160 years ago
British missionary David Livingstone became the first European to see Victoria Falls in what is now present-day Zambia-Zimbabwe.
130 years ago
Died on this date
Louis Riel, 41. Canadian native and political activist. Mr. Riel, a Metis leader, led the provisional government at Red River Settlement which became the foundation of the province of Manitoba in 1870. The murder of Orange activist Thomas Scott by Mr. Riel's men in 1870 led to Mr. Riel's eventual exile in the United States for several years. He returned to western Canada in 1884 and established a provisional government at Batoche, Northwest Territories (now part of Saskatchewan). The North-West Rebellion ensued and lasted for two months. Mr. Riel surrendered and was convicted of treason in a trial in Regina in July. Although he was regarded as a traitor by English-speaking Canadians--especially those in Ontario--he was regarded as a hero in Quebec and among native peoples. He was hanged at Regina, and was buried in St. Boniface, Manitoba.
125 years ago
Born on this date
Elpidio Quirino. 6th President of the Philippines, 1948-1953; Vice President of the Philippines, 1946-1948. Mr. Quirino, a member of the Liberal Party, held various positions before taking office as Vice President and succeeding to the presidency upon the death of Manuel Roxas. He was defeated in a bid for re-election in 1953 and retired from politics. Mr. Quirino died on February 29, 1956 at the age of 65.
80 years ago
Hamilton (7-2) 23 @ Montreal (0-9) 0
Toronto (6-3) 5 @ Ottawa (5-4) 9
The game at Molson Stadium was the Montreal team’s last game as the Winged Wheelers. The Montreal Amateur Athletic Association couldn’t afford to operate the club after this season, and it passed to other hands, becoming known as the Indians in 1936.
The Argonauts’ loss to the Rough Riders at Lansdowne Park was their third straight, ending their season and giving the Tigers the Big 4 championship outright.
Toronto 0 @ Sarnia 8 (1st game of 2-game total points series)
75 years ago
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Only Forever--Bing Crosby (5th week at #1)
The U.S. Federal Communications Commission approved the expenditure of $3 million on research and experimentation in 10 television projects.
Delegates to the 17th annual convention of the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures in New York unanimously recommended films to stress the "social behavior and idealism of our youth."
In response to the leveling of Coventry by the German Luftwaffe two days before, the British Royal Air Force bombed Hamburg. Reports from the front said that Italian troops were abandoning Koritza in Albania.
In occupied Poland, the Nazis closed off the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world.
Moscow newspapers published the two-year-old treaty between Germany and Slovakia, indicating recognition of the German protectorate of this segment of former Czechoslovakia.
Politics and government
The Communist Party U.S.A. voted to dissolve it affiliation with the Communist International in order to remove itself from the terms of the so-called Voorhis Act, which required groups under foreign control to register with the Justice Department.
United States Navy officials disclosed that the new 35,000-ton dreadnoughts North Carolina and Washington would be completed several months early, giving the Navy 17 battleships or the strongest battle line in the world. An official compilation showed that the War Department since July 1, 1940 had awarded contracts totalling more than $4.5 billion.
New York City's "Mad Bomber" George Metesky, apparently motivated by an inability to obtain compensation for a workplace injury sustained nine years earlier, placed his first bomb at a Manhattan office building used by Consolidated Edison.
Toronto 1 @ Ottawa 12 (1st game of 2-game total points series)
Sarnia 0 @ Toronto 12 (1st game of 2-game total points series)
The Argonauts opened the scoring against the Rough Riders at Lansdowne Park with a rouge in the 2nd quarter on a missed field goal attempt by Annis Stukus. Ottawa came back with a touchdown by Tommy Daley, converted by Tiny Herman. Sammy Sward punted for a 60-yard single in the 3rd quarter, and Orville Burke concluded the scoring with a 35-yard field goal in the 4th quarter.
Balmy Beach halfback Johnny Manson rushed 34 yards to the Imperials’ 2-yard line and then rushed 2 yards for the touchdown. Reg Turnbull returned a blocked Sarnia punt for the other touchdown. Bob Porter added a punt single for Balmy Beach.
