Sunday, 23 May 2021

May 21, 2021

1,025 years ago

16-year-old Otto III was crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

550 years ago

Born on this date
Albrecht Dürer
. German artist and mathematician. Mr. Dürer was a painter and printmaker who was known for his portraits and woodcuts, often with religious themes, and influenced future generations of artists. He was also a theorist on geometry, and wrote books on measurement and human proportions. Mr. Dürer died on April 6, 1528 at the age of 56.

Died on this date
Henry VI, 49
. King of England, 1422-1461, 1470-1471. Henry VI acceded to the throne as an infant upon the death of his father Henry V, and was declared fit to rule in 1437. As a result of the Treaty of Troyes, he was regarded as King Henri II of France, but his claim to the French throne was disputed. Henry VI married Margaret of Anjou, niece of King Charles VII of France, in 1445; King Henry frequently suffered from mental instability, and Queen Margaret acted as the power behind the throne. King Henry VI inherited the Hundred Years' War, and his reign saw the gradual loss of English lands in France. His cousin Richard, Duke of York opposed him; in 1465, Richard's son Edward's forces captured King Henry, imprisoned him in the Tower of London, and deposed him, ruling as King Edward IV. King Henry VI regained the throne in 1470, but Edward IV was restored to the throne in April 1471, killing King Henry's only son Edward of Westminster in the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry VI was imprisoned again, and died in the Tower of London, possibly killed on the orders of King Edward IV.

540 years ago

Died on this date
Christian I, 55
. King of Denmark, 1448-1481; King of Norway, 1450-1481; King of Sweden, 1457-1464. Christian I was from a noble family and was elected King of Denmark when he married Dorothea, the widow of his predecessor, Christopher III. Christian was elected King of Norway in 1450 and King of Sweden in 1457, but the latter reign ended when Kettil Karlsson Vasa, Bishop of Linköping, was installed as regent and Charles VIII was recalled as King of Sweden. Christian I added the titles Duke of Schleswig and Count of Holstein-Rendsburg in 1460. He was succeeded by his son John.

225 years ago

Born on this date
Reverdy Johnson
. U.S. politician and diplomat. Mr. Johnson, a Whig before 1860 and a Democrat afterward, represented Maryland in the U.S. Senate (1845-1849, 1863-1868). He was U.S. Attorney General in the administration of President Zachary Taylor (1949-1850), and was U.S. Minister to the United Kingdom (1868-1869). As a lawyer, Mr. Johnson represented unpopular clients, including Ku Klux Klan members and Mary Surratt, alleged conspirator in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Mr. Johnson died on February 10, 1876 at the age of 79.

200 years ago

Economics and finance
William Allan and J.G. Chewitt received a charter for the Bank of Upper Canada and a 10-year monopoly on banknotes.

170 years ago

Born on this date
Léon Bourgeois
. Prime Minister of France, 1895-1896. Mr. Bourgeois wasn't a member of any party, but his progressive policies influenced the Radical Party. Mr. Bourgeois was a Freemason and he packed his cabinet with eight Freemasons. Mr. Bourgeois was awarded the 1920 Nobel Peace Prize "[for his participation] in both the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907" and for his work toward "what became the League to such an extent that he was frequently called its "spiritual father." He died on September 29, 1925 at the age of 74.

The Congress of Colombia passed a law abolishing slavery in the country, to take effect at the beginning of the new year.

150 years ago

Alexander Muir's patriotic song The Maple Leaf Forever was sung in public for the first time, in Toronto.

French troops invaded the Paris Commune and engaged its residents in street fighting. By the close of "Bloody Week," some 20,000 communards had been killed and 38,000 arrested.

The first rack railway in Europe, the Rigi Bahnen on Mount Rigi in Switzerland, opened.

140 years ago

Clara Barton founded what became the American Red Cross, in Washington, D.C.

The Canadian cabinet disallowed the "Streams Bill," passed by the Ontario Legislature.

