Friday, 22 March 2019

March 23, 2019

650 years ago

Died on this date
Peter, 34
. King of Castile and León, 1350-1369. Peter, nicknamed both "The Cruel" and "The Just," succeeded his father Alfonso XI on the throne of the House of Ivrea. He was at war with Aragon from 1356-1366, and was murdered by his half-brother Henry, who took the throne as King Henry II.

460 years ago

Died on this date
Asnaf Sagad I, 36-38
. Emperor of Ethiopia, 1540-1559. Asnaf Sagad I, born Gelawdewos, succeeded his father Dawit II. His reign was characterized by various wars, and he was killed in battle against Somali ruler Nur ibn Mujahid. Asnaf Sagad I was succeeded on the throne by his brother Menas, who took the name Admas Sagad I.

420 years ago

Born on this date
Thomas Selle
. German composer. Mr. Selle was known for his choral works, and especially for his use of intermedia (polychoral motets that are interspersed within the Passion story to summarize and comment on the narrative). He died on July 2, 1663 at the age of 64.

150 years ago

Born on this date
Emilio Aguinaldo
. 1st President of the Philippines, 1899-1901. Mr. Aguinaldo served as President of the Philippines during the Philippine-American War before being captured and swearing an oath of allegiance to the United States. He collaborated with Japanese occupation forces during World War II, and served several months in prison before being freed by a presidential amnesty. Mr. Aguinaldo died on February 6, 1964 at the age of 94.

140 years ago

Died on this date
Eduardo Abaroa Hidalgo, 40
. Bolivian military officers. Colonel Abaroa was killed commanding civilian forces--after military forces had withdrawn--against invading Chilean troops in the Battle of Topáter. Col. Abaroa's refusal to surrender made him a Bolivian national hero.

Chilean forces commanded by Eleuterio Ramírez defeated Bolivian forces commanded by Ladislao Cabrera in the Battle of Topáter near Calama, Bolivia. It was the first battle in the War of the Pacific.

130 years ago

Edmonton's temperature reached 72 F (22.2 C), the warmest March day on record.

The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was established in Qadian, India by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.

110 years ago

Born on this date
Charles Werner
. U.S. cartoonist. Mr. Werner was an editorial cartoonist who worked at the Oklahoma City Daily Oklahoman (1935-1941); Chicago Sun (1941-1947); and Indianapolis Star (1947-1994). He won the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning in 1939. Mr. Werner died of cancer on July 1, 1997 at the age of 88.

100 years ago

Politics and government
Benito Mussolini founded his Italian Fascist political movement in Milan.

90 years ago

Stanley Cup
Boston 3 @ Montreal 2 (Boston won best-of-five series 3-0)

80 years ago

The Slovak-Hungarian War began when the Hungarian air force, without warning, attacked the headquarters of the Slovak air force in the city of Spišská Nová Ves, killing 13 people.

Lithuanian Minister of Foreign Affairs Juozas Urbšys and German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop signed the Treaty of the Cession of the Memel Territory to Germany in exchange for a Lithuanian Free Zone for 99 years in the port of Memel.

Stanley Cup
Toronto 2 @ New York Americans 0 (Toronto won best-of-three series 2-0)
Montreal 3 @ Detroit 7 (Best-of-three series tied 1-1)

New York Rangers 2 @ Boston 3 (OT) (Boston led best-of-seven series 2-0)

Mel Hill scored at 8:24 of the 1st overtime period gave the Bruins their win over the Rangers at Boston Garden. It was the second straight win for the Bruins over the Rangers in overtime, with Mr. Hill scoring the winning goal on both occasions.

75 years ago

Died on this date
Myron Selznick, 45
. U.S. talent agent. Mr. Selznick, the son of film executive Lewis J. Selznick and the brother of producer David O. Selznick, represented more than 300 actors and directors. He died of a portal vein thrombosis.

