Saturday, 30 March 2019

March 31, 2019

520 years ago

Born on this date
Pius IV
. Roman Catholic Pope, 1560-1565. Pius IV, born Giovanni Angelo Medici, was distantly related to the Medicis of Florence. He became a cardinal in 1549, and succeeded Paul IV as Pope. He convened the final session of the Council of Trent in January 1562, and achieved a successful conclusion of the Council two years later. A plot against Pope Pius IV was discovered and crushed in 1565, but he died on December 9 of that year at the age of 66, and was succeeded as Pope by Pius V.

500 years ago

Born on this date
Henri II
. King of France, 1547-1559. Henry II, the second son of King François I, spent four years in captivity in Spain as a hostage in exchange for his father, and became the heir upon the death of his older brother François in 1536. Henri II acceded to the throne upon the death of his father, on Henri's 28th birthday. King Henri's reign was characterized by war against Italy and persecution of Protestants. On June 30, 1559, Henri II was participating in a jousting tournament, and suffered a freak injury when fragments from his opponent's splintered lance penetrated his eye; an infection set in that proved untreatable, and King Henri II died on July 10, 1559 at the age of 40.

210 years ago

Born on this date
Nikolai Gogol
. Ukrainian-born Russian author and playwright. Mr. Gogol was regarded as a satirist of political corruption in the Russian Empire. His works included the novel Taras Bulba (1835); the play Marriage (1842); and the short stories Diary of a Madman (1835) and The Overcoat (1842). Mr. Gogol suffered from depression in later years, and after a period of refusing all food, died on March 4, 1852, 27 days before his 43rd birthday.

Otto Lindblad. Swedish composer. Mr. Lindblad was best known for writing Kungssången, the Swedish royal anthem. He died after a long illness on January 26, 1864 at the age of 55.

200 years ago

Born on this date
Chlodwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst
. Chancellor of Germany, 1894-1900. Prince Chlodwig was one of the most prominent liberal politicians of his time. He was Minister President of Bavaria from 1866-1870, influencing the union of Bavaria with the North German Confederation. Prince Chlodwig was Governor of Alsace-Lorraine from 1885-1894, and then succeeded Leo von Caprivi as Chancellor. As Chancellor, Prince Chlodwig seldom appeared in Parliament, granting great independence to his secretaries of state. He resigned on October 17, 1900, and died on July 6, 1901 at the age of 82.

130 years ago

The Eiffel Tower was officially opened in Paris, as French engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel unfurled the French flag from atop the tower to mark its completion.

125 years ago

English FA Cup
Final @ Goodison Park, Liverpool
Notts County 4 Bolton Wanderers 1

120 years ago

Malolos, capital of the First Philippine Republic, was captured by American forces.

110 years ago

Serbia accepted Austrian control over Bosnia and Herzegovina.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Frank Akins
. U.S. football player. Mr. Akins was a running back at Washington State University. He was drafted by the Washington Redskins in 1943, and played with them from 1943-1946, rushing for a total of 1,142 yards and 7 touchdowns, and catching 15 passes for 99 yards. Mr. Akins was a high school teacher in Anderson, California after his playing days, and died on July 6, 1992 at the age of 73.

80 years ago

At the movies
The Hound of the Baskervilles, directed by Sidney Lanfield, and starring Basil Rathbone as Sherlock Holmes and Nigel Bruce as Doctor Watson, opened in theatres. It was the first of 14 movies featuring the two actors in their respective roles.

75 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): You'll Never Know--Vera Lynn and the Joe Loss Orchestra (2nd month at #1)

Died on this date
Maurice Blackburn, 63
. Australian politician. Mr. Blackburn was a member of the Labour Party for most of his career, sitting in the Victorian Legislative Assembly (1914-1917, 1925-1934) before entering federal politics, representing Bourke in the Australian House of Representatives (1934-1943). His anti-war and pro-Soviet views led to his expulsion from the Labour Party in 1935; he returned in 1937, but was expelled again in 1941, continuing to sit in Parliament as an independent. Mr. Blackburn was defeated in the 1943 federal election, and died of a brain tumour; his wife Doris won his seat as an Independent Labour candidate in 1946, representing Bourke until 1949.

Mineichi Koga, 58. Japanese military officer. Admiral Koga, commander-in-chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy's Combined Fleet, was killed in a plane crash between Palau and Davao during a typhoon while overseeing the withdrawal of the Combined Fleet from its Palau headquarters.