The United States National Lawn Tennis Association, composed of 33 clubs, was formed in a New York City hotel room as the national ruling body of the sport.

120 years ago

Born on this date
Horace Heidt
. U.S. musician. Mr. Heidt was a pianist and bandleader who was popular in the 1930s and 1940s. He hosted several radio programs and had numerous hit singles, reaching #1 on the Billboard singles chart with Gone with the Wind (1937); Ti-Pi-Tin (1938); and I Don't Want to Set the World on Fire (1941). Mr. Heidt died on December 1, 1986 at the age of 85.

Sam Jaffe. U.S. movie producer. Mr. Jaffe, no relation to the actor of the same name, was an agent and studio executive in addition to producing such movies as Diplomaniacs (1933); The Sullivans (1944); and Born Free (1966). He died on January 10, 2000 at the age of 98.

Died on this date
Fitz John Porter, 78
. U.S. military officer. Major General Porter was a career officer in the U.S. Army, serving in the Mexican-American War and American Civil War. He was court-martialled and dismissed from the Army in 1863 for his actions in the Union Army's defeat in the Second Battle of Bull Run (1862), and spent the next 23 years trying to clear his name. Maj. Gen. Porter was exonerated by a special commission in 1878; in 1886 he was restored to his commission, backdated to 1861, but retired two days later, having been vindicated. Maj. Gen. Porter co-founded the Military and Naval Order of the United States in 1894, and received its first insignia.

John Voss sailed west from Victoria, British Columbia in his Nootka Indian canoe, the Tilikum; he reaches England September 2, 1904, after taking three years, three months and 12 days to navigate the 65,000 kilometres, via Australia and New Zealand.

Canada's Alien Labour Act received royal assent.

110 years ago

President of Mexico Porfirio Díaz and revolutionary Francisco Madero signed the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez to put an end to the fighting between the forces of both men, concluding the initial phase of the Mexican Revolution.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Andrei Sakharov
. U.S.S.R. physicist and political activist. Dr. Sakharov helped to develop the Soviet hydrogen bomb from 1948-1956, but in the 1960s he became a critic of the arms race and Soviet repression. In 1975 Dr. Sakharov became the first citizen of the Soviet Union to win the Nobel Peace Prize. In 1980 he was exiled to Gorky, and his wife Yelena Bonner followed in 1984, which brought much international criticism upon the U.S.S.R. The couple were freed in 1986 and were both pardoned. Dr. Sakharov was elected to the Duma in 1989 and briefly served. In the days before his death on December 14, 1989 at the age of 58 he was among those who were imploring Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev to allow a debate on the leading role played by the Communist Party in the Soviet Union.

90 years ago

On the radio
The Witch's Tale, radio's first horror drama, began airing on New York station WOR.

80 years ago

Sharp fighting was reported on Crete as German airborne units continued to pour onto the island. The American freighter Robin Moor was torpedoed by a German U-boat in the South Atlantic Ocean, after its crew was first evacuated in lifeboats. British patrol planes spotted the German battleship Bismarck and cruiser Prinz Eugen off the coast of Norway.

U.S. Navy Secretary Frank Knox said that the Neutrality Act was a blunder and should be repealed. U.S. Office of Production Management Director General William Knudsen revealed plans to increase heavy bomber production to 500 per month by September 1942.

Politics and government
Mary Spargo, an undercover agent with the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Un-American Activities, claimed that the Coal Division of the Interior Department "is loaded from top to bottom with Communists."

75 years ago

At the Nuremberg trials of accused Nazi war criminals, former German Foreign Office Secretary Baron Ernst von Weizsaecker testified that the 1939 Germany-U.S.S.R. non-aggression pact placed Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, eastern Poland, and parts of Romania within the Soviet sphere.

World events
U.S. troops searched 397 Danube River boats in Bavaria in an effort to break up smuggling and an underground railway for escaping German SS men.

The United States informed the United Nations Security Council subcommittee on Spain that it had no evidence that Spain was working on the atomic bomb or deploying troops for offensive purposes.

