Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Beth Stover!
275 years ago
A combined force of Spanish, free Negroes, and allied Indians defeated a British garrison in the Battle of Fort Mose near St. Augustine, Florida during the War of Jenkins' Ear.
125 years ago
The Philadelphia Quakers scored 14 runs in the 6th inning as they whipped the Buffalo Bisons 30-12 in a Players League game at Olympic Park in Buffalo. The Bisons made 10 errors; as a result, only 6 of the runs against losing pitcher Lady Baldwin were earned.
90 years ago
At the movies
The Gold Rush, produced, directed, written by, and starring Charlie Chaplin, opened in theatres.
In Toronto, Ted Rogers invented the alternating-current tube which allowed for plug-in batteryless radios; the RB call sign of his Toronto radio station CFRB means "Rogers Batteryless."
Jim Barnes won the British Open at Prestwick Golf Club in Scotland with a four-round score of 300, 1 stroke ahead of Archie Compston and Ted Ray. First prize money was £75.
75 years ago
Under the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the U.S.S.R. presented an ultimatum to Romania requiring it to cede Bessarabia and the northern part of Bukovina to the Soviet Union.
In a personal message to U.S.S.R. dictator Josef Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill warned of the dangers to the Soviet Union of German hegemony in Europe.
Politics and government
General Auguste Nogues, French commander in North Africa, announced that Moroccan forces would support the French regime in Vichy.
The Republican National Convention in Philadelphia adopted a platform calling for U.S. non-intervention in foreign wars.
Economics and finance
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt approved a graduated excess war profits tax, ranging from 10%-75%.
The Export-Import Bank extended a $20 million loan to Argentina.
70 years ago
A force of 510 U.S. Superfortresses and 148 fighter escorts attacked industrial targets on Japan's Honshu and Shikoku islands, including the cities of Nagoya and Osaka.
The United Nations Charter was signed by 50 countries at the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco.
Economics and finance
The United States Congress approved retention of 3c first-class postage for another two years.
The United States Justice Department said that 12 of the 24 German-American Bundists freed by the Supreme Court would now be held as dangerous enemy aliens.
60 years ago
Politics and government
At the Congress of the People in Kliptown, the South African Congress Alliance--consisting of the African National Congress (ANC); South African Indian Congress; Coloured People's Congress; South African Congress of Trade Unions (SACTU); and Congress of Democrats--adopted the Freedom Charter, whose principles included a non-racial South Africa.
50 years ago
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Crying in the Chapel--Elvis Presley (2nd week at #1)
#1 single in France: La Danse de Zorba--Mikis Theodorakis
#1 single in Italy (FIMI): Un anno d'amore--Mina (13th week at #1)
#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Heute male ich dein Bild, Cindy Lou--Drafi Deutscher (2nd week at #1)
#1 single in the Netherlands (De Nederlandse Top 40): Ticket to Ride--The Beatles (8th week at #1)
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Crying in the Chapel--Elvis Presley (2nd week at #1)
#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Mr. Tambourine Man--The Byrds
U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 I Can't Help Myself (Sugar Pie, Honey Bunch)--The Four Tops (2nd week at #1)
2 Mr. Tambourine Man--The Byrds
3 Wooly Bully--Sam the Sham and the Pharaohs
4 Crying in the Chapel--Elvis Presley
5 Wonderful World--Herman's Hermits
6 (I Can't Get No) Satisfaction--The Rolling Stones
7 For Your Love--The Yardbirds
8 Help Me, Rhonda--The Beach Boys
9 Back in My Arms Again--The Supremes
10 Yes, I'm Ready--Barbara Mason
Singles entering the chart were I Like it Like That by the Dave Clark Five (#59); Sitting in the Park by Billy Stewart (#79); Forget Domani, with versions by Frank Sinatra and Connie Francis (#81); My Man by Barbra Streisand (#86); Theme from "A Summer Place" by the Lettermen (#88); Take Me Back by Little Anthony and the Imperials (#89); Long Live Love by Sandie Shaw (#92); Silver Threads and Golden Needles by Jody Miller (#96); Nobody Knows What's Goin' On (In My Mind But Me) by the Chiffons (#97); From a Window by Chad & Jeremy (#99); and Moon Over Naples by Bert Kaempfert and his Orchestra (#100).
The Beatles continued their European tour with two shows at Palazzo dello Sport in Genoa.
