800 years ago
King John of England sealed the Magna Carta into law.
240 years ago
The Second Continental Congress appointed George Washington commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.
230 years ago
Died on this date
Jean-Francois Pilâtre de Rozier, 31; Pierre Romain. French balloonists. Messrs. Pilâtre de Rozier and Romain became the world’s first air crash fatalities when their balloon exploded during an attempt to cross the English Channel.
200 years ago
Charlotte, Duchess of Richmond's ball, "the most famous ball in history," was held in Brussels, the night before the Battle of Quatre Bras.
140 years ago
The Canada Presbyterian Church (June 1861); Presbyterian Church of Canada in Connection with the Established Church of Scotland (1831); Synod of the Presbyterian Church of the Maritime Provinces of British North America (1867); and Presbyterian Church of the Lower Provinces (1866), representing many of the parallel events and controversies within the Church of Scotland, assembled at Victoria Hall in Montreal to form The Presbyterian Church in Canada.
100 years ago
Born on this date
Thomas Huckle Weller. U.S. biologist and virologist. Dr. Weller shared the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with John Enders and Frederick Robbins "for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue." Dr. Weller died on August 23, 2008 at the age of 93.
Lieutenant Frederick William Campbell of the 1st Battalion, Western Ontario Regiment, Canadian Expeditionary Force moved two machine-gun detachments forward under heavy fire at Givenchy, France. He reached the German front line trench with one gun after nearly all his detachment were killed or wounded, and held back the German counter-attack by advancing further and firing off 1,000 more rounds before getting hit by fire. Lt. Campbell died four days later at the age of 48, and was awarded the Victoria Cross posthumously on August 23, 1915.
75 years ago
Operation Ariel began as Allied troops started to evacuate France, following Germany's takeover of Paris and most of the nation.
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a bill expanding the U.S. Navy's air corps by 10,000 planes and 16,000 aviators. He also decided to set up a National Defense Research Committee to plan, coordinate, and organize all scientific work on new weapons.
U.S. Army Colonel Charles Lindbergh urged the United States to stay out of the European war, although he said he favoured hemispheric defense and universal military service.
The U.S. House of Representatives approved and sent to the Senate a bill authorizing increased border patrols to help curb alien entry into the United States.
Politics and government
The Michigan Democratic State Convention endorsed Franklin D. Roosevelt for a third term as President of the United States.
Economics and finance
The United States Senate approved the House of Representatives bill authorizing the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to purchase par value stock in Federal Home Loan Banks.
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a bill limiting federal credit union loans to $100 unless adequate security was provided.
Harry Danning hit for the cycle to lead the New York Giants to a 12-1 win over the Pittsburgh Pirates before 5,941 fans at the Polo Grounds in New York. His home run was an inside-the-park hit that landed in center field and got stuck behind the Eddie Grant memorial near the Giants' clubhouse. Pittsburgh center fielder Vince DiMaggio was unable to extricate the ball in time to prevent Mr. Danning from scoring. Hal Schumacher pitched a 5-hit complete game for the win.
70 years ago
At the movies
Conflict, starring Humphrey Bogart, Alexis Smith, and Sydney Greenstreet, opened in theatres.
A force of 444 U.S. Superfortresses made the 75th American air raid on Japan, attacking Osaka and neighbouring Amagasaki. Most of Osaka's industry was destroyed by the 3,157 tons of bombs dropped in the raid.
The United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco adopted an amendment to prevent the UN from interfering in a state's domestic jurisdiction.
Official British sources reported that the meeting of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, U.S. President Harry Truman, and U.S.S.R. dictator Josef Stalin would be held in Berlin, probably from July 5-26, 1945.
Politics and government
Panama's Constitutional Assembly elected Enrique Jimenez as provisional President.
King George VI dissolved the U.K. Parliament after its longest session since 1679. It would reconvene on August 1, 1945, five days after the results of the general election were revealed.