Iranian Propaganda Minister Mouzaffar Firouz reported that there was no evidence of Soviet troops or supplies in Azerbaijan.

The Daughters of the American Revolution Continental Congress in Atlantic City voted for "immediate dissolution" of Representative Clare Boothe Luce's (Republican--Connecticut) Committee Against Racial Discrimination in Constitution Hall, but Mrs. Luse refused to comply.

Economics and finance
Switzerland agreed informally with 18 Allied nations to give up half the German capital in the country and $58 million in looted gold shipped there by Germany.

U.S. President Harry Truman ordered Interior Secretary Julius Krug to take over operation of soft coal mines at midnight, as the deadlock between mine operators and the Congress of Industrial Organizations United Mine Workers of America continued.

Physicist Louis Slotin, 35, was fatally irradiated in a criticality incident during an experiment with the demon core at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He died nine days later.

70 years ago

The novel The Foundling by Francis Cardinal Spellman was published in New York by Scribners.

The 9th Street Art Exhibition, a gathering of a number of notable artists, and the stepping-out of the post war New York avant-garde, collectively known as the New York School, opened.

The U.S. Army 2nd Division halted a Chinese Communist offensive south of Hangye on the east-central Korean front after filling the gap torn in South Korean lines.

World events
The Chinese Liberation Daily reported the execution of 72 more "counterrevolutionaries" in Soochow and Shanghai.

A court in San Juan sentenced 21 Puerto Rican nationalists to life imprisonment for the murder of a policeman in Jayuya during the 1950 revolt.

60 years ago

Alabama Governor John Malcolm Patterson (Democrat) declared martial law in an attempt to restore order after race riots break out.

Cardinal Paul-Émile Léger advocated the integration of Roman Catholic laity in all sectors of education in Quebec.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Too Young to Be Married--The Hollies (4th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Butterfly--Danyel Gérard

South Africa's Top 10 (Springbok Radio)
1 Put Your Hand in the Hand--Alan Garrity (3rd week at #1)
2 Understanding--Peanutbutter Conspiracy
3 Have You Ever Seen the Rain--Creedence Clearwater Revival
4 Amazing Grace--Judy Collins
5 What is Life--George Harrison
6 A Summer Prayer for Peace--The Archies
7 Another Day--Paul McCartney
8 Vicki--Lance James
9 Theme from Love Story--Francis Lai Orchestra
10 Happy Birthday Baby--Barbara Ray

Singles entering the chart were The Seagull's Name was Nelson by Des and Dawn (#15); If Not for You by Olivia Newton-John (#16); Long Days and Lonely Nights by Lincoln (#19); and Mozart: Symphony No. 40 In G Minor K.550 1° Movement (Allegro Molto) by Waldo de los Rios (#20).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKLG)
1 Sweet and Innocent--Donny Osmond (2nd week at #1)
2 Indian Reservation (The Lament of the Cherokee Reservation Indian)--Raiders
3 Jodie--Joey Gregorash
4 Here Comes the Sun--Richie Havens
5 Me and You and a Dog Named Boo--Lobo
6 Brown Sugar--The Rolling Stones
7 Chick-A-Boom (Don't Ya Jes' Love It)--Daddy Dewdrop
8 If--Bread
9 It Don't Come Easy--Ringo Starr
10 Toast and Marmalade for Tea--Tin Tin

Singles entering the chart were When You're Hot, You're Hot by Jerry Reed (#23); It's Too Late by Carole King (#24); You're Gonna Miss Me by Wishbone (#27); Spaceship Races by Tom Northcott (#29); and Rainy Days and Mondays by the Carpenters (#30).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKVN)
1 Brown Sugar--The Rolling Stones (2nd week at #1)
2 Love Her Madly--The Doors
3 Hot Love--T. Rex
4 Me and You and a Dog Named Boo--Lobo
5 Broken/Albert Flasher--The Guess Who
6 Toast and Marmalade for Tea--Tin Tin
7 Joy to the World--Three Dog Night
8 Who Do You Love--Tom Rush
9 Crazy Love--Rita Coolidge
10 Freedom--Jimi Hendrix

Singles entering the chart were Signs by the Five Man Electrical Band (#26); You're Gonna Miss Me by Wishbone (#27); Sea Cruise by Johnny Rivers (#28); I'll Meet You Halfway by the Partridge Family (#29); and When You're Hot, You're Hot by Jerry Reed (#30).