40 years ago
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): The Proud One--The Osmonds
Died on this date
Josemaría Escrivá, 73. Spanish Roman Catholic clergyman. Mr. Escrivá was a priest who in 1928 founded Opus Dei, a secretive and controversial order of laypeople and priests dedicated to the teaching that everyone is called to holiness and that ordinary life is a path to sanctity. Mr. Escrivá was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 2002.
Jack Coler; Ronald Williams. U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation agents; Joe Stuntz. U.S. Indian activist. Agents Coler and Williams were killed in a shootout on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, with Mr. Stuntz, an American Indian Movement member, being fatally shot after the deaths of the FBI agents. AIM activist Leonard Peltier was later convicted of the murders in a controversial trial.
As part of his Welcome to My Nightmare tour, Alice Cooper performed before a crowd of 16,000 at Edmonton Coliseum, but had to end the show early, as he was still in pain from cracked ribs and a head injury suffered in an accidental fall from the stage suring his show in Vancouver four days earlier. Suzi Quatro was the opening act.
The Supreme Court of Canada upheld a Prince Edward Island law banning non-residents from owning more than 4 hectares of land.
The Pittsburgh Pirates released veteran pitcher Sam McDowell. "Sudden Sam" compiled a record of 141-134 with the Cleveland Indians (1961-1971); San Francisco Giants (1972-1973); New York Yankees (1973-1974); and Pittsburgh Pirates (1975), with an earned run average of 3.17 in 425 games. He led the American League in strikeouts five times in six years from 1965-1970, and led the AL in 1965 with an ERA of 2.18. Injuries and a drinking problem curtailed Mr. McDowell's career in his last four seasons. With the Pirates, he was 2-1 with a 2.86 ERA in 14 games.
Rennie Stennett hit a 3-run home run with 1 out in the bottom of the 9th inning to give the Pittsburgh Pirates a 5-2 win over the Chicago Cubs before 10,393 fans at Three Rivers Stadium in Pittsburgh. John Candelaria pitched a complete game for the win, allowing 5 hits and 2 earned runs, while striking out 13.
The St. Louis Cardinals scored all their runs in the 8th inning--2 on Ted Sizemore's first home run of the season--as they beat the Montreal Expos 4-3 before 11,173 fans at Jarry Park in Montreal.
Ed Halicki pitched a 5-hit shutout and had a hit of his own in winning a pitchers' duel over Andy Messersmith as the San Francisco Giants blanked the Los Angeles Dodgers 2-0 before 6,989 fans at Candlestick Park in San Francisco. Willie Montanez doubled home Von Joshua and Bobby Murcer in the 1st inning to account for all the scoring.
Bill Melton hit a grand slam in the 8th inning as the Chicago White Sox beat the Texas Rangers 8-3 before 7,681 fans at White Sox Park. Despite giving up 7 earned runs, losing pitcher Ferguson Jenkins pitched a complete game.
Fred Lynn had a single and a triple, scored 2 runs and drove in 3, and Carlton Fisk hit his first home run in over a year as the Boston Red Sox beat the New York Yankees 6-1 before 34,293 fans at Fenway Park in Boston. Mr. Fisk's homer was his first since June 17, 1974, 11 days before he suffered a season-ending knee injury; his return was further delayed by a broken arm suffered when hit by a pitch in a spring training game in March 1975. Luis Tiant pitched a 7-hit complete game and struck out 8 to improve his record for the year to 11-6.
George Brett batted 4 for 4 with a double, 2 runs, a run batted in, and a stolen base, and Fred Patek hit his first home run of the season as the Kansas City Royals defeated the California Angels 7-1 before 6,449 fans at Anaheim Stadium. Marty Pattin allowed 9 hits and no bases on balls in pitching a complete game victory.
The Tacoma Twins of the Pacific Coast League defeated their parent club, the Minnesota Twins, 11-7 in an exhibition game before 4,254 rain-soaked fans in Tacoma. Randy Bass and Bob Gorinski hit home runs for Tacoma, while Steve Brye homered for Minnesota. Relief pitcher Rocky Stone was credited with the win.
Roger Freed hit a 3-run home run in the 1st inning and homered in the 10th for the winning run as the Monterrey Sultans edged the Poza Rica Oilers 7-6 in a Mexican League game.
30 years ago
Wilbur Snapp, organist at home games of the Clearwater Phillies of the Florida State League, was ejected by the first base umpire for playing "Three Blind Mice" after a disputed call.
