Monday, 4 July 2016

July 4, 2016

240 years ago
1776


Americana
The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence, announcing the colonies' separation from Great Britain.

190 years ago
1826


Died on this date
John Adams, 90
. 2nd President of the United States of America, 1797-1801; 1st Vice President of the United States of America, 1789-1797. Mr. Adams, a native of Massachusetts, was an American Founding father who held various offices before serving as Vice President with President George Washington and then being elected President in 1796 as the candidate of the Federalist Party. He built up the United States Army and Navy, but avoided U.S. involvement in war in Europe. Mr. Adams was defeated in the 1800 presidential election by Democratic-Republican candidate Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Adams' last words included "Thomas Jefferson survives," as he was unaware that Mr. Jefferson had died several hours earlier.

Thomas Jefferson, 83. 3rd President of the United States of America, 1801-1809; 2nd Vice President of the United States of America, 1797-1801. Mr. Jefferson, a native of Virginia, was an American Founding Father, was Governor of Virginia from 1779-1981; U.S. Minister to France from 1785-1789; and U.S. Secretary of State from 1790-1793. The Democratic-Republican ticket of Mr. Jefferson and Aaron Burr defeated incumbent President John Adams in the 1800 presidential election. Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Burr received the same number of electoral votes; the House of Representatives decided in favour of Mr. Jefferson. Mr. Jefferson's presidency included the Louisiana Purchase and the defeat of Barbary pirates. Mr. Jefferson was probably the most brilliant and talented man ever to hold the office of President of the United States; he and Mr. Adams died on the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence.

180 years ago
1836


Journalism
Canadian responsible government advocate William Lyon Mackenzie started the newspaper The Constitution to mark the 60th anniversary of the American Declaration of Independence.

130 years ago
1886

Died on this date
Poundmaker, 44 (?)
. Canadian Indian chief. Poundmaker, whose name in Cree was Pîhtokahanapiwiyin, was chief of the Cree band that held Fort Battleford under siege and defeated the troops of Col. William Otter at Cut Knife Hill in southern Saskatchewan during the North-West Rebellion in 1885. After spending a year in jail at Stony Mountain Penitentiary in Manitoba, Poundmaker died of a lung hemorrhage at the home of his foster father, Chief Crowfoot, at Blackfoot Crossing, Northwest Territories.

Diplomacy
The people of France offered the Statue of Liberty to the people of the United States.

Transportation
A crowd of 1,500 British Columbians cheered as the Pacific Express, the Canadian Pacific Railway's first scheduled transcontinental passenger train from Montréal, rolled into Port Moody, the western terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, at noon, after a 5 day, 19 hour journey of 2,900 miles, with 170 passengers in two immigrant sleeping coaches; two first-class coaches; and two first-class sleeping coaches (named Yokohama and Honolulu). Also attached were one dining car (Holyrood); two baggage cars; and a mail car with 16 bags of English and Canadian mail. The arrival came 16 years after George-Étienne Cartier's Order-in-Council authorized building of the road as part of the terms of union with British Columbia.

125 years ago
1891


Died on this date
Hannibal Hamlin, 81
. 15th Vice President of the United States, 1861-1865. Mr. Hamlin, a Democrat until switching to the Republican Party in 1856, represented Maine's 6th District in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1843-1847, and in the United States Senate from 1848-1857, 1857-1861, and 1869-1881. He was Governor of Maine from January 8-February 25, 1857, but had a change of heart and returned to the Senate. Mr. Hamlin was Vice President with President Abraham Lincoln during Mr. Lincoln's first term as President, and served in the militia during the U.S. Civil War. Mr. Lincoln chose Andrew Johnson as his running mate for the 1864 election, and Mr. Hamlin left federal politics before serving two more terms in the Senate. He was U.S. Ambassador to Spain from 1881-1882.

100 years ago
1916


Born on this date
Iva Toguri
. U.S.-born broadcaster. Miss Toguri, an American of Japanese ancestry, was visiting relatives in Japan at the time of the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and was unable to get on the last plane out of Japan. She was coerced by Japanese authorities into making radio broadcasts aimed at Allied prisoners of war. Miss Toguri used the name Orphan Ann as she played music on the air, while privately trying to help American prisoners, and refusing to renounce her American citizenship. Prisoners referred to the Japanese female broadcasters as "Tokyo Rose," and although there was no single person by that name, Miss Toguri became identified as such. At the end of World War II, Miss Toguri was detained by American authorities for a year before being released because of a lack of evidence against her. However, she was eventually convicted of one count of treason in a trial that was tainted by perjured testimony, and was paroled after serving six years of a ten-year sentence. Miss Toguri was ultimately granted a full pardon by U.S. President Gerald Ford on January 19, 1977. She died on September 26, 2006 at the age of 90.

Died on this date
Alan Seeger, 28
. U.S. poet. Mr. Seeger, the uncle of singer-songwriter Pete Seeger, was best known for the poem I Have a Rendezvous with Death. He joined the French Foreign Legion, and was killed in the Battle of the Somme.

Boxing
Jack Dillon (78-2-9) knocked out Fireman Jim Flynn (52-22-16) at 1:47 of the 4th round of a heavyweight bout in Dewey, Oklahoma.