The album What's Going On by Marvin Gaye was released on Tamla Records.

Economics and finance
After 12 hours of talks in Paris, French President Georges Pompidou and British Prime Minister Edward Heath reached an accord paving the way for the U.K.'s entry into the European Economic Community.

40 years ago

Hit parade
Edmonton's Top 15 (CHED)
1 High School Confidential--Rough Trade
2 Bette Davis Eyes--Kim Carnes
3 Take it on the Run--REO Speedwagon
4 Her Town Too--James Taylor and J.D. Souther
5 Just the Two of Us--Grover Washington, Jr.
6 I Missed Again--Phil Collins
7 Angel of the Morning--Juice Newton
8 Being with You--Smokey Robinson
9 You Better You Bet--The Who
10 Watching the Wheels--John Lennon
11 It Just Occurred to Me--Peter Pringle
12 Sweetheart--Franke and the Knockouts
13 Kiss on My List--Daryl Hall & John Oates
14 Babe--Jack Green
15 I Love You--Climax Blues Band

The Italian government released the membership list of Propaganda Due, an illegal pseudo-Masonic lodge that was implicated in numerous Italian crimes and mysteries.

Transamerica Corporation agreed to sell United Artists to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for $380 million after the box office failure of the 1980 film Heaven's Gate.

Stanley Cup
Minnesota 1 @ New York Islanders 5 (New York won best-of-seven series 4-1)

Butch Goring and Wayne Merrick scored 25 seconds apart in the first 6 minutes of the game, putting the Islanders ahead to stay at Nassau County Coliseum in Uniondale as they claimed the Stanley Cup for the second straight year under head coach Al Arbour. Mr. Goring scored a powerplay goal at 5:12 of the 1st period, and Mr. Merrick scored the cup-winning goal at 5:37. Mr. Goring scored his second goal of the game at 10:03, before Steve Christoff got the North Stars on the scoreboard at 16:06. New York dominated the 2nd period, outshooting Minnesota 16-4, tallying the period’s only goal when Bob Bourne scored with 49 seconds remaining. Mike McEwen scored the final goal with 2:54 remaining in the 3rd period. Billy Smith easily won the goaltending duel over Don Beaupre. Mr. Goring, who scored 10 goals and 10 assists in 18 playoff games, won the Conn Smythe Trophy as the playoffs’ Most Valuable Player.

The Chicago White Sox were in Edmonton to play an exhibition game against their AAA farm team, the Trappers of the Pacific Coast League. Chicago won 4-3 at Renfrew Park in a game that took just 1 hour and 45 minutes to play. The winning pitcher was Jim Siwy, whom the White Sox had called up from the class A team at Appleton for the game. Greg Luzinski, who never played a regular season game in the outfield in 4 years with the White Sox (1981-1984), spent 2 innings in left field, and just about knocked down the wall going after a ball. This blogger spent most of the day in the Trappers’ team offices stapling inserts for the game scorecards, and later had the pleasure of meeting some of the White Sox. Vada Pinson, a former star major league outfielder then coaching with Chicago, was especially nice, and posed for a photo, which he later autographed.

In what may have been the greatest pitching duel in the history of U.S. college baseball, St. John’s edged Yale 1-0 in 12 innings in an NCAA first-round playoff game. Frank Viola of St. John’s and Ron Darling of Yale both pitched complete games. Mr. Darling had a no-hitter going after 11 innings, with 16 strikeouts, but in the 12th, Steve Scafa of St. John’s hit a single and stole second and third bases. The next batter reached first base on an error and then tried to steal second base; when the Yale catcher threw to second, Mr. Scafa broke for home plate and scored the game’s only run. Roger Angell wrote about the game in his book Late Innings (1982).