Allied Supreme Commander in Europe U.S. Army General Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote the U.S. House of Representatives that even in peacetime there should be military training required of all able-bodied men.
U.S. President Harry Truman ordered the Office of Defense Transportation to seize the entire trucking industry in Chicago, involving 80,000 workers who were voting on a strike.
Economics and finance
The governments of Sweden and Norway signed three financial pacts in Oslo.
The United States Senate agreed to limit debate on the reciprocal trade agreements bill.
The United States and Argentina concluded an agreement whereby Argentina would receive heating oil in return for vegetable oils.
50 years ago
Died on this date
Steve Cochran, 48. U.S. actor. Mr. Cochran was known for playing tough guys in movies such as The Chase (1946) and White Heat (1949), and in numerous television programs. He died aboard his yacht off the coast of Guatemala, reportedly from an acute lung infection; conspiracy theories abound.
The Beatles were at EMI Studios in London, where they recorded the song It's Only Love.
40 years ago
The Chicago White Sox traded pitchers Stan Bahnsen and Skip Pitlock to the Oakland Athletics for pitcher Dave Hamilton and outfielder Chet Lemon. Mr. Bahnsen was 4-6 with an earned run average of 6.01 in 12 games with Chicago in 1975, while Mr. Pitlock had given up a hit to the only batter he'd faced with the White Sox that year, but was currently on the roster of the Denver Bears of the AAA American Association, and was 4-1 with a 3.91 ERA in 23 games. Mr. Hamilton was 1-2 with a 4.04 ERA in 11 games with Oakland in 1975. Mr. Lemon was batting .280 with 5 home runs and 33 runs batted in in 65 games with the Tucson Toros of the AAA Pacific Coast League. Mr. Pitlock was assigned to Tucson, and Mr. Lemon to Denver.
The Chicago White Sox traded first baseman Tony Muser to the Baltimore Orioles for pitcher Jesse Jefferson. Mr. Muser was batting .243 with no home runs and 6 runs batted in in 43 games with Chicago in 1975, while Mr. Jefferson was 0-2 with a 2.35 earned run average in 4 games with Baltimore in 1975.
The Baltimore Orioles sold veteran catcher Andy Etchebarren to the California Angels. Mr. Etchebarren was batting .200 with no home runs and 3 runs batted in in 8 games with Baltimore in 1975.
The Detroit Tigers sold first baseman Nate Colbert to the Montreal Expos for $75,000. Mr. Colbert was batting .147 with 4 home runs and 18 runs batted in, with 52 strikeouts in 156 at bats in 45 games with Detroit in 1975, and had been a huge disappointment with the Tigers, who had obtained him in a trade with the San Diego Padres after the 1974 season. To make room for Mr. Colbert, the Expos assigned outfielder Rich Coggins to the Memphis Blues of the AAA International League.
Pinch hitter Cliff Johnson hit a grand slam off Mike Garman with 1 out in the top of the 9th inning to give the Houston Astros an 8-7 win over the St. Louis Cardinals before 33,201 fans at Busch Memorial Stadium in St. Louis. 6 of the 8 Houston runs were unearned, the result of 3 St. Louis errors. St. Louis center fielder Willie Davis hit his first home run since being acquired 11 days earlier in a trade with the Texas Rangers.
Catfish Hunter pitched a 4-hit shutout as the New York Yankees blanked the Chicago White Sox 3-0 before 53,562 fans on Bat Day at Shea Stadium in New York. Stan Bahnsen started on the mound for Chicago and allowed 8 hits and 3 earned runs in 6 1/3 innings, and was traded to the Oakland Athletics after the game. The Yankees had so many injuries to their regular outfielders--Bobby Bonds, Roy White, Elliott Maddox. Ron Blomberg, Alex Johnson, and Lou Piniella--that they played Kerry Dineen, who had made his major league debut the previous night by playing the 9th inning, in center field, and catchers Thurman Munson and Rick Dempsey in left and right fields, respectively. Mr. Dineen batted leadoff and singled and scored in the 7th inning while making 6 putouts, including the last out of the game. Mr. Munson drove in 2 runs with a pair of singles and made 1 putout before being relieved in the field by Walt Williams in the 9th inning. Mr. Dempsey singled and scored a run, and made 2 putouts.