90 years ago
1926


Americana
Knoebels Amusement Resort, the largest free-admission amusement park in the United States, opened in Elysburg, Pennsylvania.

80 years ago
1936


On the radio
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Louis Hector and Harry West, on MBS
Tonight’s episode: The Typewritten Will

75 years ago
1941


At the movies
Caught in the Draft, starring Bob Hope and Dorothy Lamour, opened in theatres.

War
Both Germany and the U.S.S.R. reported that Soviet forces were withdrawing slowly to the Stalin Line in the central Russian sector. The United Kingdom announced that General Pietro Gazzera, supreme Italian commander in Ethiopia, had surrendered with all his forces in the province of Galla Sidamo.

Abominations
German troops massacred 25 Polish scientists and writers in the captured Ukrainian city of Lwów. The Great Choral Synagogue in German-occupied Riga was burned, with 20 Jews locked in the basement and as many as 300 killed in the synagogue before it was set on fire.

World events
An attempted revolt by the garrison of Pilar, led by Captain Heriberto dos Santos, was crushed by Paraguayan authorities.

Protest
The Turkish government reported that rioting had broken out among troops and civilians in Beirut as British forces continued bombing the city.

Diplomacy
Bolivian Foreign Minister Alberto Ostria Gutierrez said that his country supported the Uruguayan proposal that any American nation engaged in a foreign war be regarded as a non-belligerent.

Energy
U.S. Office of Production Management Director General William Knudsen reported that the Tennessee Valley Authority had approved the development of the Fontana, North Carolina hydroelectric project on the Little Tennessee River under an agreement with Alcoa.

70 years ago
1946


Died on this date
Gerda Steinhoff, 24
. German war criminal. SS-Oberaufseherin Steinhoff took part in selections of prisoners to be sent to the gas chambers at the Stutthof concentration camp. She was publicly hanged on July 4, 1946, on Biskupia Gorka Hill, near Gdańsk.

War
With defense testimony at the Nuremberg trial of accused Nazi war criminals concluded, attorneys for the 21 defendants blamed the late German Fuehrer Adolf Hitler for World War II, and asked for acquittal.

Diplomacy
The meeting in Paris of Allied foreign ministers reached a compromise giving the U.S.S.R. $100 million in Italian reparations and setting July 29, 1946 for the start of a 21-nation general peace conference.

Asiatica
The Philippine Republic became independent at 10 A.M. after 48 years of United States sovereignty.

Abominations
A pogrom against Jewish Holocaust survivors in Kielce, Poland resulted in the deaths of 42 Jews.

Terrorism
The Jewish organization Irgun Zvai Leumi released three British officers who had been kidnapped on June 18 in Jerusalem, in response to the British commutation of the death sentences of Irgun terrorists Joseph Simkhon and Isaac Ashbel.

60 years ago
1956


Died on this date
Chester Crittenden
; Bob Alberty. U.S. law enforcment officials and politicians. Mr. Crittenden, Sheriff of Adair County, Oklahoma, and Mr. Alberty, who had defeated Mr. Crittenden in the Democratic party primary for sheriff the previous day, shot each other to death in the county jail after Mr. Crittenden arrested Mr. Alberty, presumably for carrying a pistol.

Music
Elvis Presley was the headline act at an Independence Day concert at Russwood Park in Memphis.

Defense
Charging that Israel had massed troops in ther Jerusalem area, Jordan, Syria, and Egypt redeployed their forces along the Israeli frontier.

Returning to Washington from his visit to the U.S.S.R., U.S. Air Force Chief of Staff General Nathan Twining reiterated his previously expressed opinion that the Soviets were outproducing the United States in planes, and catching up in aircraft quality.

Diplomacy
Poland rejected an American offer of surplus food to aid Poland's workers.

Business
U.S. Attorney General Herbert Brownell announced plans to sue General Motors under the Sherman Antitrust Act for conspiracy to maintain a monopoly with four bus operating companies, including Greyhound Corporation.

Disasters
31 people were killed in a bus accident near Karachi, Pakistan.

50 years ago
1966


Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Juanita Banana--Luis Aguilé

#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Paperback Writer--The Beatles (3rd week at #1)

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Paperback Writer--The Beatles
2 Jug Band Music--The Lovin' Spoonful
3 Red Rubber Ball--The Cyrkle
4 You Don't Have to Say You Love Me--Dusty Springfield
5 Don't Bring Me Down--The Animals
6 Strangers in the Night--Frank Sinatra
7 Sweet Talkin' Guy--The Chiffons
8 Barefootin'--Robert Parker
9 The More I See You--Chris Montez
10 Green Grass--Gary Lewis and the Playboys

Singles entering the chart were Lil' Red Riding Hood by Sam the Sham and the Pharaohs (#77); You Wouldn't Listen by the Ides of March (#79); Over Under Sideways Down by the Yardbirds (#85); Wild Thing by the Troggs (#87); You Can't Roller Skate in a Buffalo Herd by Roger Miller (#88); Love Letters by Elvis Presley (#89); Painter by Lou Christie (#90); You're Nobody Till Somebody Loves You by the Wonder Who? (#93); Misty by Richard Holmes (#94); Can I Trust You by the Bachelors (#95); Teenager's Prayer by Joe Simon (#96); Just for You by Bobby Brittan (#98); I'm a Nut by Leroy Pullins (#99); and Searching for My Love by Bobby Moore (#100).

