Friday, 31 July 2015

July 31, 2015

300 years ago
1715


Disasters
Seven days after a Spanish treasure fleet of 12 ships left Havana for Spain, 11 of them sank in a storm off the coast of Florida. Treasure is salvaged from these wrecks almost 300 years later.

225 years ago
1790

Technology

The first U.S. patent was issued to Samuel Hopkins of Vermont for a process of making fertilizer.

150 years ago
1865


Transportation
The first narrow gauge mainline railway in the world opened at Grandchester, Queensland, Australia.

140 years ago
1875


Died on this date
Andrew Johnson, 66
. 17th president of the United States of America, 1865-1869. Mr. Johnson, a Democrat, represented Tennessee's 1st Congressional District from 1843-1853; was Governor of Tennessee from 1853-1857; represented Tennessee in the United States Senate from 1857-1862; was Military Governor of Tennessee from 1862-1865; and was Vice President of the United States from March 4-April 15, 1865 before replacing the assassinated Abraham Lincoln as President. Lacking political support from Republicans, he became the first U.S. President to be impeached, and came within one vote of conviction. Mr. Johnson served as a United States Senator from Tennessee again from March 5, 1875 until his death from a stroke.

130 years ago
1885


Crime
At his trial for treason in Regina, Metis leader Louis Riel made an eloquent address to the jury, saying he had been blessed by God with a mission to help the Indians, the Metis, and the whites of the North West; he repudiated any suggestions of religious insanity and asked to be judged solely on the political elements of his case.

80 years ago
1935


Baseball
Wes Ferrell hit 2 home runs in a game for the third time in his major league career as he pitched the Boston Red Sox to a 6-4 win over Bobo Newsom and the Washington Nationals at Griffith Stadium in Washington.

Mel Harder of the Cleveland Indians also hit 2 home runs, but lost 6-4 to the Chicago White Sox at Comiskey Park in Chicago.

75 years ago
1940


Died on this date
Udham Singh, 40
. Indian criminal. Mr. Singh was a pro-independeince activist who was hanged at Pentonville Prison in England for the March 13, 1940 assassination of Punjab Governor Michael O'Dwyer. Mr. O'Dwyer had been Governor when 379 unarmed Indians had been massacred at Amritsar in 1919, and his assassination was apparently in reprisal for this incident.

War
The United Kingdom announced the full application of its blockade to continental France. After telling the House of Commons that a crisis may soon be imminent, British Prime Miniser Winston Churchill wrote to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt urgently requesting destroyers and seaplanes to beat back a German invasion. Japanese planes bombed Chungking for four hours, killing 80 people.

Diplomacy
The Japanese Foreign Office announced that it would arrest all foreigners suspected of espionage.

Politics and government
Chinese Communist leader Chou En-lai left Chungking for Yenan with a reported agreement to end the dispute between the Kuomintang and Communist parties in China.

Defense
The U.S. House of Representatives passed and sent to the Senate a national defense appropriations bill for rearmament of $4,963,151,957.

Oil
The U.S. State Department announced a flat ban on the export of aviation gasoline outside the Western Hemisphere.

Labour
Arthur J. Edwards charged that the system of recruiting southern U.S. Negroes to harvest summer crops in New Jersey amounted to a form of peonage.

Americana
Preliminary 1940 Census data indicated that the District of Columbia had registered the largest population gains of any major city in the decade 1930-1940.

70 years ago
1945


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): It Could Happen to You--Bing Crosby; Dinah Shore (2nd month at #1)

World events
Pierre Laval, the fugitive former leader of Vichy France, was flown from Barcelona to Linz, Austria, where he surrendered to Allied soldiers, who in turn handed him over to French authorities in Innsbruck.

Politics and government
King George VI appointed Field Marshal Sir Harold Alexander as Governor General of Canada.

Education
The United Nations educational organization draft proposals were revealed by the U.S. State Department. Their objectives would be to facilitate consultation among educators; permit the free flow of ideas; and foster support for international peace.

Society
Australian Customs Minister Richard Keane banned the novel Forever Amber by Kathleen Winsor as an "undesirable book and not an acquisition to Australian literature." He said, "The Almighty did not give people eyes to read that rubbish."

Politics and government
In the New York City mayoral primary, William O'Dwyer became the candidate of both the Democratic Party and the American Labor Party.

