Tuesday, 17 November 2020

November 18, 2020

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Warren Moon, Darren Flutie, Veronica Vamosi, and Patty Werbicki!

925 years ago

The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II, began; it led to the First Crusade to the Holy Land.

810 years ago

Pope Innocent III excommunicated Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, who had reclaimed Acona and Spoleto as imperial fiefs, while commanding Pope Innocent to annul the Concordat of Worms and recognize the imperial crown's right to nominate bishops.

210 years ago

Born on this date
Asa Gray
. U.S. botanist. Dr. Gray had a medical degree, but was more interested in botany, which he taught at Harvard University from 1842-1873. He was instrumental in unifying the taxonomic knowledge of the plants of North America, with his most notable work being his Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States, from New England to Wisconsin and South to Ohio and Pennsylvania Inclusive. Dr. Gray was a friend of Charles Darwin and a promoter of theistic evolution. He died on January 30, 1888 at the age of 77, two months after suffering a stroke.

190 years ago

Died on this date
Adam Weishaupt, 82
. German philosopher. Dr. Weishaupt was a Jesuit-educated law professor and rationalist philosopher who founded the secret society known as the Illuminati in 1776 and joined the Masonic lodge in 1777. The Jesuit order was suppressed by Pope Clement IV in 1773, and the Illuminati, along with Freemasonry and other secret societies, were outlawed by Elector of Bavaria Charles Theodore from 1784-1790. The Illuminati's alleged continuing existence and influence remain the subject of debate.

160 years ago

Born on this date
Ignace Jan Paderewski
. Prime Minister of Poland, January-November 1919; Chief of the National Council of Poland, 1939-1941. Mr. Paderewski was one of the world's most famous concert pianists, and was also a noted composer in the late 19th-early 20th century. He was a leading Polish nationalist, and served as the country's Prime Minister and Foreign Minister for most of 1919, but resigned and left Poland after losing political support. He moved to Switzerland, and eventually became leader of the Polish government-in-exile in London during the first two years of World War II. Mr. Paderewski died on June 29, 1941 at the age of 80.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Mustafa Khalil
. Prime Minister of Egypt, 1978-1980. Dr. Khalil, a member of the National Democratic Party, was Prime Minister under President Anwar Sadat, and was instrumental in peace negotiations with Israel that led to the Camp David Accord in 1979. He served as Foreign Minister (1979-1980), and was deputy chairman of the National Democratic Party in his later years. Dr. Khalil died on June 7, 2008 at the age of 87.

80 years ago

On the radio

At the movies
Phantom of Chinatown, starring Keye Luke as Mr. Wong in the last movie of the Mr. Wong series, opened in theatres.

German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler and Italian Foreign Minister Count Galeazzo Ciano met to discuss Italian Duce Benito Mussolini's disastrous Italian invasion of Greece. Mr. Mussolini stated that "Greeks hate Italy as no other people," and that Italy "will break Greece's back." Italy admitted bombing Bitolj (Monastir), Yugoslavia by mistake on November 5, and agreed to pay indemnity for the 19 people killed and 33 wounded.

Authorities in London and Washington denied an announcement by Japan that the U.K. and U.S.A. had reached a secret pact with Thailand.

The U.S. Navy announced that the U.K. and U.S.A. had agreed upon the exact sites for American air and naval bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua, St. Lucia, and British Guiana, traded to the U.S. in September in exchange for destroyers.

Politics and government
Rep. Martin Dies (Democrat--Texas), Chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Un-American Activities, announced in Chicago that his agents had raided the offices of "Italian and German organizations" in Chicago, New York, and other cities, seizing their files.

Economics and finance
The U.K. government of Prime Minister Winston Churchill orderd British holders of 140 major U.S. stocks and bonds issues to sell them to the Treasury at once in order to help pay for war orders in the United States.

John L. Lewis told the Congress of Industrial Organizations convention in Atlantic City that he would resign as president.

The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that federal courts had no power to grant injuctions against picketingin labour disputes.

Cornell University, whose football team had defeated Dartmouth 7-3 two days earlier on a touchdown in the final seconds, refused to accept the victory after it was learned that the referee had erred in giving the Big Red an extra down on the drive that produced the winning touchdown. Cornell believed that it would be dishonourable to accept such a victory, and the record ever since has shown the Indians as winners by a 3-0 score.

75 years ago

British troops occupied Semarang in central Java.

Politics and government
In an election that was boycotted by the opposition, National Union Party, led by Prime Minister Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, won the national elections in Portugal.