Americana
A memorial to President John F. Kennedy was dedicated in the Judean hills of Jerusalem.

Law
U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Freedom of Information Act into law; it went into effect in 1967.

Football
CFL
The Edmonton Eskimos named Norm Kimball as general manager, replacing Vic Schwenk, who had resigned because his wife was in poor health. Mr. Schwenk had been hired a few months earlier from the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League to replace the retired Joe Ryan, but had still spent most of his time in Los Angeles. Mr. Kimball, then the assistant general manager, had been performing most of the general manager's duties in Mr. Schwenk's absence. Mr. Kimball joined the Eskimos as minor football coordinator in 1961.

40 years ago
1976


Died on this date
Yonatan Netanyahu, 30
. Israeli military officer. Lieutenant Colonel Netanyahu was the leader of the Israeli commando raid at Entebbe Airport in Entebbe, Uganda that rescued passengers who had been held hostage by Palestine Liberation Organization terrorists since the plane had been hijacked six days earlier. Lt. Col. Netanyahu ws the only Israeli killed in the raid; he was the older brother of future Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

Terrorism
Israeli commandos rescued 103 hostages who were being held by Palestine Liberation Organization terrorists at Entebbe Airport in Entebbe, Uganda, six days after Air France Flight 139 (Tel Aviv-Athens-Paris) had been hijacked en route to Paris. Seven of the terrorists were killed in the fighting, as were three hostages and dozens of Ugandan soldiers.

Politics and government
Jose Lopez Portillo was elected President of Mexico.

Baseball
In the 2nd inning of the first game of a doubleheader between the Philadelphia Phillies and Pittsburgh Pirates before 32,422 fans at Three Rivers Stadium in Pittsburgh, Philadelphia catcher Tim McCarver hit the ball over the right field fence for an apparent grand slam. Teammate Garry Maddox, who was on first base, retreated to first base, thinking the ball might be caught; Mr. McCarver didn't notice Mr. Maddox, passed him, and was called out. Mr. McCarver was credited with a 3-run single. The Phillies won the game 10-5. The Pirates scored 6 runs in the 7th inning as they won the second game 7-1.

Kevin Bell singled home Jorge Orta with 2 out in the bottom of the 9th inning to tie the game 6-6, and Mr. Orta singled home Bucky Dent with 2 out in the bottom of the 12th to give the Chicago White Sox a 7-6 win over the Texas Rangers in the first game of a doubleheader before 15,689 fans at Comiskey Park in Chicago. The Rangers won the second game 3-2.

30 years ago
1986


Hit parade
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Atlantis is Calling (S.O.S. for Love)--Modern Talking (4th week at #1)

Football
CFL
Toronto (2-0) 20 @ Montreal (0-2) 12

25 years ago
1991


Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): Everything I Do (I Do it for You)--Bryan Adams

Died on this date
Art Sansom, 70
. U.S. cartoonist. Mr. Sansom was best known for creating the comic strip The Born Loser, which began running in newspapers in 1965.

Diplomacy
South Korean President Roh Tae-Woo and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney held talks in Ottawa on how to improve trade and political ties.

Politics and government
Elections Canada reported that the governing Progressive Conservative Party had raised 20% less in 1990 than 1989, while the Liberal Party, New Democratic Party, and Reform Party raised more money in 1990 than in 1989.

The government of Québec put in a two-year freeze on immigration, with a maximum of 45,000 in 1991 and 1992, because of public fears that immigrants threatened jobs in a poor economy.

Economics and finance
The Saskatchewan government of Premier Grant Devine brought in the Gross Revenue Insurance Plan; it combined crop and revenue insurance, and was funde throughout the year in three payments instead of at year end.

Scandal
Patricia Starr, former political fundraiser for the Ontario Liberal Party, received a $3,500 fine for breaking Ontario's election finance laws; she had been convicted of fraud on June 28.

Communications
Canadian Privacy Commissioner Bruce Phillips urgently recommended legislation against the interception of cellular telephone conversations.

Football
CFL
Pre-season
Saskatchewan (0-2) 35 @ British Columbia (1-1) 38

20 years ago
1996


Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Killing Me Softly--The Fugees

#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): Macarena--Los Del Rio (3rd week at #1)

Football
CFL
Hamilton (2-0) 38 @ Toronto (1-1) 36

Matt Dunigan completed 23 of 41 passes for 378 yards and 5 touchdowns--the last a 6-yard pass to Earl Winfield with 3:32 remaining in regulation time--to win the quarterbacking duel over Doug Flutie before 26,333 fans at SkyDome. Mr. Flutie completed 33 of 48 passes for 417 yards and 4 TDs. Toronto kicker Mike Vanderjagt missed a 50-yard field goal on the last play of regulation time that would have sent the game into overtime if successful, but went for a single point to end the game.

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