Energy
U.S. Solid Fuels Administrator Harold Ickes told the Mead War Investigating Committee that the United States faced its "coldest" winter of the war because of lack of manpower in the coal mines.

Labour
The U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York ruled that ABC and NBC must bargain collectively with their disc jockeys through the National Association of Braodcast Engineers and Technicians (NABET), rather than the American Federation of Musicians, led by James Petrillo.

60 years ago
1955


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Ganz Paris träumt von der Liebe--Caterina Valente (5th month at #1)

At the movies
Pete Kelly's Blues, directed by Jack Webb and starring Mr. Webb, Janet Leigh, Edmond O'Brien, and Peggy Lee, opened in theatres.

Swimming
Marilyn Bell arrived in Dover, England to complete a swim across the English Channel; the 17-year-old from Toronto was the youngest to date to accomplish the feat.

50 years ago
1965


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): I Told the Brook/Funny Face--Billy Thorpe and the Aztecs

#1 single in France: La Danse de Zorba--Mikis Theodorakis (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Il mondo--Jimmy Fontana (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Il Silenzio--Nini Rosso (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Wooly Bully--Sam the Sham and the Pharaohs (4th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Help!--The Beatles

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): (I Can't Get No) Satisfaction--The Rolling Stones (4th week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 (I Can't Get No) Satisfaction--The Rolling Stones (4th week at #1)
2 I'm Henry VIII, I Am--Herman's Hermits
3 What's New Pussycat?--Tom Jones
4 I Can't Help Myself (Sugar Pie, Honey Bunch)--The Four Tops
5 Save Your Heart for Me--Gary Lewis and the Playboys
6 Cara, Mia--Jay & the Americans
7 I Like it Like That--The Dave Clark Five
8 What the World Needs Now is Love--Jackie DeShannon
9 Yes, I'm Ready--Barbara Mason
10 Don't Just Stand There--Patty Duke

Singles entering the chart were Like a Rolling Stone by Bob Dylan (#54); Nothing But Heartaches by the Supremes (#62); Looking Through the Eyes of Love by Gene Pitney (#67); Help! by the Beatles (#71); You were On My Mind by We Five (#73); Ju Ju Hand by Sam the Sham and the Pharaohs (#77); The "In" Crowd by the Ramsey Lewis Trio (#78); Heart Full of Soul by the Yardbirds (#79); A Little You by Freddie and the Dreamers (#80); If I Didn't Love You by Chuck Jackson (#82); Shake and Fingerpop by Jr. Walker and the All Stars (#84); Out in the Sun (Hey-O) by the Beach-Nuts (#94); Only Those in Love by Baby Washington (#95); He's Got No Love by the Searchers (#96); You're Gonna Make Me Cry by O.V. Wright (#98); and It Ain't Me Babe by the Turtles (#100).

40 years ago
1975


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Give a Little Love--Bay City Rollers

At the movies
The Man from Hong Kong, starring Jimmy Wang Yu and George Lazenby, opened in theatres in Hong Kong. It was the first Australia-Hong Kong co-production to be filmed in both countries. The movie soon played in the United States under the title The Dragon Flies.

Died on this date
Max Flack, 85
. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Flack was an outfielder with the Chicago Chi-Feds/Whales (1914-1915); Chicago Cubs (1916-1922); and St. Louis Cardinals ( 1922-1925), batting .278 with 35 home runs and 391 runs batted in in 1,411 games. He was picked off first base twice in the fourth game of the 1918 World Series and let a ball hit by Babe Ruth of the Boston Red Sox go over his head in right field, leading some modern historians to suggest that he was participating in a fix. Mr. Flack and outfielder Cliff Heathcote were traded for each other after a morning game at Cubs Park between the Cubs and Cardinals on May 30, 1922, and they played against each other for their new teams in the afternoon.

Politics and government
A military junta led by provisional President General Francisco da Costa Gomes assumed power in Portugal.

Economics and finance
New York City Mayor Abe Beame presented an economy program aimed at restoring confidence in the city's fiscal integrity.

Oil
The United States Congress voted to extend price controls on domestic oil for six months.

Baseball
The St. Louis Cardinals released pitcher Ron Bryant, ending his major league career. Mr. Bryant pitched with the San Francisco Giants in 1968 and from 1969-1974. He led the major leagues in 1973 with 24 wins, but injured his side in a swimming pool accident in the off-season, and had a terrible 1974 season, going 3-15 with an earned run average of 5.60. He retired on April 4, 1975, but was traded to the Cardinals on May 9. He pitched in 10 games with St. Louis, compiling a record of 0-1 with an ERA of 16.00. Mr. Bryant left the major leagues with a record of 57-56 and an ERA of 4.02 in 205 games.