Argentina's Roman Catholic bishops issued a pastoral letter urging all Catholics to vote, but not to support parties advocating religious discrimination.

Allied headquarters in Tokyo ordered Japan to abolish all aviation personnel training; dissolve all civil airlines; and dismantle airports throughout the nation.

Upon his arrival in Washington, poet Ezra Pound denied that he had "betrayed his country," and was turned over to the Justice Department. Mr. Pound, an expatriate American, ahd made radio broadcasts in Italy during World War II in support of the Italian Fascist regime of Duce Benito Mussolini and against the United States. He was arrested by American authorities, and spent six months in a detention camp in Pisa before being returned to the United States, where he was charged with treason a week after his arrival.

Economics and finance
The British House of Lords approved the Bretton Woods monetary stabilization agreement.

Swiss major banks and the Swiss Foreign Office denied charges of collaboration with the Nazis and defended the Bundesrat's refusal to recognize the rights of Allied control over German property in Switzerland.

U.S. Office of Price Administration Administrator Chester Bowles announced price ceilings for 1946 model passenger cars which, on average, were higher than January 1942 levels. A Ford model which sold at $850 in 1942 now had a ceiling of $882.

Green Bay (5-3) 28 @ Boston (3-4-1) 0
Chicago Bears (1-7) 21 @ Washington (6-1) 28
Detroit (6-2) 14 @ New York (2-5-1) 35
Pittsburgh (2-6) 6 @ Philadelphia (5-2) 30
Cleveland (7-1) 35 @ Chicago Cardinals (1-8) 21

70 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Mona Lisa--Dennis Day; Nat "King" Cole (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Harbor Lights--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra with Tony Alamo and the Kaydets (Best Seller--1st week at #1; Jukebox--1st week at #1); All My Love (Bolero)--Patti Page (Disc Jockey--4th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Harbor Lights--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra with Tony Alamo and the Kaydets (2nd week at #1)
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Ray Anthony and his Orchestra
--Bing Crosby
2 All My Love (Bolero)--Patti Page
--Percy Faith and his Orchestra
--Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians
--Bing Crosby
3 Goodnight Irene--Gordon Jenkins and his Orchestra and the Weavers
--Frank Sinatra
4 Mona Lisa--Nat "King" Cole
--Victor Young and his Orchestra (Don Cherry, vocal)
--Art Lund
5 La Vie en Rose--Tony Martin
--Bing Crosby
--Edith Piaf
6 Can Anyone Explain? (No, No, No!)--The Ames Brothers
7 Our Lady of Fatima--Richard Hayes and Kitty Kallen
--Red Foley
8 Thinking of You--Don Cherry
--Eddie Fisher
9 A Bushel and a Peck--Perry Como and Betty Hutton
--Margaret Whiting and Jimmy Wakely
10 Sam’s Song--Gary Crosby and Friend
--Joe "Fingers" Carr and the Carr-Hops

Singles entering the chart were A Marshmallow World, with versions by Bing Crosby; Johnny Desmond; Vic Damone; and Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra (#27); Thirsty for Your Kisses by the Ames Brothers (#30); Be My Love by Mario Lanza (#31); She's a Lady by Perry Como and Betty Hutton (#33); and I'm in the Middle of a Riddle, with versions by Percy Faith and his Orchestra; and Kay Armen and Anton Karas (#38). Be My Love was from the movie The Toast of New Orleans (1950). She's a Lady was the other side of A Bushel and a Peck.

Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller closed at the Morosco Theatre on Broadway in New York after 742 performances since February 10, 1949.

The French government decided to add 25,000 troops to its 150,000-man garrison in Indochina. The government also announced a U.S.-French agreement which would supply two B-26 bomber squadrons for use in Indochina.

Pope Pius XII named St. Francis Cabrini the patron saint of emigrants.

U.S. Roman Catholic bishops protested the introduction of sex education into schools, claiming that parents should teach children the facts of sex.

Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation announced the development of a fluoro-record reflector camera which made X-ray pictures in one-sixth the time previously required.

Economics and finance
The U.S.S.R. announced plans for mass production of the new Zim automobile, equivalent to General Motors' Pontiac.