The Royal Air Force's bomber command suffered its heaviest loss when 94 bombers of about 1,000 failed to return from a raid on Nuremberg. Nazi raids on the Anzio beachhead in Italy forced U.S. troops to retreat 1 1/2 miles southwest of Aprilia. Allied troops advanced about one mile and seized Mount Marrone, 13 miles northeast of Cassino. Soviet forces captured the Black Sea port of Ochakov, 38 miles east of Odessa. British forces abandoned their forward Burmese base of Tiddim, 100 miles south of Imphal in the Indian state of Manipur, in the face of Japanese assaults.

World events
The government of Colombia announced that "concerted revolutionary activity" had been suppressed in the town of Purification with the arrest of 75 people.

Politics and government
The U.S. congressional bill to allow absentee votes from members of the armed services became law without the signature of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who called the "states' rights" measure "inadequate," and asked its amendment to provide wider and freer use of the short federal ballot.

New York Governor Thomas Dewey telephoned his supporters in Oregon to withdraw his name from the May 19 Republican Party primary for the nomination for President of the United States in the November 1944 election.

Representative John Coffee (Democrat--Washington) accused Connecticut industrialist Vivien Kellems of treason and seditious conduct for urging businessmen not to pay income taxes.

The U.S.S.R. announced the cancellation of Japanese oil concessions in northern Sakhalin, 26 years in advance of treaty expiration, in view of "operations of our Allies in the Pacific."

70 years ago

The Traitor by Herman Wouk, a dramatic treatment of a college professor's decision to give atomic secrets to Soviet spies, opened at the 48th Street Theatre on Broadway in New York to favourable reviews. It was directed by Jed Harris, and starred Wesley Addy, Jean Hagen, Lee Tracy, and Richard Derr.

Died on this date
Willard Dow
. U.S. chemical executive. Mr. Dow was president of the Dow Chemical Company.

Newfoundland and its dependency of Labrador joined Confederation as Canada's 10th province, called Newfoundland, as the British North America Act 1949 was proclaimed.

Speaking in Boston at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mid-Century Convocation, former U.K. Prime Minister Winston Churchill praised the United States for preventing Soviet conquest of Western Europe, and called for expansion of the North Atlantic security pact into a "world instrument capable security against aggression." In identical notes to the seven sponsoring nations of the North Atlantic pact, the U.S.S.R.charged them with forming an "openly aggressive" alliance in violation of the United Nations Charter.

Politics and government
The U.S.S.R. government announced the appointment of Pravda editor D.T. Shepilov to replace Mikhail Suslov as head of the Communist Party Central Committee's Propaganda and Agitation Section.

An agreement to merge the 110,000 members of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen with the 80,000-member Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers was signed in Cleveland by representatives of both unions.

The Canadian Seamen's Union struck against East Coast seagoing shippers after the latter signed contracts with the rival American Federation of Labor Seafarers' International Union.

Stanley Cup
Montreal 1 @ Detroit 3 (Detroit led best-of-seven series 3-2)

60 years ago

On television tonight
Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond, on ABC
Tonight's episode: The Devil's Laughter, starring Alfred Ryder, Patrick Westwood, and Ben Wright

French Army headquarters in Algiers reported that 1,172 rebels had been killed, wounded, or captured in sharply increased fighting in Algeria during the past week.

World events
The Dalai Lama, evading pursuing Communist Chinese troops, reached sanctuary in India after a 300-mile trek through mountainous country south of Lhasa.

The British, French, and West German foreign ministers met in Washington with acting U.S. Secretary of State Christian Herter to discuss the report of a Western working group on German reunification.

The Mexican government ordered two U.S.S.R. embassy officials to leave Mexico for alleged involvement in the nationwide railroad strike.

U.S. military authorities in Germany charged that agreements establishing air access routes to Berlin contained no reference to a ceiling for flights on those routes.

Stanley Cup
Boston 2 @Toronto 3 (OT) (Best-of-seven series tied 2-2)
Montreal 1 @ Chicago 3 (Best-of-seven series tied 2-2)

Frank Mahovlich scored on a powerplay at 11:21 of the 1st overtime period to give the Maple Leafs their win over the Bruins at Maple Leaf Gardens.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Blue Light Yokohama--Ayumi Ishida (8th week at #1)

#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Las Flechas Del Amor (Little Arrows)--Karina (3rd week at #1)

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 Time of the Season--The Zombies
2 Traces--Classics IV
3 Dizzy--Tommy Roe
4 Galveston--Glen Campbell
5 Indian Giver--1910 Fruitgum Co.
6 Things I'd Like to Say--The New Colony Six
7 Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In (The Flesh Failures)--The 5th Dimension
8 My Whole World Ended (The Moment You Left Me)--David Ruffin
9 Mr. Sun, Mr. Moon--Paul Revere and the Raiders
10 You've Made Me So Very Happy--Blood, Sweat & Tears

