Monday, 22 February 2021

February 23, 2021

200 years ago

Died on this date
John Keats, 25
. U.K. poet. Mr. Keats’ works included Endymion; Ode to a Nightingale; and Ode on a Grecian Urn . He died in Rome of tuberculosis.

160 years ago

Politics and government
U.S. President-elect Abraham Lincoln arrived secretly in Washington to take office after an assassination plot was foiled in Baltimore.

125 years ago

Popular culture
The Tootsie Roll was introduced by Leo Hirshfield in New York City.

120 years ago

The Supreme Court of Canada ruled the Manitoba prohibition law of 1900 null and void.

90 years ago

On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Richard Gordon and Leigh Lovell, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Illustrious Client

Died on this date
Nellie Melba, 69
. Australian singer and actress. Miss Melba, born Helen Porter Mitchell, was an operatic soprano who was internationally famous from the 1880s until her death from septicaemia which had developed after facial surgery. She made recordings as early as 1895, and more from 1904-1926.

Politics and government
Having resigned from the Conservative Business Committee in January to campaign against proposed dominion status for India, Winston Churchill addressed his constituency association at Winchester House, Epping, saying, among other things:

It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr. Gandhi, a seditious Middle temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Viceregal palace, while he is still organizing and conducting a defiant campaign of civil disobedience, to parley on equal terms with the representative of the King-Emperor. Such a spectacle can only increase the unrest in India and the danger to which white people there are exposed. It can only encourage all the forces which are hostile to British authority. What good can possibly come of such extraordinary negotiations? Gandhi has said within the last few weeks that he demands the substance of independence, though he kindly adds that the British may keep the shadow. He declares that the boycott of foreign cloth must be continued until either prohibition or a prohibitive tariff can be put up against it by an Indian national Parliament. This, if accepted, would entail the final ruin of Lancashire. He has also pressed for the repudiation of the Indian loans, and has laid claim to the control of the Army and foreign affairs. These are his well-known aims. Surely they form a strange basis for heart-to-heart discussions--’sweet’ we are told the were--between this malignant, subversive fanatic and the Viceroy of India.

--from Blood, Toil, Tears & Sweat: The Speeches of Winston Churchill, edited by David Cannadine, 1989.

80 years ago

On the radio

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, on NBC
Tonight’s episode: The Resident Patient

In a 45-minute radio broadcast, Italian Duce Benito Mussolini promised a spring offensive in Greece and predicted a German victory. Turkish Foreign Minister Shukru Saracoglu delcared that Turkey would oppose with force any and all aggression that might be directed against her territorial integrity.

Herbert Claiborne Pell, recently named as U.S. Minister to Hungary, said that either the United States or Germany would lead the world during the next epoch of history.

Plutonium was first chemically identified by chemist Glenn T. Seaborg and his team at the University of California at Berkeley.

75 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Let It Snow! Let It Snow! Let It Snow!--Vaughn Monroe and His Orchestra with Vaughn Monroe and the Norton Sisters (Best Seller--5th week at #1; Airplay--6th week at #1; Juke Box--3rd week at #1); Symphony--Freddy Martin and his Orchestra with Clyde Rogers (Honor Roll of Hits--8th week at #1)

Died on this date
Vladimir Potemkin, 71
. U.S.S.R. politician. Mr. Potemkin was Soviet vice commissar for foreign affairs; Ambassador to France from 1934-1937; and a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Tomoyuki Yamashita, 60. Japanese military officer. General Yamashita was hanged at Los Baños, Laguna Prison Camp, southeast of Manila, for atrocities committed by troops under his command during the Japanese defense of the occupied Philippines in 1944. His defense argued that Gen. Yamashita was being tried for crimes committed by his troops wihout his approval or even knowledge, and some have characterized the trial's haste and verdict as a miscarriage of justice. Lieutenant Colonel Ohta and Takuma Higashiga were also hanged.

The U.S. Navy high command confirmed the court martial ruling that Captain Charles McVay III was guilty of negligence in the loss of the cruiser USS Indianapolis on July 30, 1945, when the ship was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine, and suffered the loss of 300 men. Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz remitted Capt. McVay's sentence and restored him to active duty. Capt. McVay had earlier been acquitted on a charge of failing to give a timely "abandon ship" order.

Records of the Nazi occupation of Czechoslvakia, found by U.S. combat engineers near Prague, were given to the Czech government after a Czech protest.

Politics and government
Tewfiq Suweidy formed a new cabinet in Iraq, with himself as Prime Minister and Foreign Minister.

The mutiny of Indian sailors in Bombay ended after British authorities promised that strikers would not be punished for pressing reasonable grievances.

70 years ago

On the radio
Hear it Now, hosted by Edward R. Murrow, on CBS

Tonight's program included news about the college basketball points-shaving scandal.

Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry and other Canadian troops with the 27th British Commonwealth Infantry Brigade made their first contact with the enemy in Korea.