30 years ago

Died on this date
Lino Brocka, 52. Filipino film director. Mr. Brocka directed over 40 movies, including Tinimbang Ka Ngunit Kulang (You Have Been Weighed and Found Wanting) (1974); Insiang (1976); and Jaguar (1979). He was an outspoken opponent of the regime of Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos in the 1980s. Mr. Brocka was a passenger in a vehicle driven by actor William Lorenzo when it crashed into a concrete pole; Mr. Brocka was dead on arrival at hospital, while Mr. Lorenzo was critically injured, but survived.

Rajiv Gandhi, 46. Prime Minister of India, 1984-1989. Mr. Gandhi, leader of the Congress (I) Party, became Prime Minister after his mother, Indira Gandhi, had been assassinated by her bodyguards. Voters came to view his government as incompetent and corrupt, leading to his party’s defeat in 1989. Attempting a comeback in an election campaign for seats in the Lok Sabha, Mr. Gandhi had made a campaign stop in Sriperambudur, southwest of Madras, when a woman concealing a bomb approached him, blowing up and killing herself, Mr. Gandhi, and 16 other people.

World events
Mengistu Haile Mariam, President of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, fled the country, effectively bringing the Ethiopian Civil War to an end.

It was about 85 F in Fredericton, New Brunswick, making it the warmest place in Canada, to the delight of this blogger, who happened to be there.

Stanley Cup
Pittsburgh 5 @ Minnesota 3 (Best-of-seven series tied 2-2)

The Chicago Cubs, who had started the season with a record of 18-19, fired Don Zimmer as manager. Mr. Zimmer had managed the Cubs since 1988, and had led them to the National League East Division title in 1989. Coach Joe Altobelli managed the Cubs for one game after the firing of Mr. Zimmer before Jim Essian took over as the full-time manager.

25 years ago

Died on this date
Lash LaRue, 78
. U.S. actor. Alfred LaRue starred in numerous low-budget Western movies in the 1940s and '50s. He was known for dressing in black, and got his nickname for his use of a bullwhip.

The Trappist Martyrs of Atlas, eight Roman Catholic monks, were found dead, almost two months after being kidnapped from their monastery during the Algerian Civil War. The Groupe Islamique Army (GIA) claimed responsibility, but it was later alleged that the monks had been accidentally killed by the Algerian Army.

The ferry MV Bukoba sank in Tanzanian waters on Lake Victoria, killing nearly 1,000 people.

Stanley Cup
Western Conference Finals
Colorado 3 @ Detroit 0 (Colorado led best-of-seven series 2-0)

Larry Walker drove in a career-high 6 runs, hitting a pair of 2-run home runs, a triple, and a double in the Colorado Rockies' 12-10 win over the Pittsburgh Pirates before 48,037 fans at Coors Field in Denver. Mr. Walker's 13 total bases set a club record.

Julio Franco hit a solo home run with 2 out and nobody on base in the bottom of the 9th inning to give the Cleveland Indians a 6-5 win over the Milwaukee Brewers before 39,974 fans at Jacobs Field in Cleveland.

The Minnesota Twins scored 2 runs in the bottom of the 9th inning to defeat the Texas Rangers 4-3 before 12,323 fans at Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome in Minneapolis. The winning run was scored by pinch runner Jeff Reboulet on a sacrifice fly to left field by Rich Becker.

20 years ago

The Taubira law was enacted in France, officially recognizing the Atlantic slave trade and slavery as crimes against humanity.

10 years ago

U.S. radio evangelist Harold Camping's prediction that the world would end on this date proved false; he had made the same false prophecy for September 6, 1994.

Horse racing
Shackleford, with Jesus Castanon up, won the 136th running of the Preakness Stakes before 118,356 fans at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore in a time of 1:56.47, ½ length ahead of Animal Kingdom. Astrology finished third in the 14-horse field.

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