The California Angels purchased catcher and outfielder Adrian Garrett from the Wichita Aeros of the American Association, the AAA affiliate of the Chicago Cubs. He was batting .321 with 12 home runs and 48 runs batted in in 52 games with Wichita in 1975, after batting .095 with 1 homer and 6 RBIs in 16 games with the Cubs. The Angels also recalled utility player Bobby Valentine from the Salt Lake City Gulls of the Pacific Coast League, where he was batting .306 with no home runs and 17 runs batted in in 47 games, after batting .234 with 1 homer and 17 RBIs in 56 games with the Charleston Charlies of the International League. To make room on the roster, the Angels assigned infielder Winston Llenas and first baseman John Doherty to Salt Lake City. Mr. Llenas was batting .186 with no homers and 11 RBIs in 56 games with California. Mr. Doherty was batting .202 with 1 home run and 12 RBIs in 30 games, but was sent down the day after coming to bat as a pinch hitter in the bottom of the 9th inning and singling in the tying and winning runs in a 5-4 win over the Chicago White Sox. Mr. Doherty never returned to the major leagues.

Phil Roof's first home run of the season, a 3-run blast off Al Fitzmorris, climaxed a 4-run 4th inning as the Minnesota Twins defeated the Kansas City Royals 7-2 before 11,410 fans at Metropolitan Stadium in Bloomington. Tony Oliva led off the Minnesota 4th inning with a home run; Steve Braun doubled, and Johnny Briggs drew a base on balls before Mr. Roof homered. Eric Soderholm also homered for Minnesota.

Jim Rice singled home Denny Doyle with 1 out in the bottom of the 10th inning to give the Boston Red Sox a 3-2 win over the Detroit Tigers in the first game of a twi-night doubleheader before 31,317 fans at Fenway Park in Boston. Bill Lee allowed 11 hits in pitching a complete game victory. Roger Moret pitched a 9-hit complete game and struck out 8 as the Red Sox won 6-1 to complete the sweep.

Two intentional walks issued by St. Louis pitchers came around to score in the 8th inning, breaking a 3-3 tie and giving the Chicago Cubs a 5-3 win over the St. Louis Cardinals before 19,058 fans at Wrigley Field in Chicago. Paul Reuschel, the third Chicago pitcher, pitched 2 perfect innings for his first major league win.

Jim Dwyer, acquired six days earlier in a trade with the St. Louis Cardinals, drove in a run with a sacrifice fly in the 5th inning and hit an inside-the-park home run in the 7th inning to help the Montreal Expos defeat the Philadelphia Phillies 7-4 before 13,510 fans at Jarry Park in Montreal.

Rowland Office's 3-run home run off Mike Marshall with 1 out climaxed a 6-run 9th inning comeback as the Atlanta Braves beat the Los Angeles Dodgers 11-10 before 3,934 fans at Atlanta Stadium.

The Cincinnati Reds made 9 extra-base hits as they beat the San Francisco Giants 11-6 before 31,620 fans at Riverfront Stadium in Cincinnati. Johnny Bench's 3-run home run was the big blow of a 6-run 2nd inning for the Reds. Cincinnati second baseman Darrel Chaney, normally a backup and a weak hitter, had 3 doubles in 4 at bats with 2 runs and 2 runs batted in. Clay Kirby started on the mound for Cincinnati and allowed 7 hits and 4 earned runs in 6+ innings, but was credited with the win, and doubled in a run and scored in the 2nd inning.

Heity Cruz of the Tulsa Oilers hit a 3-run home run and drove in another run with a single to earn Most Valuable Player honours as the American Association All-Stars defeated the Chicago White Sox 7-4 in the American Association All-Star Game before 11,615 fans at Mile High Stadium in Denver. MIke Adams of the Wichita Aeros also homered for the AA. Bill Stein hit a home run and a double for the White Sox, and Gerry Moses also homered for Chicago. Mark Littell of the Omaha Royals, the third of six AA pitchers, pitched the 4th and 5th innings without allowing a baserunner, and was the winning pitcher. Lloyd Allen pitched the first 7 innings for the White Sox and took the loss, allowing 8 hits and 7 runs--6 earned. It was Mr. Allen's last appearance in a Chicago uniform; he was sold to the St. Louis Cardinals the next day. Tony Komadina, who had been called up from the Appleton White Sox of the Class A Midwest League, pitched the 8th inning for Chicago, allowing 2 hits but no runs, and striking out a batter. The White Sox used pitchers Terry Forster and Jim Kaat as pinch hitters, and Mr. Forster singled in his at bat.

