean Army's 11th Division, commanded by General Choe Deok-sin, began the three-day massacre of 719 unarmed civilians--including 385 children--in the county of Geochang, South Gyeongsang.

Former U.S. President Herbert Hoover criticized the "hurry, rush [and] anxiety" in U.S. preparations for full-scale war, claiming that air and sea power could protect the United States from Soviet attack without commitment of U.S. troops abroad.

The U.S. State Department reported that Cuban industrial and labour leaders had offered to give the United States direct use of Cuban industry and manpower for defense production.

In protests to the United States, Czechoslovakia charged that Air Force planes from Germany had made 60 unauthorized flights over Czech territory.

Economics and finance
U.S. Price Stabilization Office Director Michael DiSalle put livestock slaughtering under license and quota controls in order to avert development of black markets in meat.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (Lever Hit Parade): Are You Lonesome To-night?--Elvis Presley

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): Are You Lonesome To-night?--Elvis Presley (3rd week at #1)

On television tonight
The Untouchables, starring Robert Stack, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Augie "The Banker" Ciamino

World events
A French jet fighter plane patrolling the Algerian coast fired warning shots across the path of a Soviet jet airliner carrying Soviet Chief of State Leonid Brezhnev on a state visit to Guinea via Morocco. The Soviet plane, a four-engine Ilyushin propeller jet, was unharmed, but the Soviet government accused the French of "international banditry." France expressed "sincere regrets" over the incident, but said the Soviet plane had drifted off the course specified in its original flight plan into "the zone of French responsibility." France promised a further investigation.

U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in a special message to Congress, proposed a federal health insurance program, to be financed by increased Social Security contributions, to provide medical care for old people.

The Université de Sherbrooke's faculty of medicine was founded, with Dr. Gérard-Ludger Larouche as its first dean.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Kvällstoppen): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison

#1 single in Switzerland (Swiss Hitparade): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (4th week at #1)

Nine days after liftoff, the command module Kitty Hawk, carrying the Apollo 14 crew of Alan Shepard, Stuart Roosa, and Edgar Mitchell splashed down on target in the South Pacific Ocean to conclude the first successful lunar landing mission in more than a year. The astronauts brought back 96 pounds of rocks believed to date back to the birth of the solar system.

U.S. Defense Secretary Melvin Laird and Secretary of State William Rogers told Congressional committees that Operation Dewey Canyon II--the U.S.-backed South Vietnamese offensive into Laos that had begun the previous day--would be limited in time and area, and that the attack was aimed at shortening the war, not widening it.

Israel rejected Egyptian President Anwar Sadat’s proposal of a one-way pullout by Israel from the Suez Canal, but left the door open for further discussion.

Six days of riots in Northern Ireland concluded with 11 deaths as Irish Republican Army factions fought each other, and Roman Catholics clashed with Protestants. The riots had been precipitated by a search for weapons by British troops in the Catholic district of Clonard. The district, never previously entered by British troops, was described as a refuge for leaders of the IRA "provisionals" faction, which had split with the IRA’s "leftist officials," and sought forceful unification of Ulster and Eyre.

An earthquake centred in the San Gabriel Mountains smashed parts of Los Angeles. At least 64 people were killed--most of them residents of a veterans’ hospital--and more than 1,000 injured.

Satchel Paige was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame, becoming the first player to inhabit a section devoted to those whose careers took place mainly or entirely in the Negro Leagues.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Cherry Blossom--Seiko Matsuda

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): (Just Like) Starting Over--John Lennon (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Angel of Mine--Frank Duval & Orchestra (2nd week at #1)