The Israeli government reported that the country's population was now 1.4 million, including 1.23 million Jews and 120,000 Muslims.

Economics and finance
U.S. Defense Mobilization Director Charles Wilson, reporting on "The State of Mobilization," warned that there would be higher taxes, price and wage controls, and further credit restrictions.

Former world heavyweight champion Joe Louis (62-2) scored a technical knockout over Andy Walker (17-9-7) at 1:49 of the 10th round at the Cow Palace in Daly City, California. For Mr. Walker, it was the start of a streak that saw him lose his last 12 fights.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (Lever Hit Parade): Last Date--Floyd Cramer (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Retailer): Sailor--Petula Clark

On television tonight
The Untouchables, starring Robert Stack, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Nick Moses Story

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Kvällstoppen): My Sweet Lord--George Harrison (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland (Swiss Hitparade): Butterfly--Danyel Gérard

On television tonight
CBS Reports: The Selling of the Pentagon

A nationwide dispute was touched off in the United States regarding the merits and accuracy of this documentary, produced by Peter Davis, which examined the use of public relations to promote the military.

Died on this date
Đỗ Cao Trí, 41
. S.V. military officer. General Tri began his career with the French Army in 1947, and then became an officer in the Vietnamese National Army. In June 1963, he cracked down on Buddhists who were protesting against the regime of President Ngô Đình Diệm, but less than five months later he participated in the coup d'état that resulted in President Diệm's arrest and assassination. Gen. Tri was exiled by junta leader and Prime Minister Nguyễn Cao Kỳ as South Vietnam's Ambassador to South Korea, but became General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu's deputy after the latter became President in 1967. Gen. Tri was made Commander of III Corps, which surrounded Saigon and prevented coups. He commanded a successful campaign in Cambodia in 1970, and was put in command of I Corps during the faltering Operation Lam Son 719 incursion into Laos, but was killed when his helicopter crashed shortly after takeoff from Bien Hoa Air Base.

The United States Senate Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights, whose staff had been probing both federal government and private snooping via computer data banks, opened nine days of public hearings. The panel’s chairman, Senator Sam Ervin (Democrat--North Carolina), who saw an invasion of personal privacy in the use of modern computer technology, warned of the dangers to the U.S. "free society" because Americans’ fear of surveillance could lead to being "afraid to speak their minds freely to the government or anyone else."

In an anti-inflationary move to force construction unions and building contractors to take measures to curb prices and wages in the industry, U.S. President Richard Nixon suspended provisions of the 1931 Davis-Bacon Act that required that wages for workers on federally-aided construction projects match the "prevailing" pay for workers in private building in the same area.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Duncan--Slim Dusty (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Cherry Blossom--Seiko Matsuda (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): What's in a Kiss--Gilbert O'Sullivan (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Angel of Mine--Frank Duval & Orchestra (4th week at #1)

World events
About 200 members of the paramilitary Civil Guard stormed the Cortes--the lower house of the Spanish parliament--and held about 350 members of the house hostage.

The U.S. State Department announced that the campaign against Soviet bloc arms shipments to Marxist guerrillas in El Salvador had resulted in a slowing down of the flow of weapons.

Pope John Paul II began the day in Guam before departing for Japan as he continued his tour of east Asia.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Australian Music Report): I've Been Thinking About You--Londonbeat (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Sadeness Part I--Enigma (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Sadeness Part I--Enigma (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Wicked Game--Chris Isaak

#1 single in France (SNEP): Sadeness Part I--Enigma (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (CIN): Do the Bartman--The Simpsons (2nd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Crazy--Seal
2 Knockin' Boots--Candyman
3 Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)--C&C Music Factory
4 Innuendo--Queen
5 Wicked Game--Chris Isaak
6 Can't Help Myself--2 Brothers On The 4th Floor & Da Smooth Baron MC
7 Love Let Love--Tony Scott
8 Liefde Voor Muziek--Raymond v/h Groenewoud
9 Because I Love You (The Postman Song)--Stevie B.
10 Go for It! (Heart and Fire)--Joey B. Ellis and Tynetta Hare

Singles entering the chart were Do the Bartman by the Simpsons (#21); Goede Tijden Slechte Tijden by Lisa Boray & Louis De Vries (#29); Een Beetje Misselijk by Een Beetje Misselijk (#31); Dancehall Good To We by Papa San (#33); Down to Earth by Monie Love (#35); and Where Does My Heart Beat Now by Celine Dion (#37).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 All the Man that I Need--Whitney Houston
2 Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)--C+C Music Factory featuring Freedom Williams
3 One More Try--Timmy -T-
4 Someday--Mariah Carey
5 Where Does My Heart Beat Now--Celine Dion
6 The First Time--Surface
7 Wicked Game--Chris Isaak
8 I'll Give All My Love to You--Keith Sweat
9 Disappear--INXS
10 I Saw Red--Warrant

