Saturday, 16 July 2016

July 16, 2016

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Campbell Milton, Carmen Reyes Zubiaga, Elena, and Anna!

800 years ago
1216


Died on this date
Innocent III, 55 or 56
. Roman Catholic Pope, 1198-1216. Innocent III, born Lotario dei Conti di Segni, succeeded Celestine III on the papal throne, and became one of the most influential popes in history, using interdicts and other measures to assert his power and influence over European secular rulers. He initiated the Fourth Crusade in 1198, which was intended to attack Jerusalem, but was diverted, and resulted in the sacking of Constantinople in 1204. Pope Innocent III was responsible for the persecution of real Christians, and regarded the highlight of his papacy to be the slaughter of the inhabitants of the French town of Béziers on July 22, 1209. It's unknown exactly how many people were murdered in Béziers, but the number has been put at 20,000 and even as high as 60,000. Pope Innocent III died suddenly in the central Italian town of Perugia, and was succeeded as pope by Honorius III.

80 years ago
1936


War
The Spanish Civil War began as a series of right-wing revolts within the military against the five-year-old government of the Second Spanish Republic.

75 years ago
1941


War
German units captured Smolensk, 200 miles from Moscow.

Diplomacy
The U.S. Navy transport West Point sailed from New York to Lisbon with 464 Axis nationals aboard.

Defense
The U.S. Navy began to mine the entrances to Manila Bay and nearby Subic Bay. U.S. Navy Secretary Frank Knox ordered 37,467 enlisted naval reservists now on active duty to be held in service until the emergency ended. U.S. Patents Quarterly editor Karl Fenning said that nearly 30,000 inventions and ideas bearing on defense had been submitted to the National Inventors Council under the U.S. Commerce Department. U.S. Federal Power Commission Chairman Leland Olds said that a defensive electric power expansion program costing $470 million per year for the duration of the emergency was planned.

Politics and government
The Japanese cabinet of Prime Minister Prince Fumimaro Konoye submitted its resignation to Emperor Hirohito.

Cuban President Fulgencio Batista's cabinet resigned over a dispute between the ministers and Congress regarding patronage.

The Vichy French regime named General Maxime Weygand Governor-General of Algeria.

Famed American aviator and America First Committee supporter Colonel Charles Lindbergh demanded that U.S. Interior Secretary Harold Ickes apologize for implying that Col. Lindbergh had connections with the German Nazi regime.

Economics and finance
The Moscow Soviet ordered the rationing of foodstuffs and manufactured goods for the 4.2 million residents of the city, effective July 17.

Society
Professor Carle Zimmerman of Harvard University told a conference on "Tomorrow's Children" that "we need to encourage parents to have their third and fourth children right away" as an aid to defense.

Baseball
Buddy Rosar drove in 5 runs with 2 doubles and a single as the New York Yankees beat the Cleveland Indians 10-3 before 15,000 fans at League Park in Cleveland. New York center fielder Joe DiMaggio had 2 singles and a double, extending his major league record hitting streak to 56 games.

The Boston Red Sox scored a run in each of the last 2 innings to edge the Chicago White Sox 2-1 before 2,946 fans at Comiskey Park in Chicago. Tex Hughson pitched a 4-hit complete game to improve his record for the season to 3-0, winning the pitchers' duel over Buck Ross, who pitched a 5-hit complete game. The game was played in 1 hour 45 minutes.

Chet Laabs drove in 4 runs with 2 home runs, a double, and a triple as the St. Louis Browns routed the Philadelphia Athletics 11-2 before just 704 fans at Sportsman's Park in St. Louis.

Jim Tobin pitched an 8-hit complete game, singled, and scored a run as the Boston Braves defeated the Pittsburgh Pirates 4-1 in the first game of a doubleheader before 3,278 fans at Braves Field. Pittsburgh center fielder Vince DiMaggio had 3 singles and scored the Pirates' only run in the 4th inning. Debs Garms drove in 4 runs with 3 singles and a triple as the Pirates won the second game 13-5, coming from a 5-1 deficit to score 3 runs in the 6th inning, 7 in the 8th, and 2 in the 9th. Pittsburgh left fielder Bud Stewart had 2 singles, 2 doubles, and 4 runs, while Mr. DiMaggio added 2 singles, a run, and a run batted in.

70 years ago
1946


War
A U.S. military court in Dachau sentenced Colonel Joachim Peiper and 42 other German SS soldiers to death for killing American prisoners during the Battle of the Bulge in late 1944-early 1945.