Died on this date
Bill Haley, 55
. U.S. musician. Mr. Haley was a key figure in the early years of rock and roll. Based in Chester, Pennsylvania, he began his recording career in 1948 as the leader of a country band called Bill Haley and the Four Aces of Western Swing, changing their name to Bill Haley and the Saddlemen in 1949. In 1951 they recorded a version of Rocket 88--often called the first rock and roll song--which had recently been a major hit on the rhythm and blues chart for Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats (a band assembled by Ike Turner). The recording by Mr. Haley and the Saddlemen became a regional hit in the northeastern United States. Their 1952 cover of Jimmy Preston’s 1949 R&B hit Rock the Joint was a hit in Chicago. Later in 1952, the band changed its name yet again, becoming Bill Haley and his Comets. In 1953, Mr. Haley and Comets’ bassist Marshall Lytle wrote Crazy Man, Crazy, which became the first rock and roll single to achieve widespread commercial success, reaching #12 on the Billboard singles chart and #11 on the Cash Box chart. The band was best known for (We’re Gonna) Rock Around the Clock, which reached #30 on the Billboard chart in 1954. When (We’re Gonna) Rock Around the Clock was included in the movie Blackboard Jungle as the song over the opening titles, the record was re-released, spending 8 weeks at #1 on the Billboard charts and 5 weeks at #1 in the U.K. Several more hits followed over the next year, but Mr. Haley's fame was quickly eclipsed by that of Elvis Presley in 1956. In February 1957 the band became the first American rock and roll act to visit the U.K.; they were given a huge and enthusiastic welcome, and remained popular in Britain thereafter. Mr. Haley and his Comets moved to Mexico to perform and record in the early 1960s; in 1961 Florida Twist became the biggest-selling single in Mexican history to that time. Domestic problems and drinking plagued Mr. Haley’s later years, and his later recordings, made for the Sweden-based Sonet label, sold poorly--in fact, few people were aware that he was still occasionally making new records. He eventually settled in Harlingen, Texas, where he lived a lonely and troubled life before dying of a heart attack at his home.

Pakistani Foreign Minister Agha Shahi said that he had received a favourable reaction from Iran to a proposal to a visit to both Iran and Iraq by the leaders of eight Islamic nations and organizations in an attempt to end the war between Iran and Iraq.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): I Touch Myself--Divinyls (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Sadeness Part I--Enigma (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Sadeness Part I--Enigma (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Ice Ice Baby--Vanilla Ice (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in France (SNEP): Sadeness Part I--Enigma (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (CIN): 3 A.M. Eternal--The KLF featuring the Children of the Revolution (2nd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Knockin' Boots--Candyman
2 Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)--C&C Music Factory
3 Crazy--Seal
4 Ice Ice Baby--Vanilla Ice
5 Innuendo--Queen
6 Go for It! (Heart and Fire)--Joey B. Ellis and Tynetta Hare
7 All Together Now--The Farm
8 Wicked Game--Chris Isaak
9 To Love Somebody--Jimmy Somerville
10 Maar Vanavond Heb Ik Hoofdpijn--Hanny

Singles entering the chart were 3 A.M. Eternal (Live at the S.S.L.) by the KLF (#28); Because I Love You (The Postman Song) by Stevie B. (#30); Moneytalks by AC/DC (#32); Bring Your the Slaughter by Iron Maiden (#33); Can I Kick It? by A Tribe Called Quest (#34); All True Man by Alexander O'Neal (#35); and Mercy Mercy Me/I Want You by Robert Palmer (#37).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)--C+C Music Factory featuring Freedom Williams
2 The First Time--Surface
3 All the Man that I Need--Whitney Houston
4 Play That Funky Music--Vanilla Ice
5 Love Will Never Do (Without You)--Janet Jackson
6 After the Rain--Nelson
7 Sensitivity--Ralph Tresvant
8 I'm Not in Love--Will to Power
9 One More Try--Timmy -T-
10 I'll Give All My Love to You--Keith Sweat

Singles entering the chart were I’ve Been Thinking About You by Londonbeat (#52); You're in Love by Wilson Phillips (#64); Easy Come Easy Go by Winger (#84); Just the Way it is, Baby by the Rembrandts (#89); Give it Up by ZZ Top (#90); What's it Gonna Be by Jellybean featuring Niki Haris (#91); Sadeness Part 1 by Enigma (#93); and Funk Boutique by the Cover Girls (#98).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)--C+C Music Factory featuring Freedom Williams
2 The First Time--Surface
3 Sensitivity--Ralph Tresvant
4 All the Man that I Need--Whitney Houston
5 Play That Funky Music--Vanilla Ice
6 Love Will Never Do (Without You)--Janet Jackson
7 Where Does My Heart Beat Now--Celine Dion
8 Disappear--INXS
9 After the Rain--Nelson
10 Just Another Dream--Cathy Dennis

Singles entering the chart were I’ve Been Thinking About You by Londonbeat (#76); Just the Way it is, Baby by the Rembrandts (#78); Easy Come Easy Go by Winger (#79); You're in Love by Wilson Phillips (#80); and Iesha by Another Bad Creation (#83).