Eastern Final
Toronto Balmy Beach 13 @ Toronto Argonauts 43

13,740 fans were at Varsity Stadium to see the last all-Toronto Eastern final.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): It's Now or Never--Elvis Presley (3rd week at #1)

On television tonight
The Twilight Zone, on CBS
Tonight’s episode: Nick of Time , starring William Shatner and Patricia Breslin

Dallas (5-5) 14 @ Boston (5-5) 42

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Woodstock--Matthews Southern Comfort (3rd week at #1)

The United Nations Political Committee approved an international treaty prohibiting nuclear weapons from the ocean floor outside the 12-mile limit.

Economics and finance
U.S. President Richard Nixon asked Congress for $155 million in supplemental aid for the Cambodian government.

Before only 3,500 fans at Cobo Arena in Detroit, Joe Frazier (26-0) made the first defense of his world heavyweight title a successful one, knocking out world light heavyweight champion Bob Foster (41-5) 49 seconds into the 2nd round.

At Madison Square Garden in New York, George Foreman (24-0) scored a technical knockout of Boone Kirkman (22-2) 41 seconds into the 2nd round of a heavyweight bout, finishing Mr. Kirkman as a contender for the title. Mr. Kirkman didn’t fight again until January 1973.

Western Finals
Saskatchewan 11 @ Calgary 3 (Best-of-three series tied 1-1)

Defensive tackle Ed McQuarters returned a fumble 80 yards for a touchdown with 36 seconds remaining to put the game away and enable the Roughriders to avert a sweep in the series. Saskatchewan led 4-3 late in the 4th quarter, but Calgary moved the ball to the Roughriders’ 23-yard line, in position for a possible game-winning field goal by Larry Robinson, if they failed to score a touchdown. A rushing play on first down was stopped for no gain, and then quarterback Jerry Keeling dropped back to pass. He was hit and fumbled, and Mr. McQuarters picked it up and ran for a touchdown. Jack Abenschan converted to put the game out of reach. Mr. Abendschan scored a single on a missed field goal attempt for the only scoring of the 1st quarter. Mr. Robinson kicked a 23-yard field goal early in the 2nd quarter, which held up for a 3-1 Calgary lead at halftime. Mr. Abenschan kicked a 22-yard field goal late in the 3rd quarter to put the Roughriders ahead 4-3. It was a hard hitting game, with several players leaving because of injuries. Saskatchewan quarterback Ron Lancaster left in the 3rd quarter with injured ribs after a hard tackle. Gary Lane relieved him and directed the drive that led to Mr. Abendschan’s field goal. Saskatchewan tight end Nolan Bailey missed the 2nd half with a knee injury, and linebacker Chuck Kyle also left early. Calgary defensive backs Gig Perez and Frank Andruski were both helped off the field. George Reed of the Roughriders led all rushers with 109 yards on 17 carries, while Hugh McKinnis led the Stampeders with 64 on 15 carries. Dave Cranmer of the Stampeders led all receivers with 59 yards on 5 receptions; Bob Pearce led the Roughriders with 49 yards on 4 receptions, and teammate Gord Barwell caught 4 for 46. Mr. Lancaster completed 9 of 21 passes for 106 yards, while Mr. Lane was 3 for 3 for 32 yards. Saskatchewan punter Al Ford completed a pass to Al Rankin for 18 yards on a broken play. Mr. Keeling completed 13 of 28 for 145 yards. The usual capacity crowd of 23,616 was in attendance at McMahon Stadium.

40 years ago

Died on this date
Conn Smythe, 85
. Canadian hockey executive and military officer. Mr. Smythe served with the Canadian Army in both word wars, winning the Military Cross in World War I and rising to the rank of acting major in World War II. He bought the Toronto St. Patricks of the National Hockey League in 1927, changed their name to Maple Leafs, and coached the team for the next three seasons and a few games afterward, compiling a regular season record of 58-57-20 and a playoff record of 2-2. The Maple Leafs won eight Stanley Cup championships during his years as owner. After selling his shares in the Maple Leafs to his son Stafford, Harold Ballard, and John Bassett, Mr. Smythe served as chairman of the Hockey Hall of Fame until 1971, and was inducted into the Hall in 1958. He was a successful owner of racehorses, including two Queen's Plate winners, and was inducted into the Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame in 1977. Mr. Smythe died after several years of declining health.

World events
Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Honwen--three members of China's so-called "Gang of Four"--were accused of plotting an armed rebellion in Shanghai in 1976.