Singles entering the chart were Baby Baby by Amy Grant (#75); Let's Chill by Guy (#81); Call it Poison by the Escape Club (#83); Stone Cold Gentleman by Ralph Tresvant (#85); All True Man by Alexander O'Neal (#89); I Like the Way (The Kissing Game) by Hi-Five (#90); and I Love You by Vanilla Ice (#94).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 All the Man that I Need--Whitney Houston
2 Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)--C+C Music Factory featuring Freedom Wiliams
3 One More Try--Timmy -T-
4 Someday--Mariah Carey
5 Where Does My Heart Beat Now--Celine Dion
6 The First Time--Surface
7 Disappear--INXS
8 Show Me the Way--Styx
9 Sensitivity--Ralph Tresvant
10 All This Time--Sting

Singles entering the chart were Call it Poison by Escape Club (#73); Baby Baby by Amy Grant (#82); Talk About It by Boom Crash Opera (#89); and That's Why by the Party (#90).

Canada’s Top 10 (RPM)
1 Disappear--INXS (2nd week at #1)
2 All the Man that I Need--Whitney Houston
3 Wicked Game--Chris Isaak
4 All This Time--Sting
5 Show Me the Way--Styx
6 Love Will Never Do (Without You)--Janet Jackson
7 I’m Not in Love--Will to Power
8 Waiting for Love--Alias
9 Someday--Mariah Carey
10 How Long Can a Man Be Strong--The Jeff Healey Band

Singles entering the chart were Bitter Tears by INXS (#64); Cry for Help by Rick Astley (#72); Good Together by Candi and the Backbeat (#75); No Sign of Rain by Keven Jordan (#80); Boomerang by Spunkadelic (#84); Everyone's a Winner by Bootsauce (#91); She Talks to Angels by the Black Crowes (#92); I Can't Tell You Why by Howard Hewett (#94); Love Makes Things Happen by Pebbles (#96); I Love Her Now by the Jitters (#97); and One More Try by Timmy -T- (#98).

Iraq failed to respond to the ultimatum delivered the previous day by U.S. President George Bush, and the allies began a ground war in Iraq at 6 P.M. Mountain Standard Time. Coalition tanks and 200,000 troops moved into Iraq and Kuwait, and thousands of Iraqi soldiers surrendered almost immediately. Two hours after the beginning of the ground war, Mr. Bush announced that he had directed forces to use all means necessary to remove Iraq from Kuwait.

World events
A bloodless military coup ousted the government of Premier Chatichai Choonhavan of Thailand. The new military regime was led by the armed forces’ supreme commander, General Sunthorn Kongsompong, who announced that Thailand would be ruled by a National Peace and Order-Keeping Party, consisting of the army, navy, air force, police, and civilians. It was also announced that the 1978 constitution had been abolished and that martial law would be imposed. Gen. Sunthorn stated that the armed forces had decided to depose Mr. Chatichai because he had protected the perpetrators of an alleged plot to topple the nation’s constitutional monarchy in 1982. The U.S. condemned the coup and announced the suspension of $16.4 million in development aid.

Politics and government
Bloc Quebecois leader Lucien Bouchard confirmed that the BQ would become a legal political party, with a founding conference to be held in June 1991. Mr. Bouchard said that official party status would help the BQ win seats in the next federal election, and it would coax more Quebec Progressive Conservatives to join the pro-Quebec independence party. The BQ said it intended to run candidates in each of Quebec’s 75 federal ridings and predicted it could win as many as 60 seats. The party had begun when eight PC members of the House of Commons had broken with the party after the collapse of the Meech Lake constitutional accord in 1990.

Toronto 3 @ Montreal 3
Chicago 3 @ Minnesota 3
Quebec 8 @ Calgary 10

Michel Goulet of the Blackhawks scored his 1,000th career point in the game against North Stars at Metropolitan Sports Center in Bloomington.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Spaceman--Babylon Zoo (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Don't Look Back in Anger--Oasis

Two days of talks concluded in Guatemala between the government and rebel leaders, raising hopes of an end to the country's 35-year civil war.

Politics and government
The Canadian Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples issued its first release of the preliminary report into Native Affairs, saying that First Nations people should be able to set up their own justice systems, appropriate to their own cultures.

Hartford 4 @ Pittsburgh 5

Pittsburgh centre Mario Lemieux scored his 50th goal of the season in the game against the Whalers at Civic Arena.

20 years ago

World events
The Cambodian-registered ship East Sea, with 1,500 people, mainly Kurds, aboard, ran aground--apparently deliberately--on Boulouris beach near Saint Raphael, off the coast of southern France. The ship had left Greece eight days earlier and had stopped in Turkey. Her human cargo included 300 children under age 10 and was assumed to be transporting potential illegal migrants.

A three-day international conference on doping in sport opened in Montreal.

10 years ago

The U.S. administration of President Barack Obama said that it would no longer defend the constitutionality of the Defense of Marriage Act, a federal law banning recognition of same-sex marriage.

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