Cornell (7-0) 7 @ Dartmouth (3-4) 3
The unbeaten and untied Big Red scored a converted touchdown on a pass from Pop Scholl to William Murphy on the last play of the game to defeat the Indians at Memorial Field in Hanover, New Hampshire. Two days later, referee Red Freisell admitted that he had mistakenly allowed Cornell to have a fifth down on the drive that produced the winning touchdown. Cornell University president Edmund Ezra Day and the Big Red team then sent a telegram to Dartmouth offering to forfeit the victory. The offer was accepted.
70 years ago
University of California chemistry professor Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg announced the discovery of elements 95 (americium) and 96 (curium) as a result of bombarding Uranium-238 and Plutonium 239 with high energy ions of 40 million electron volts.
Lieutenant General Albert Wedemeyer ordered U.S. Marines in North China to carry out an air strafing mission against a Communist-held village on the Tangshan-Chinwangtao railway unless Communist troops stopped firing upon Americans.
Led by the Communist Party, rebels revolted in Russian-occupied Azerbaijan, and the Iranian government charged the Russians with supporting the move.
The United Nations Economic, Social, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) adopted a constitution at its closing session in London signed by 44 nations. Educational equality, regardless of sex, race, or other distinctions was stressed.
The United States reported ongoing conferences with the U.S.S.R. on Korea, and hoped communications, trade, and travel would be resumed between the northern and southern zones.
Politics and government
The United States informed Bulgaria that as a result of Mark Ethridge's report that only a single list of candidates would appear in the November 18 elections and that "threats of coercion and later reprisals" were being used, it would not consider the election fair or free.
Escorted by a military guard, 88 captured German scientists arrived in New York City to work on secret national scientific projects.
Supreme Allied Commander in Europe General Dwight Eisenhower told a United States Senate committee that a single U.S. defense command was essential to prevent another Pearl Harbor and to effect a 25% saving in service personnel and expenses.
Economics and finance
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration Director Herbert Lehman warned a United States House of Representatives committee that unless $1.35 billion was appropriated by the agency, a new social disaster would arise on the international scene.
The government of Mexico settled the strike on the Southern Pacific Railroad, granting wage increases of 20c per day.
60 years ago
#1 single in France (IFOP): Les Lavandières du Portugal--Jacqueline François (7th week at #1)
Winnipeg 6 @ Edmonton 26 (Edmonton won best-of-three series 2-0)
Bob Heydenfeldt, Rollie Miles, and Don Getty scored touchdowns for the Eskimos as they routed the Blue Bombers at Clarke Stadium. Bob Dean converted all 3 touchdowns and added 2 field goals and 2 singles. It was the final game in the Hall of Fame career of Winnipeg halfback Tom Casey.
50 years ago
On television tonight
The Fugitive, starring David Janssen, on ABC
Tonight's episode: Landscape with Running Figures: Part 1, with guest stars Barbara Rush and Herschel Bernardi
The U.S.S.R. launched the probe Venera 3 toward Venus.
40 years ago
Politics and government
In general elections in Ivory Coast, President Félix Houphouët-Boigny was re-elected without opposition, while his Democratic Party of Côte d'Ivoire – African Democratic Rally (PDCI-RDA) won all 120 seats in the National Assembly.
Detroit 0 @ New York Rangers 3
Pete Stemkowski, Steve Vickers, and Walt Tkaczuk scored for the Rangers as they blanked the Red Wings at Madison Square Garden in their first game against Detroit goalie Ed Giacomin, who had recently been traded from the Rangers. Detroit coach Doug Barkley became involved in a scuffle with sportswriter Walt MacPeek of the Newark Star-Ledger when Mr. Barkley was reluctant to allow reporters into the Detroit dressing room immediately after the game, and Mr. MacPeek pressed him on the issue.