Diplomacy
U.S.S.R. authorities in Germany released U.S. Warrant Officer Samuel Harrison and his wife, imprisoned two weeks earlier for entering the Soviet occupation zone without orders. Their release came after U.S. authorities agreed to release three Soviets held for a month on suspicion of espionage.

Defense
The U.S. War Department suspended Army enlistment of Negroes, which had recently exceeded the Negro-white ratio of 1:10 maintained by the Army. U.S. President Harry Truman directed that only men aged 19-29 be inducted when the draft was resumed in September 1946.

Economics and finance
U.S. miltary governor General Mark Clark turned control of the Hermann Goering iron works in Linz over to the Austrian government.

Agriculture
The United States signed a contract to purchase most of Cuba's 1946 and 1947 sugar crops.

Labour
Over 100,000 oil workers in Iran ended a three-say strike against Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, protesting company interference in Iranian politics.

60 years ago
1956


Diplomacy
The U.S.A. charged that the U.S.S.R. was holding at least 10 crew members from two American planes downed over the Baltic Sea and near the Siberian coast.

East German Premier Otto Grotewohl arrived in Moscow for talks with Soviet leaders.

Popular culture
Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus closed its last "Big Tent" show in Pittsburgh; due to changing economics, all subsequent circus shows were held in arenas.

Science
The American Chemical Society reported that Cornell University scientists had synthesized vasopressin, a pituitary hormone composed of amino acids.

Disasters
An Argentine DC-3 crashed near Rio Cuarto, killing 14 passengers and 4 crew members.

Heavy rainstorms in northern Japan caused 9 deaths, with 12 others listed as missing.

50 years ago
1966


Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Strangers in the Night--Frank Sinatra

#1 single in France: Ton Nom--Salvatore Adamo (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Tema--I Giganti (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Paperback Writer--The Beatles

#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Sunny Afternoon--The Kinks

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Sunny Afternoon--The Kinks (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Hanky Panky--Tommy James and the Shondells

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Hanky Panky--Tommy James and the Shondells (2nd week at #1)
2 Paperback Writer--The Beatles
3 Wild Thing--The Troggs
4 You Don't Have to Say You Love Me--Dusty Springfield
5 Strangers in the Night--Frank Sinatra
6 The Pied Piper--Crispian St. Peters
7 Red Rubber Ball--The Cyrkle
8 Dirty Water--The Standells
9 Little Girl--Syndicate of Sound
10 Along Comes Mary--The Association

Singles entering the chart were I Couldn't Live Without Your Love by Petula Clark (#73); Blowin' in the Wind by Stevie Wonder (#75); Summertime by Billy Stewart (#79); Open the Door to Your Heart by Darrell Banks (#83); Warm and Tender Love by Percy Sledge (#85); I Believe I'm Gonna Make It by Joe Tex (#87); You You You by Mel Carter (#88); The Tip of My Fingers by Eddy Arnold (#89); Tell Her by Dean Parrish (#94); Wade in the Water by Ramsey Lewis (#96); When You Wake Up by Cash McCall (#97); My Back Scratcher by Frank Frost (#98); (We’ll Be) United by the Intruders (#99); and Let's Call it a Day Girl by Razor's Edge (#100).

40 years ago
1976


Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand: Fernando--ABBA (7th week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Let Your Love Flow--Bellamy Brothers (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Let Your Love Flow--Bellamy Brothers (4th week at #1)

Music
The single Winning by Russ Ballard was released on Epic Records.

30 years ago
1986


Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): Touch Me (I Want Your Body)--Samantha Fox (2nd week at #1)

25 years ago
1991


Died on this date
Robert Motherwell, 76
. U.S. artist. Mr. Motherwell was the youngest member of the New York School of abstract expressionist painters.

Frank Rizzo, 70. U.S. policeman and politician. Mr. Rizzo joined the Philadelphia Police Department in 1940, and rose through the ranks to become Police Commissioner from 1967-1971 before serving as Mayor of Philadelphia from 1972-1980. He was known for his tough approach to crime, and his colourful language. Mr. Rizzo was a Democrat while Mayor, but switched to the Republican Party in 1986; he was running for the Republican nomination for the Philadelphia mayoral election when he suffered a fatal heart attack.

Europeana
Ukraine celebrated its first Independence Day.

10 years ago
2006


Died on this date
Winthrop Paul Rockefeller, 57
. U.S. politician. Mr. Rockefeller, a Republican and son of Arkansas Governor Winthrop Rockefeller, was Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas from 1996 until his death from a blood disorder.

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