Pope John Paul II continued his visit to West Germany, conducting masses in Fulda and Altoetting.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): To Sir with Love--Ngaire (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: I've Been Thinking About You--Londonbeat (3rd week at #1)

Austria's Top 10 (Ö3)
1 I've Been Thinking About You--Londonbeat (2nd week at #1)
2 Ich hab' geträumt von dir--Matthias Reim
3 Tom's Diner--DNA featuring Suzanne Vega
4 Cult of Snap--Snap!
5 Blaze of Glory--Jon Bon Jovi
6 Crazy for You--David Hasselhoff
7 I'm Your Baby Tonight--Whitney Houston
8 The Invisible Man--Dance with a Stranger
9 The Joker--Steve Miller Band
10 La luna lila (Purple Moon)--Luisa Fernandez & Peter Kent

Singles entering the chart were Show Me Heaven by Maria McKee (#23); Suicide Blonde by INXS (#24); Groove is in the Heart by Deee-Lite (#25); and The Anniversary Waltz (Part One) by Status Quo (#30).

U.S.S.R. President Mikhail Gorbachev met with Pope John Paul II at the Vatican and then signed a Soviet-Italian friendship treaty in Rome with Italian Premier Giulio Andreotti.

U.S. President George Bush met with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl in Berlin.

Eastern Final
Toronto 17 @ Winnipeg 20

Western Final
Edmonton 43 @ Calgary 23

The Blue Bombers marched 54 yards in the final minute, enabling Trevor Kennerd to kick a 32-yard field goal on the last play of regulation time to send them to the Grey Cup. It was the fourth field goal of the game for Mr. Kennerd, who kicked his first 3 in the first half. Winnipeg led 9-3 at halftime as Mr. Kennerd’s field goals offset a field goal by Toronto’s Lance Chomyc. John Congemi, who started at quarterback for the Argos in place of injured regulars Matt Dunigan and Rickey Foggie, rushed 1 yard for the game’s first touchdown at 10:36 of the 3rd quarter; Mr. Chomyc converted to give the Argos a 10-9 lead heading into the 4th quarter. Winnipeg quarterback Tom Burgess completed a 13-yard touchdown pass to Perry Tuttle at 4:23 of the 4th quarter and then passed to Rick House for a 2-point convert to give the Blue Bombers a 17-10 lead. Tom Porras, who had been cut by the Argos earlier in the season and then hastily re-signed before the final, relieved Mr. Congemi and rushed 1 yard for a touchdown at 8:38; Mr. Chomyc’s convert tied the score 17-17. The Winnipeg defense held the Argos to 13 first downs and 180 yards net offense, while the Blue Bombers made 28 first downs and amassed 399 yards net offense. Robert Mimbs of the Blue Bombers led all rushers with 20 carries for 109 yards, while Mike "Pinball" Clemons led the Argos with 36 yards on 9 carries. Mr. Tuttle caught 6 passes for 79 yards, while Darrell K. Smith led the Argos with 5 catches for 72 yards. Mr. Burgess completed 24 of 40 passes for 230 yards; Messrs. Congemi and Porras combined to complete 12 of 22 passes for 160 yards. 29,192 were in attendance at Winnipeg Stadium on a warm, sunny Sunday afternoon.