Saskatchewan 18 @ Edmonton 30
Wayne Matherne returned an interception 72 yards for a touchdown with 2:56 remaining to clinch the Eskimos' win over the Roughriders before 25,671 fans at Clarke Stadium. The Roughriders led 18-8 after 3 quarters, but Edmonton quarterback Bruce Lemmerman, who relieved starter Tom Wilkinson in the 2nd half, completed a 13-yard touchdown pass to George McGowan on the first play of the 4th quarter. Dave Cutler converted to reduce the deficit to 18-15, and then Roy Bell rushed 2 yards for a TD with 9:47 remaining in regulation time, and Mr. Cutler's convert gave the Eskimos a 22-18 lead. Saskatchewan quarterback Ron Lancaster appeared to be leading the Roughriders on one of his typical late-game winning marches when he threw the interception to Mr. Matherne. Mr. Cutler's convert made the score 29-18, and Garry Lefebvre, playing his first game since breaking his leg in the first game of the season on July 29, punted 30 yards for a single with 16 seconds left to close the scoring. The Eskimos opened the scoring on a 6-yard pass from Mr. Wilkinson to John Konihowski at 8:04 of the 1st quarter, converted by Mr. Cutler. Saskatchewan kicker Jack Abendschan scored a single on a wide field goal attempt 1:32 later and connected with a 37-yard field goal at 4:55 of the 2nd quarter to reduce Edmonton's lead to 7-4. Mr. Cutler scored a single on a wide field goal attempt, and then Saskatchewan defensive back Ted Dushinski returned an interception 35 yards for a touchdown with 3:28 remaining in the 1st half, with Mr. Abendschan's convert giving the Roughriders an 11-8 lead. Mr. Lancaster drove the Roughriders 71 yards in 10 plays, finishing with a 1-yard touchdown rush by George Reed, and Mr. Abendshcan's convert gave Saskatchewan an 18-8 lead with 6:55 remaining in the 3rd quarter. For Mr. Reed, it was the final game of his 13-year Hall of Fame career, and the Edmonton defense held him to 46 yards on 18 carries. Mr. Lancaster completed just 17 of 38 passes for 212 yards and 3 interceptions; it was expected to be his last game, but he changed his mind and played 3 more seasons. It was the last game for other Roughriders such as Mr. Abendschan and offensive tackle Clyde Brock, and rookie middle linebacker Jess Hudson. For Mr. Dushinski, it was his last game as a Roughrider; he was dealt to the British Columbia Lions after the season. Saskatchewan's Rhett Dawson led all receivers with 81 yards on 6 receptions, while Mr. Konihowski led the Eskimos with 6 receptions for 72 yards. The Saskathewan defense limited Mr. Bell to 44 yards on 12 carries, while Calvin Harrell rushed 11 times for just 27 yards. Mr. Lemmerman completed 10 of 16 passes, while Mr. Wilkinson was 9 for 16. The game ended with ugly behaviour involving east side fans and the Saskatchewan training staff, with fans throwing empty whiskey bottles at the trainers, cutting one on the forehead, prompting the trainer to attempt to go into the stands. One of the training staff threw a bucket of water at a fan riding on the CHQT firewagon circling the field after Mr. Matherne's touchdown.
Windsor 7 @ Ottawa 45
Neil Lumsden rushed for 3 touchdowns and kicked 6 converts as the Gee-Gees routed the Lancers at Lansdowne Park. Ottawa quarterback Jim Colton threw touchdown passes to Bill Harrison, Jeff Avery, and Don Medwin. Dave Stievano scored the Windsor touchdown on a short rush early in the game.