Singles entering the chart were Wishful Sinful by the Doors (#81); In the Bad, Bad Old Days (Before You Loved Me) by the Foundations (#92); My Way by Frank Sinatra (#93); To Know You is to Love You by Bobby Vinton (#94); Tricia Tell Your Daddy by Andy Kim (#95); When You Dance by Jay and the Americans (#96); I Love My Baby by Archie Bell & the Drells (#97); With Pen in Hand by Vikki Carr (#98); You Came, You Saw, You Conquered! by the Ronettes (#99); and Rhythm of the Rain by Gary Lewis and the Playboys (#100).

The United States observed a national day of mourning for Dwight D. Eisenhower, the nation's 34th President, who had died three days earlier. A funeral service was held in Washington National Cathedral, where Rev. Edward Elson, Gen. Eisenhower's pastor and minister of National Presbyterian Church, offered a pastoral prayer. Episcopal Dean Francis Sayre, a close friend, opened the services, and Rt. Rev. William Creighton, Episcopal Bishop of Washington, closed them. President Richard Nixon, who had served as General Eisenhower's Vice President, commented, "It was the character of the man; not what he did, but what he was, that so captured the trust and faith and affection of his own people and of the people of the world."

British Prime Minister Harold Wilson concluded his five-day visit to Nigeria. He had met with Nigeria's military leader, Major General Yakubu Gowon, but their talks resulted in no change in the strategy of Nigeria's war against its rebellious province of Biafra, or the United Kingdom's support for the Nigerian regime.

Britain and the Caribbean island of Anguilla signed a truce ending two weeks of turmoil, invasion, and protest.

The U.S.S.R. sharply criticized the leaders of Czechoslovakia for allowing liberal forces to spread "nationalist and anti-Soviet slander" in demonstrations that followed a Czechoslovak hockey victory three days earlier.

34 bodies were recovered in the explosion of a coal mine near Musquiz, Mexico. 134 were still missing and presumed dead.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Rhodesia (Lyons Maid): Le Freak--Chic

#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Tragedy--Bee Gees (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland: I Will Survive--Gloria Gaynor (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): I Will Survive--Gloria Gaynor (3rd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 Fire!--Pointer Sisters (4th week at #1)
2 Lay Your Love on Me--Racey
3 Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground)--The Jacksons
4 Tragedy--Bee Gees
5 The Runner--The Three Degrees
6 Ruthless Queen--Kayak
7 The Wild Places--Duncan Browne
8 Chiquitita--ABBA
9 Mama Leone--Bino
10 In the Navy--Village People

Singles entering the chart were The Logical Song by Supertramp (#26); Opzij by De Wonderlijke Avonturen Van Herman Van Veen (#28); Equinoxe by Jean Michel Jarre (#29); The Story of Buddy Holly by Familee (#32); Sarah Smiles by Bram Tchaikovsky (#33); and Switch by Benelux & Nancy Dee (#38).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Tragedy--Bee Gees (2nd week at #1)
2 I Will Survive--Gloria Gaynor
3 What a Fool Believes--The Doobie Brothers
4 Heaven Knows--Donna Summer with Brooklyn Dreams
5 Shake Your Groove Thing--Peaches & Herb
6 Sultans of Swing--Dire Straits
7 Do Ya Think I'm Sexy?--Rod Stewart
8 Knock on Wood--Amii Stewart
9 What You Won't Do for Love--Bobby Caldwell
10 Don't Cry Out Loud--Melissa Manchester

Singles entering the chart were Goodnight Tonight by Wings (#38); Rhumba Girl by Nicolette Larson (#84); Heart to Heart by Errol Sober (#85); I Don't Want Nobody Else (To Dance with You) by Narada Michael Walden (#86); I'll Come Running by Livingston Taylor (#87); You Says it All by Randy Brown (#88); Makin' It by David Naughton (#89); I Need You by the Euclid Beach Band (#90); I Never Said I Love You by Orsa Lia (#92); and Hot Number by Foxy (#93).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Tragedy--Bee Gees (3rd week at #1)
2 What a Fool Believes--The Doobie Brothers
3 Do Ya Think I'm Sexy?--Rod Stewart
4 I Will Survive--Gloria Gaynor
5 Shake Your Groove Thing--Peaches & Herb
6 Sultans of Swing--Dire Straits
7 Knock on Wood--Amii Stewart
8 Every Time I Think of You--The Babys
9 Music Box Dancer--Frank Mills
10 Lady--Little River Band

Singles entering the chart were Goodnight Tonight by Wings (#41); Rhumba Girl by Nicolette Larson (#84); Give Me an Inch by Ian Matthews (#85); Who Do You Love? by George Thorogood and the Destroyers (#86); Diamonds by Chris Rea (#87); I'll Come Running by Livingston Taylor (#89); and I Need You by the Euclid Beach Band (#99).