Betty June Binnicker, 11; Mary Emma Thames, 8. U.S. murder victims. Misses Binnicker and Ames, residents of Alcolu, South Carolina, disappeared while riding their bicycles and looking for flowers. The girls, both white, were found dead the following day in a ditch, having suffered severe head wounds. George Stinney, 14, a Negro, had briefly spoken to the girls before their disappearance, and was arrested, convicted--by an all-white jury--and executed in the electric chair 85 days after the murders.

After three days of fighting, Soviet troops in western Ukraine advanced 25-37 miles from Tarnopol to Proskurov. A second Japanese unit entered the Indian state of Manipur, advancing 25 miles south of Imphal. The U.S. War Production Board announced that the armed services had approved a plan to exempt men aged 22-26 from the draft in several vital war industries.

6 British constables were killed and 12 wounded in a series of gunfights and bombings by political terrorists in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and Haifa.

The U.S. House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee approved an amendment to the bill extending Lend-Lease for another year, prohibiting the President fro settling Lend-Lease obligations in the postwar period "except by constitutional procedure."

The Provisional Consultative Assembly of the French Committee of National Liberation approved an article in the provisional government code extending the franchise to women.

Politics and government
New Jersey Governor Walter Edge signed a bill authorizing the distribution of federal and state ballots to men and women in the U.S. armed services who would be absent from their home districts for the November 1944 election. South Carolina Governor Olin Johnston stated that the U.S. federal ballot was unacceptable in his state.

Economics and finance
U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau announced that the fifth war loan goal would be $16 billion.

Stanley Cup
Toronto 1 @ Montreal 5 (Best-of-seven series tied 1-1)
Chicago 1 @ Detroit 4 (Best-of-seven series tied 1-1)

Maurice "Rocket" Richard set a modern Stanley Cup record by scoring all of his team's goals as the Canadiens beat the Maple Leafs at the Montreal Forum. Toe Blake assisted on all five goals.

70 years ago

Lebanon and Israel signed an armistice agreement in Ras en Naqura.

Articles in the Leningrad Pravda and Moscow New Times warned Finland against aligning herself with the North Atlantic treaty powers in violation of the Soviet-Finnish non-aggression pact.

U.S. State Secretary Dean Acheson denied Soviet charges that the U.S.A. had established military bases in Iran, but reaffirmed America's "continuing interest" in Iranian security.

King George VI gave Royal Assent to the British North America Act, 1949, aka Newfoundland Act, passed by the British Parliament, clearing the way for the union of Canada and Newfoundland on March 31. After Newfoundlanders voted "Yes" in a close-and still disputed--referendum on April 1, 1948, Newfoundland Premier Joey Smallwood signed an agreement on December 11, 1948 to admit Newfoundland into Confederation.

Politics and government
The U.S. Senate confirmed President Harry Truman's nomination of Louis Johnson as Defense Secretary, to succeed James Forrestal.

The U.S. National Security Council established an Interdepartmental Committee on Internal Security to coordinate policy against subversive activity within the U.S.A.

Economics and finance
Argentine President Juan Peron signed a decree placing all raw materials under control of the commerce and industry ministry.

The Romanian government cancelled the ration cards of all non-workers, forcing them to buy food at high free-market prices.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Mariquilla--José Luís y su Guitarra (6th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Venus--Frankie Avalon (3rd week at #1)
2 Charlie Brown--The Coasters
3 Alvin's Harmonica--David Seville and the Chipmunks
4 It's Just a Matter of Time--Brook Benton
5 Tragedy--Thomas Wayne with the DeLons
6 Come Softly to Me--The Fleetwoods
7 I've Had It--The Bell Notes
8 Stagger Lee--Lloyd Price
9 Never Be Anyone Else But You--Ricky Nelson
10 Donna--Ritchie Valens