The Boston Red Sox scored 4 runs in the top of the 8th inning and held off a Kansas City comeback to edge the Royals 8-7 before 17,583 fans at Royals Stadium. The final 2 Boston runs scored when catcher Tim Blackwell hit a ground ball that bounced in front of home plate; when Kansas City catcher Fran Healy went out to field the ball, no one covered home, and Rico Petrocelli and Dwight Evans scored. Boston second baseman Denny Doyle, playing his second game since being acquired from the California Angels the previous day, hit his first home run for his new team in the 2nd inning.
The California Angels scored 2 runs in the top of the 11th inning and withstood a Milwaukee rally to edge the Brewers 8-7 in the first game of a doubleheader before 23,597 fans at County Stadium in Milwaukee. Leroy Stanton drove in 5 runs for California with a grand slam in the 2nd inning and a single. Tom Egan caught the last 4 innings for the Angels, batting 0 for 2, participating in a double play in the field, dropping a foul pop fly for an error, and throwing out Charlie Moore on a ground ball for the game's final out. For Mr. Egan, it turned out to be the final game of his 9-year major league career. Gorman Thomas hit home runs in each game for the Brewers, and his homer in the 2nd game helped Milwaukee win 4-2. Jim Slaton pitched a shutout for the Brewers until Ellie Rodriguez hit a 2-run homer with 1 out in the 9th.
Gaylord Perry, pitching his first game with the Texas Rangers since being traded from the Cleveland Indians two days earlier, allowed 10 hits and 5 earned runs in 6 innings, falling to 6-10 for the year as the Rangers lost 5-1 before 27,171 fans at Arlington Stadium. Rookie Dennis Eckersley allowed 6 hits in 8 2/3 innings in improving his record to 4-0. Jackie Brown, acquired in the trade for Mr. Perry, came out of the bullpen to get the last out of the game. Mike Bacsik made his major league debut on the mound for Texas, pitching the last 2 innings and allowing 1 hit and no runs.
Dr. Bernard Kraus, owner of the Memphis Blues of the AAA International League, fired general manager Ron Willis as "a matter of economics" in an attempt to get the team out of debt. Dr. Kraus said that the general manager's duties would be shared by assistant general manager and statistician Bob Hagemann, business manager Bill Walberg, and treasurer Al Goldschmid. The Blues were in their third season as the top farm team of the Montreal Expos of the National League. They were near the bottom of the eight-team IL, and had drawn just 27,140 fans--an average of just over 900 per game--to 29 home games so far in 1975.
30 years ago
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): We are the World--USA for Africa (10th week at #1)
#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): 19--Paul Hardcastle
#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Don't You (Forget About Me)--Simple Minds (3rd week at #1)
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): I'm on Fire/Born in the U.S.A.--Bruce Springsteen (2nd week at #1)
#1 single in the U.K.: You'll Never Walk Alone--The Crowd
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Everybody Wants to Rule the World--Tears for Fears (2nd week at #1)
U.S. top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Everybody Wants to Rule the World--Tears for Fears (2nd week at #1)
2 Everything She Wants--Wham!
3 Axel F--Harold Faltermeyer
4 Suddenly--Billy Ocean
5 In My House--Mary Jane Girls
6 Heaven--Bryan Adams
7 Things Can Only Get Better--Howard Jones
9 Walking On Sunshine--Katrina and the Waves
10 Fresh--Kool & the Gang
Singles entering the chart were Shout by Tears for Fears (#64); People Get Ready by Jeff Beck and Rod Stewart (#83); Stir it Up by Patti LaBelle (#85); and Go for Soda by Kim Mitchell (#89).
Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Everything She Wants--Wham!