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Tragedy--Bee Gees (2nd week at #1)
2 Do Ya Think I'm Sexy?--Rod Stewart
3 I Will Survive--Gloria Gaynor
4 Heaven Knows--Donna Summer with Brooklyn Dreams
5 I Just Fall in Love Again--Anne Murray
6 A Little More Love--Olivia Newton-John
7 Rasputin--Boney M.
8 (Boogie Woogie) Dancin' Shoes--Claudja Barry
9 Don't Cry Out Loud--Melissa Manchester
10 Shake Your Groove Thing--Peaches & Herb

Singles entering the chart were Here Comes the Night by Streetheart (#84); In the Navy by Village People (#90); Goodnight Tonight by Wings (#95); Renegade by Styx (#96); Stay the Night by the Faragher Brothers (#97); Here Comes the Night by the Beach Boys (#98); Dancer by Gino Soccio (#99); and Our Love is Insane by Desmond Child and Rouge (#100).

Foreign ministers of 18 Arab nations plus the Palestine Liberation Organization announced the severing of relations with Egypt and the imposition of a total economic boycott against Egypt as a result of Egypt's peace treaty with Israel.

Politics and government
Initial returns of a nationwide referendum showed overwhelming support by Iranian voters for the Islamic republic favoured by Ayatollah Khomeini.

Federal inspectors at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania said that the damaged reactor was cooling down, but that a "crisis" and the possibility of a non-nuclear pressure explosion still existed. Leading Congressional figures demanded tighter federal controls over the nuclear industry.

Air Canada Silver Broom
Final @ Berne, Switzerland
Norway (Kristian Sørum) 5 Switzerland (Peter Attinger, Jr.) 4

Pittsburgh 3 @ Montreal 5
Minnesota 2 @ Toronto 6

Guy Lafleur scored his 50th goal of the season to help the Canadiens defeat the Penguins at the Montreal Forum.

The Maple Leafs clinched a berth in the Stanley Cup playoffs with their win over the North Stars at Maple Leaf Gardens.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Looking for Freedom--David Hasselhoff

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Jos sulla on toinen--Taikapeili

World events
South African President F.W. de Klerk declared a state of emergency in the "homeland" of KwaZulu after almost two weeks of rioting had left 150 people dead.

The Palestine Liberation Organization resumed talks with Israel after the latter agreed to permit the deployment of lightly-armed foreign observers in Hebron. The observers would have no power to settle disputes.

The journal Nature reported the discovery in Ethiopia of the first complete Australopithecus afarensis skull.

Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported, in its final revision of gross domestic product for 1993, that the economy had grown at an annual rate of 7.0% during the last quarter of the year.

20 years ago


Three American soldiers, members of a peacekeeping force in Macedonia that was in the process of withdrawing, were captured by Serb forces near the Yugoslav-Macedonian border.

Four New York City police officers were charged with murder for killing Amadou Diallo, an unarmed African immigrant, in a hail of bullets. They were acquitted in 2000.

The Ford Motor Company completed the purchase of Volvo Cars, a unit of Sweden's Volvo A.B., for $6.45 billion. The Volvo Cars division specialized in medium-priced luxury cars and station wagons.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Raúl Alfonsín, 82
. 46th President of Argentina, 1983-1989. Mr. Alfonsín was regarded as the "father of modern democracy in Argentina," serving as the first democratically-elected President after seven years of military dictatorship. A member of the Radical Civic Union, he served in state and national politics beginning in 1958, opposing the military dictatorship that seized power in 1966, and the later military dictatorship that took power in 1976. When Mr. Alfonsín took office as President, he prosecuted crimes that been committed by the military during the "Dirty War." His economic policies produced hyperinflation, leading to riots and Mr. Alfonsín's defeat by Judicialist Party candidate Carlos Menem in the 1989 presidential election. Mr. Alfonsín served three terms as President of the Radical Civic Union (1983-1991, 1993-1995, 1999-2001), and was a member of the constituent assembly that worked on amending the Argentine constitution in 1994. His last office was as a Senator from 2001-2002. Mr. Alfonsín died of lung cancer.

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