Bill Stearns hit a 2-run home run in the bottom of the 8th inning and Dave Cheadle pitched 4 scoreless innings of relief to get the win as the Syracuse Chiefs of the AAA International League defeated the parent New York Yankees 5-4 in an exhibition game at MacArthur Stadium in Syracuse.

The Baltimore Orioles allowed just 4 hits in blanking the Rochester Red Wings, their International League affiliate, 3-0 in an exhibition game at Silver Stadium in Rochester.

Gene Tenace and Angel Mangual hit home runs to help the Oakland Athletics defeat the Tucson Toros, their AAA Pacific Coast League affiliate, 10-3 in an exhibition game at Hi Corbett Field in Tucson.

The Salt Lake City Gulls of the Pacific Coast League edged their parent club, the California Angels, 3-2 in an exhibition game at Derks Field in Salt Lake City.

30 years ago
1985


Died on this date
Eugene Carson Blake, 78
. U.S. religious leader. Dr. Blake was Stated Clerk of the Presbyterian Church U.S.A. from 1951-1958; President of the National Council of Churches from 1954-1957; and General Secretary of the World Council of Churches in 1966. He was known for his liberal theological, social, and political views. Dr. Blake delivered a speech in 1960 that provided the impetus for the Consultation on Church Union, and helped to organize Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.'s March on Washington in 1963.

25 years ago
1990


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Hanky Panky--Madonna

Died on this date
Albert Leduc, 87
. Canadian hockey player. Mr. Leduc, nicknamed "Battleship," was a defenceman with the Montreal Canadiens (1925-33, 1934-35); Ottawa Senators (1933-34); and New York Rangers (1933-34), scoring 93 points on 58 goals and 35 assists in 384 regular season games and 5 goals and 6 assists in 28 Stanley Cup games. He was a member of the Canadiens' Stanley Cup championship teams of 1929-30 and 1930-31.

Protest
Oka, Quebec Mayor Jean Ouellette got the Oka Town Council to reject a $1.34-million federal offer to buy disputed land for Mohawks, and $2.5 million compensation to town for lost economic opportunities.

Labour
16,000 Ontario and Quebec steel workers walked off the job at the Stelco and Algoma steel plants.

Baseball
Nolan Ryan picked up his 300th career major league victory as the Texas Rangers beat the Milwaukee Brewers 11-3 before 51,533 fans at County Stadium in Milwaukee.

20 years ago
1995


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Never Forget--Take That

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 I'll Be There for You--The Rembrandts (3rd week at #1)
2 Leave Virginia Alone--Rod Stewart
3 This Ain't a Love Song--Bon Jovi
4 Hold Me, Thrill Me, Kiss Me, Kill Me--U2
5 Made in England--Elton John
6 Misery--Soul Asylum
7 Water Runs Dry--Boyz II Men
8 Have You Ever Really Loved a Woman?--Bryan Adams
9 Only Wanna Be with You--Hootie & the Blowfish
10 December--Collective Soul

Singles entering the chart were Walk in the Sun by Bruce Hornsby (#81); I Saw You Dancing by Yaki-Da (#83); Young and in Love by The Pursuit of Happiness (#84); Every Road I Take by Eddie Schwartz (#89); Saviour by Colin James (#91); Let Me Be the One by Blessid Union of Souls (#92); Let it Rain by East 17 (#93); Think of You by Whigfield (#95); and Sexy Girl by Snow (#99).

Business
Walt Disney Co. agreed to acquire Capital Cities-ABC Inc. in a $19-billion deal.

10 years ago
2005


Died on this date
Wim Duisenberg, 70
. Dutch economist and politician. Mr. Duisenberg, a member of the Labour Party, was the Netherlands' Minister of Finance from 1973-1977. He was the first President of the European Central Bank from 1998-2003, and was instrumental in introducing the euro into the European Union in 2002. Mr. Duisenberg drowned in his swimming pool after suffering a heart attack.

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