2 Everybody Wants to Rule the World--Tears for Fears
3 Don't You (Forget About Me)--Simple Minds
4 Crazy for You--Madonna
5 Smooth Operator--Sade
7 Walking On Sunshine--Katrina and the Waves
8 Just a Gigolo/I Ain't Got Nobody--David Lee Roth
9 Suddenly--Billy Ocean
10 Black Cars--Gino Vannelli
Singles entering the chart were 19 by Paul Hardcastle (#76); Not Enough Love in the World by Don Henley (#89); Possession Obsession by Daryl Hall John Oates (#92); Kiss Me by Stephen "Tin Tin" Duffy (#93); Who's Holding Donna Now by DeBarge (#94); and Wake Up (Next to You) by Graham Parker and the Shot (#96).
Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney announced the temporary closure of the Canadian embassy in Beirut.
Rembrandt's painting Danaë, on display at the Hermitage Museum in Leningrad, was attacked by a man (later judged insane) who threw sulfuric acid on the canvas and cut it twice with a knife.
25 years ago
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Verdammt, Ich Lieb' Dich--Matthias Reim (5th week at #1)
Nicaraguan President Violetta Barrios de Chamorro announced that more than 14,000 Contra rebels had disarmed under an agreement she had reached with them; their total force had been estimated at about 16,000. Mrs. Chamorro also announced that the Sanadanista-trained armed forces would be cut from its present strength of 55,000-60,000 to about 41,000, and that an all-volunteer army would be created.
Politics and government
The New Brunswick legislature, composed entirely of Liberals, unanimously approved the Meech Lake Canadian constitutional accord. In Manitoba, an attempt by all three parties--Progressive Conservative, Liberal, and New Democratic--to secure unanimous approval in order for the bill to go before the legislature failed when NDP MLA Elijah Harper, a Cree Indian, refused to give his consent, saying the accord did not address native concerns--and thereby became a Canadian hero, albeit an enemy of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
Veteran Nova Scotia MP Patrick Nowlan resigned from the federal Progressive Conservative caucus to protest Prime Minister Mulroney's "highly manipulative" handling of Meech Lake negotiations
The United States State Department announced that it would withhold U.S. economic aid to Romania. Within the previous two days, riot police and miners had attacked anti-government protesters, ransacked the headquarters of two opposition political parties, and wrecked the office of an independent newspaper.
Economics and finance
The Dow Jones industrial average reached 2935.89, another all-time high.
The United States Commerce Department reported that the merchandise trade deficit had narrowed to $6.94 billion in April.
20 years ago
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): This Ain't a Love Song--Bon Jovi
Bosnian government forces began an offensive aimed at lifting the 38-month Serb siege of Sarajevo.
The leaders of the world's seven wealthiest industrial nations--U.S.A.; U.K.; Canada; France; Germany; Italy; and Japan--convened their 21st annual summit in Halifax. French President Jacques Chirac called on his colleagues to support deployment of a rapid reaction force to help the United Nations carry out its mission in Bosnia.
Richard Weber of Chelsea, Quebec and Russian physician Mikhail Mlakhov reached Ward Hunt Island, Northwest Territories, Canada's northernmost point of land, becoming the first to ski to the North Pole and back without support teams or outside help. They had started the 1,500-kilometre trek on February 13, 1995, and proved that Robert Peary could not have reached the Pole in 1909.
Economics and finance
Moody's Investors Service lowered Quebec's credit rating, due to political uncertainty and high taxes.
Toronto (0-1) 17 @ Hamilton (1-0) 33
10 years ago
Died on this date
Suzanne Flon, 87. French actress. Miss Flon appeared in both French- and English-langiage plays and films, including Moulin Rouge (1952); Mr. Arkadin (1955); The Trial (1962); and The Train (1964).
Images of laboratories now on Flickr - A laboratory is a place where scientific and technological experiments, as well as measurements, are performed. Different types of equipment and tools may ...
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