25 years ago
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Sydän tyhjää lyö--Eppu Normaali
South African terrorist Nelson Mandela addressed the United States Congress, thanking the U.S. for imposing sanctions against the South African government, and urging that they be maintained until "irreversible" reforms were established. Some members boycotted the speech, objecting, in part, to Mr. Mandela’s refusal to criticize fellow thugs Yasser Arafat, Fidel Castro, and Muammar Gaddafi, all of whom supported his cause.
Politics and government
Four more Quebec Members of Parliament--Louis Plamondon (Progressive Conservative--Richelieu); Benoit Tremblay (PC--Rosemount); Nic Leblanc (PC--Longeueil); and Jean Lapierre (Liberal--Shefford) announced that they were leaving their parties to work exclusively for Quebec interests in the House of Commons, bringing to seven the number of MP s who had defected in the aftermath of the failure of the Meech Lake Canadian constitutional accord. The four new independent MP s predicted that more would follow them to join a "Quebec first" party led by former PC cabinet minister Lucien Bouchard, who had quit the government in May. In Montreal, Jacques Parizeau and Mr. Bouchard discussed creating a federal Quebec separatist party. A Parti Quebecois poll conducted in his Montreal riding said that 66% would support any candidate backed by Mr. Bouchard.
Martial Asselin was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec, succeeding Gilles Lamontagne.
Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney appointed Antonio Lamer as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada, replacing the retiring Brian Dickson.
Canadian Justice Minister Kim Campbell introduced gun control legislation banning automatic assault weapons, with a five-year jail term to anyone convicted of converting a weapon to automatic fire.
The United States Senate voted 58-42 in favour of an amendment to the Constitution that would ban desecration of the American flag, but the total was short of the 2/3 majority required for the approval of an amendment.
Economics and finance
U.S. President George Bush, who had campaigned for president in 1988 against raising taxes, issued a statement in which he listed "tax revenue increases" as one of the necessary components of any plan to reduce the nation’s budget deficits. He indicated that a compromise with Congress on the budget was not possible without agreeing to some sort of revenue increase. Democratic party congressional leaders praised Mr. Bush’s flip-flop, but many Republicans were incensed. One letter, signed by more than half of the Republicans in the House of Representatives, called a tax increase "unacceptable."
In Toronto, Justice Charles Dubin released his 638-page report on drug use in sport. Calling the situation a "moral crisis;" he recommended cutting funding to Canadian athletes exposed as users of banned drugs.
20 years ago
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Scatman's World--Scatman John
Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Have You Ever Really Loved a Woman?--Bryan Adams (5th week at #1)
2 Let Her Cry--Hootie & the Blowfish
3 December--Collective Soul
4 Water Runs Dry--Boyz II Men
5 Leave Virginia Alone--Rod Stewart
6 I Believe--Blessid Union of Souls
7 No More "I Love You's"--Annie Lennox
8 Secret Garden--Bruce Springsteen
9 Can't Stop Lovin' You--Van Halen
10 Lightning Crashes--Live
Singles entering the chart were Downtown by Neil Young (#70); Total Eclipse of the Heart by Nikki French (#76); Only Wanna Be with You by Hootie & the Blowfish (#82); Tell Me What I Think by Spirit of the West (#86); and Unloved by Jann Arden (#90).
Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani deposed his father Khalifa bin Hamad al-Thani, the Emir of Qatar, in a bloodless coup.
Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak survived an assassination attempt in Addis Ababa. Mr. Mubarak was on his way to a summit meeeting of the Organization of African Unity when gunmen in a jeep, joined by comrades on rooftops and on the street, fired at his limousine with automatic weapons. Mr. Mubarak was not injured, but two Ethiopian police officers and two of the assailants were killed, and others were wounded. Terrorists seeking to overthrow Mr. Mubarak and establish an Islamic state in Egypt were suspected in the attack.
Politics and government
Progressive Conservative leader Mike Harris sworn in as Premier of Ontario, replacing Bob Rae of the New Democratic Party. The PCs had won 82 out of 130 seats in the legislature in the provincial election on June 8. Mr. Harris's cabinet of 19 was the smallest in Ontario in 30 years.
U.S. Representative Greg Laughlin (Texas) switched his association from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party, after Republican leaders promised to create a seat on the Ways and Means Committee for him. Mr. Laughlin, a conservative, said that his philosophy could not be found "in the agenda of the House Democratic leadership." Also in Texas, 18 state and local Democratic officeholders joined the Republican Party.
Victoria Cross Recipients: First World War now on Flickr - The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest military decoration in the Commonwealth and takes precedence over all other medals, decorations and orders. A recogn...
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