Singles entering the chart were (Now and Then There's) A Fool Such as I by Elvis Presley (#64); The Tijuana Jail by the Kingston Trio (#72); Fried Eggs by the Intruders (#73); Wishful Thinking by Little Anthony and the Imperials (#79); Come Softly to Me by Ronnie Height (#80); The Beat by the Rockin' R's (#81); Record Hop Blues by the Quarter Notes (#82); Tell Him No by Travis and Bob (#85); For a Penny by Pat Boone (#91); Enchanted by the Platters (#93); Jimmy Kiss and Run by Diane Maxwell (#95); Six Nights a Week by the Crests (#96); That's Why (I Love You So) by Jackie Wilson (#97); Someone by Johnny Mathis (#98); Tell Him No by Dean and Marc (#99); and Sweet Annie Laurie by Sammy Turner and the Twisters (#100).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKWX)
1 Charlie Brown--The Coasters
2 Venus--Frankie Avalon
3 The All American Boy--Bill Parsons
4 I've Had It--The Bell Notes
5 It's Late/Never Be Anyone Else But You--Ricky Nelson
6 Peter Gunn--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
7 Stagger Lee--Lloyd Price
8 Come Softly to Me--The Fleetwoods
9 Alvin's Harmonica--David Seville and the Chipmunks
10 Tall Paul--Annette

Singles entering the chart were I Need Your Love Tonight/(Now and Then There's) A Fool Such as I by Elvis Presley (#20); Turn Me Loose by Fabian (#48); That's Why (I Love You So) by Jackie Wilson (#55); Tell Him No by Travis and Bob (#56); The Wang Dang Taffy-Apple Tango (Mambo Cha Cha Cha)/For a Penny by Pat Boone (#57); The Bunny Hop by the Applejacks (#58); Fried Eggs by the Intruders (#59); and Ballad of a Girl and Boy by the Graduates (#60).

World events
The two-week Tibetan Uprising ended with a bloody, three-hour battle in Lhasa at the Jokhang, the most sacred Buddhist temple in Tibet. Chinese People's Liberation Army troops finally prevailed, and the Chinese flag was raised at the Jokhang.

The U.S.A., in a note to the U.S.S.R., charged that there was "a strong presumption" that five trans-Atlantic cables severed off Newfoundland in February had been cut by a Soviet fishing trawler.

U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a bill extending the peacetime draft through mid-1963.

Southern Rhodesian Prime Minister Sir Edgar Whitehead bowed to public protests and withdrew a preventive detention bill permitting detention of accused subversives for up to five years without trial.

U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation Director J. Edgar Hoover announced that the agency had broken up a 14-member American-Canadian ring that had allegedly won $45,000 by getting advance answers to word puzzle contests in eight American newspapers.

50 years ago

The United States revealed that American and South Vietnamese forces had launched a counteroffensive against Communist forces on March 1 in the Ashau Valley.

Popular Culture
30,000 people attended a rally at the Orange Bowl in Miami to support a teenage crusade for decency in entertainment. The rally was organized following the arrest of Jim Morrison, lead singer of the Doors, for indecent exposure at a concert in Miami.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Y.M.C.A.--Village People (7th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Heart of Glass--Blondie (4th week at #1)

#1 single in France (IFOP): Born to Be Alive--Patrick Hernandez (4th week at #1)

Guatemala was shaken by a terrorist campaign against the moderate opposition; the military government denied involvement, but moderate leaders said that rightists were tied to elements within the police and armed forces.

U.S. Attorney General Griffin Bell conferred full powers of a special prosecutor upon special counsel Paul Curran , amid Republican criticism that Mr. Curran had not been given sufficient authority to conduct a thorough investigation into loans to President Jimmy Carter's family business by Bert Lance's National Bank of Georgia.

Over 60,000 steelworkers marched in Paris in protest against unemployment, layoffs, and the possible shutdown of France's steel industry.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Finnish Singles Chart): Something’s Gotten Hold of My Heart--Marc Almond featuring Gene Pitney (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Like a Prayer--Madonna (2nd week at #1)

Physicists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announced their discovery of cold fusion at the University of Utah.

Canadian troops arrived in Pakistan as part of the United Nations' Operation Salam, to assist Afghan refugees and create land mine education programs.