Tracy Ham completed 22 of 37 passes for 441 yards and 2 touchdowns and rushed 11 times for 110 yards and 2 touchdowns as the Eskimos scored 30 points in the 2nd half to ruin the Stampeders’ first western final at home in 19 years before 31,923 fans at McMahon Stadium. Calgary led 6-3 after the 1st quarter and 9-3 late in the 2nd quarter on 3 field goals by Mark McLoughlin, offsetting a field goal by the Eskimos’ Ray Macoritti. Edmonton finally got the game’s first touchdown on a 29-yard run by Mr. Ham at 11:36, converted by Mr. Macoritti. Mr. McLoughlin kicked a 45-yard field goal at 13:37 to put the Stampeders ahead, but Mr. Macoritti responded with a 37-yard field goal with 23 seconds remaining to give the Eskimos a 13-12 halftime lead. Edmonton head coach Joe Faragalli appeared to outfox Calgary head coach Wally Buono with his halftime adjustments, because the Eskimos’ previously-unseen five-man receiver package led to 24 points in the 3rd quarter to put the game away. Mr. Macoritti’s 42-yard field goal made the score 16-12, and then Mr. Ham passed 11 yards to Michael Soles for a touchdown, converted by Mr. Macoritti, to increase the lead to 23-12. Mr. McLoughlin kicked a 30-yard field goal to cut the lead to 23-15, but Mr. Ham completed a 23-yard pass to former Stampeder Larry Willis for his first touchdown as an Eskimo at 12:24, converted by Mr. Macoritti. A 76-yard bomb from Mr. Ham to Keith Wright set up a 1-yard touchdown rush by Blake Marshall on the final play of the 3rd quarter. Mr. Macoritti’s convert gave the Eskimos an insurmountable 37-15 lead. Calgary finally scored a touchdown in the 4th quarter when Danny Barrett connected with Allen Pitts on a 12-yard score at 7:21; Mr. McLoughlin converted and added a single on the kickoff. Mr. Ham put the final nail in the Calgary coffin with a 6-yard touchdown run at 12:15; the convert failed because of a bad snap. Todd Smith, who had caught just 6 passes in the regular season and 1 in the semi-final, was an unlikely star for the Eskimos, catching 7 passes for 164 yards; Mr. Wright added 130 yards on 4 receptions. Mr. Pitts led the Stampeders with 93 yards on 5 receptions. Mr. Barrett completed just 15 of 38 passes for 188 yards, but wasn’t helped by his receivers. PeeWee Smith and Shawn Beals both dropped passes in the Edmonton end zone in key situations in the first half when the game was still close. Mr. Barrett led the Calgary rushing attack with 43 yards on 4 carries. It turned out to be the last game in an Edmonton uniform for middle linebacker Jeff Braswell, who left early when he broke an ankle. It was also the last CFL game for Calgary middle linebacker Joe Clausi, whose inability to stop the running of Mr. Ham prompted Mr. Buono to acquire Alondra Johnson from the British Columbia Lions in the off-season. The Stampeders were so confident of victory that they made an announcement over the public address system in the 2nd quarter that T-shirts and sweatshirts proclaiming the team as Western Division champions for 1990 were available at the souvenir booths. I bought one on the way out after the game, and was surprised to read an article by Dan Barnes in the next day’s Edmonton Sun where the Stampeders were denying that they had had the shirts made. A merry time was enjoyed by those of us on the James Bell express bus on the way back to Edmonton.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (ARIA): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (VRT): Het is een Nacht... (Levensecht)--Guus Meeuwis & Vagant (7th week at #1)

#1 single in Wallonia (Ultratop 40): You are Not Alone--Michael Jackson (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in France (SNEP): Je sais pas--Céline Dion (6th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): I Believe/Up on the Roof--Robson & Jerome (2nd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 Fantasy--Mariah Carey (8th week at #1)
2 Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V.
3 Runaway--Janet Jackson
4 You Remind Me of Something--R. Kelly
5 Tell Me--Groove Theory
6 Kiss from a Rose--Seal
7 Back for Good--Take That
8 Who Can I Run To--Xscape
9 As I Lay Me Down--Sophie B. Hawkins
10 Name--Goo Goo Dolls

Singles entering the chart were You Remind Me of Something; Diggin' on You by TLC (#12); Hey Lover by LL Cool J (#30); The World I Know by Collective Soul (#73); Throw Your Hands Up by L.V. (#89); and Ridin' Low by L.A.D. (#94).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Fantasy--Mariah Carey (7th week at #1)
2 Runaway--Janet Jackson
3 Tell Me--Groove Theory
4 Exhale (Shoop Shoop)--Whitney Houston
5 As I Lay Me Down--Sophie B. Hawkins
6 Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V.
7 Kiss from a Rose--Seal
8 Who Can I Run To?--Xscape
9 Back for Good--Take That
10 Name--Goo Goo Dolls

Singles entering the chart were Exhale (Shoop Shoop); Time by Hootie & the Blowfish (#47); Be My Lover by La Bouche (#79); Wings of the Morning by Capleton (#84); and Gold by the Artist Formerly Known as Prince (Love Symbol) (#86).

20 years ago

U.S. President Bill Clinton continued his visit to Vietnam, meeting with Le Kha Phieu, general secretary of the Vietnamese Communist party. Mr. Clinton also visited a site where U.S. forensic experts working with Vietnamese labourers were seeking remains of an American pilot whose plane had crashed. Mr. Clinton provided documents that might help the Vietnamese find remains of some of their own 300,000 missing soldiers.

10 years ago

Newfoundland and Labrador Premier Danny Williams and Nova Scotia Premier Darrell Dexter signed a $6.2-billion deal in Halifax to develop the Lower Churchill hydroelectric megaproject.

General Motors emerged from bankruptcy protection with North America's largest initial public offering, worth U.S.$23 billion. The governments of Canada and Ontario, owners of 11.67% of the old GM, reduced their stake to below 1% by selling about 35 million shares.

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