Canada’s Top 10 (RPM)
1 Love Will Never Do (Without You)--Janet Jackson
2 Disappear--INXS
3 Til I Am Myself Again--Blue Rodeo
4 You Gotta Love Someone--Elton John
5 Justify My Love--Madonna
6 After the Rain--Nelson
7 I’m Not in Love--Will to Power
8 Wicked Game--Chris Isaak
9 Show Me the Way--Styx
10 All the Man that I Need--Whitney Houston

Singles entering the chart were Who Said I Would by Phil Collins (#68); Inside Out by the Traveling Wilburys (#69); My Side of the Bed by Susanna Hoffs (#77); Willy by Astley Cleveland (#78); Never Gonna Change My Mind by Acosta Russell (#84); Rocket O’Love by the Knack (#88); Tomorrow Wendy by Concrete Blonde (#93); Fallen Angel by Zahalan (#94); Give Peace a Chance by Sean Lennon (#95); Night and Day by Bette Midler (#97); and Let Go by Andy Curran (#98).

Died on this date
James Cleveland, 59
. U.S. singer. Rev. Cleveland was known as the "King of Gospel Music" during a career in which he won four Grammy Awards.

World events
In a non-binding referendum, Lithuanians voted overwhelmingly in favour of secession from the Soviet Union. Lithuania was the first of the Baltic republics to hold such a vote. In an attempt to avoid antagonizing the Kremlin, Lithuania’s leaders called the vote an unofficial "public opinion poll" on Lithuania’s March 1990 declaration of independence. Nearly 85% of eligible voters to answer the only question on the ballot: "Do you want a democratic, independent Lithuania?" The results, released the next day, showed approximately 90% of the votes in favour of independence.

Politics and government
Donald Cameron defeated Roland Thornhill by 143 votes on the third ballot to become leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Nova Scotia. He took office as Premier of Nova Scotia on February 26, 1991, replacing interim Premier Roger Bacon, who had replaced the retired John Buchanan.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Spaceman--Babylon Zoo (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Spaceman--Babylon Zoo (4th week at #1)

The Provisional Irish Republican Army declared the end to its 18-month cease-fire and exploded a large bomb in London's Canary Wharf.

South Korea and Japan renewed their dispute over two islets in the Sea of Japan that were believed to have rich mineral resources and fishing grounds.

The government of Guinea reasserted control over the armed forces, a week after the beginning of a mutiny by soldiers who were demanding better pay and working conditions.

The synthetic element copernicium, atomic number 112, was first created at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany by Sigurd Hofmann, Victor Ninov et al.

Track and field
Donovan Bailey of Canada set a world record for the men's 50-metre dash with a time of 5.56 seconds at the Reno Air Games in Reno, Nevada. The old record of 5.61 was set by Manfred Kokot of East Germany in 1973 and was tied by James Sanford of the United States in 1981.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Herbert A. Simon, 84
. U.S. political scientist and economist. Dr. Simon was a pioneer in the fields of artificial intelligence, information processing, decision-making, problem-solving, organization theory, complex systems, and computer simulation of scientific discovery. He was awarded the 1978 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences "for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations."

Politics and government
Incoming Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, in an effort to form a coalition government, asked his defeated rival, Ehud Barak, to become Defense Minister, and former Prime Minister Shimon Peres to serve as Foreign Minister.

Nine people were killed when the U.S. nuclear submarine USS Greeneville collided with a Japanese fishing boat nine miles from Pearl Harbor. The sub was on routine patrol when it surfaced rapidly under the Ehime Maru, which sank within minutes. Two teachers and 13 high school students from a fisheries school, as well as 20 crew members, were on the boat. The U.S. Coast Guard rescued 26 people, but the two teachers, four students, and three crew members were killed.

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