Politics and government
The legislature of Kosovo, an autonomous region of the republic of Serbia in Yugoslavia, voted to give Serbia direct control over the province's courts and police. Demonstrations began immediately and quickly spread to several cities.

Stuart Berlin, a U.S. Navy contract specialist, pled guilty to wire fraud and receiving bribes as part of a plan to help Teledyne Electronics win a U.S. Air Force electronics contract. Teledyne pled guilty to conspiracy.

Fawn Hall, former secretary to former U.S. National Security Council member Oliver North, concluded two days of testimony at the trial of Mr. North, who was facing 12 charges in connection with the mid-1980s Iran-Contra arms-for-hostages scandal. She testified about her role in helping Mr. North alter or destroy relevant documents.

25 years ago

Died on this date
Giulietta Masina, 73
. Italian actress. Miss Masina was the wife of director Federico Fellini, and starred in films of his such as The White Sheik (1952); La Strada (1954); Il Bidone (The Swindle) (1955); and Nights of Cabiria (1957).

Luis Donaldo Colosio Murrieta, 44. Mexican politician. Mr. Colosio, who had been Secretary of Social Development in the administration of President Carlos Salinas de Gortari and was the current presidential candidate of the governing Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), was shot in the head at close range by Mario Aburto Martínez just after delivering a campaign speech in Tijuana.

Aeroflot Flight 593 crashed in Siberia when the pilot's 15-year old son accidentally disengaged the autopilot, killing all 75 people on board.

A United States Air Force F-16 aircraft collided with a USAF C-130 at Pope Air Force Base and then crashes, killing 24 United States Army soldiers on the ground in what became known as the Green Ramp disaster.

Wayne Gretzky of the Los Angeles Kings tipped a pass from Marty McSorley into an open net against the Vancouver Canucks for his 802nd career regular season goal, breaking the record set by Gordie Howe.

20 years ago

Died on this date
Luis Maria Argaña, 66. Vice President of Paraguay, 1998-1999. Mr. Argaña, a member of the Colorado Party, held various political offices, including Foriegn Minister (1989-1990), and was President of the Supreme Court of Paraguay (1983-1988). He was assassinated in Asuncion by four men in a gun and grenade assault on the jeep of Mr. Argaña and his driver. Mr. Argaña's faction of the ruling party had called for the impeachment of President Raúl Cubas Grau for his defiance of a Supreme Court order to return to prison General Lino Cesar Oviedo, who had defeated Mr. Argaña for the 1998 Colorado Party presidential nomination, but had then been sentenced to prison for planning a coup against then-President Juan Carlos Wasmosy in 1996. Mr. Argaña was succeeded as Vice President by Julio César Franco.

Two days of talks between United States envoy Richard Holbrooke and Yugoslavian President Slobodan Milosevic regarding the future of the rebellious Yugoslavian province of Kosovo concluded with no agreement.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Lloyd Ruby, 81
. U.S. auto racing driver. Mr. Ruby participated in 177 races in the United States Automobile Club Champ Car series (1958-1977), winning 7 races and finishing in the top three 29 times. He was best known for his bad luck at the Indianapolis 500; in 18 years from 1960-1977, he recorded seven top-10 finishes, with his best result being third in 1964. Mr. Ruby achieved success in endurance sports car racing, partnering with Ken Miles to win the 24 Hours of Daytona in 1965 and 1966, the 12 Hours of Sebring in 1966, and the World Sportscar Championship in 1966. He was inducted into the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 2015.

Raúl Macías, 74. Mexican boxer. Mr. Macías won a bronze medal in the flyweight division at the 1951 Pan American Games in Buenos Aires and turned professional in 1953. He compiled a record of 41-2 from 1953-1962, and was National Boxing Association world bantamweight champion from 1955-1957. Mr. Macías acted in numerous television programs and movies, and trained boxers in Mexico City.

FedEx Express Flight 80, a McDonnell Douglas MD-11 flying from Guangzhou, China, crashed at Tokyo's Narita International Airport, killing both the captain and the co-pilot.

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