Dallas (6-3) 34 @ New England (3-6) 31
Philadelphia (2-7) 13 @ New York Giants (3-6) 10
Los Angeles (7-2) 16 @ Atlanta (2-7) 7
Kansas City (4-5) 3 @ Pittsburgh (8-1) 28
Green Bay (1-8) 10 @ Detroit (6-3) 13
Minnesota (9-0) 20 @ New Orleans (2-7) 7
New York Jets (2-7) @ Baltimore (5-4) 52
Miami (7-2) 19 @ Houston (7-2) 20
Washington (6-3) 17 @ St. Louis (7-2) 20 (OT)
Chicago (2-7) 3 @ San Francisco (4-5) 31
Cleveland (0-9) 17 @ Oakland (7-2) 38
Denver (4-5) 27 @ San Diego (0-9) 17
30 years ago
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Alive and Kicking--Simple Minds
#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Only Love--Nana Mouskouri (4th week at #1)
#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): (I'll Never Be) Maria Magdalena--Sandra
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Nikita--Elton John
#1 single in the U.K.: A Good Heart--Feargal Sharkey
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): We Built This City--Starship
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 We Built This City--Starship
2 Miami Vice Theme--Jan Hammer
3 Head Over Heels--Tears for Fears
4 You Belong to the City--Glenn Frey
5 Separate Lives--Phil Collins and Marilyn Martin
6 Part-Time Lover--Stevie Wonder
7 Take On Me--A-Ha
8 Broken Wings--Mr. Mister
9 Saving All My Love for You--Whitney Houston
10 Money for Nothing--Dire Straits
Singles entering the chart were Talk to Me by Stevie Nicks (#48); Sidewalk Talk by Jellybean (#74); Dangerous by Loverboy (#82); The Big Money by Rush (#89); and A Love Bizarre by Sheila E. (#90).
Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Oh Sheila--Ready for the World
2 Part-Time Lover--Stevie Wonder
3 Separate Lives--Phil Collins and Marilyn Martin
4 Cherish--Kool & The Gang
5 Miami Vice Theme--Jan Hammer
6 You Belong to the City--Glenn Frey
7 We Built This City--Starship
8 Lay Your Hands on Me--Thompson Twins
9 Saving All My Love for You--Whitney Houston
10 Alive and Kicking--Simple Minds
Singles entering the chart were It's Only Love by Bryan Adams (#61); Love is the Seventh Wave by Sting (#73); Face the Face by Pete Townshend (#86); I Miss You by Klymaxx (#91); Here's the World by Paul Hyde and the Payola$ (#94); Freedom by the Pointer Sisters (#96); and L'Affaire Dumoutier by The Box (#97).
As U.S. President Ronald Reagan arrived in Geneva for his summit with Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, newspapers published a letter to him from Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger who appealed to Mr. Reagan not to compromise on Strategic Defense Initiative and to take a tough stand on arms control. Mr. Weinberger had been omitted from the U.S. delegation to the summit, and speculation was rife as to who had leaked the letter, and why.
25 years ago
#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Sadeness (Part I)--Enigma (2nd week at #1)
U.S. Senator Alan Cranston (Democrat--California), addressing a Senate Ethics Committee hearing into the relationship between several Senators and former savings and loan chairman Charles Keating, said that he had done no favours for Mr. Keating in exchange for political contributions. Senators John McCain (Republican--Arizona), John Glenn (Democrat--Ohio), and Donald Riegle (Democrat--Michigan) also denied any wrongdoing.
Politics and government
In a speech to the Supreme Soviet, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev said that unnamed officials were seeking to discredit him.
Economics and finance
The United States Commerce Department reported that the merchandise trade deficit had declined to $9.41 billion in September. The U.S. Labor Department reported that consumer prices had risen 0.6% in October.
20 years ago
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V.
#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): Gangsta's Paradise--Coolio featuring L.V. (2nd week at #1)
Died on this date
Leah Betts, 18. U.K. drug victim. Miss Betts died three days after becoming unconscious following her consumption of an ecstasy tablet and then drinking seven litres of water in an attempt to counteract the dehydrating effects of the drug.
A five-day general strike in Bangladesh ended. The strike had been called in an attempt to topple the government.
10 years ago
Died on this date
Donald Watson, 95. U.K. activist. Mr. Watson was an animal rights activist, coined the term "vegan," and founded the Vegan Society.
Ralph Edwards, 92. U.S. broadcaster. Mr. Edwards was best known for hosting the long-running radio and television programs Truth or Consequences and This is Your Life.
Henry Taube, 89. Canadian-born U.S. chemist. Dr. Taube, a native of Neudorf, Saskatchewan, was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes." He died two weeks short of his 90th birthday.
Images of snowshoes now on Flickr - Snowshoes distribute a person’s weight over snow, enabling one to walk without sinking too deeply. Traditional snowshoes are made with wooden frames and le...
3 hours ago