Sunday, 4 September 2016

September 4, 2016

775 years ago

Born on this date
Alexander III
. King of Scots, 1249-1286. Alexander III was the only son of King Alexander II and succeeded him at the age of 7 in July 1249. Alexander III married King Henry III of England's daughter Margaret, and she bore him three children, but Queen Margaret died in 1275, and all three of their children died while their father was still on the throne. King Alexander III married Yolande de Dreux in 1285. While riding at night to meet her at Kinghorn, Fife to celebrate her birthday the following day, King Alexander fell off his horse and died of a broken neck on March 18, 1926 at the age of 44. Queen Yolande was pregnant with his child, but the pregnancy ended with an apparent miscarriage, and Alexander III's 7-year-old granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway inherited the throne. She died uncrowned in 1290 while on her way to Scotland.

140 years ago

Ned Hanlon of Toronto won the world rowing championship in Philadelphia.

130 years ago

After almost 30 years of fighting, Apache leader Geronimo, with his remaining warriors, surrendered to U.S. Army General Nelson Miles in Arizona.

100 years ago

The Canadian Corps took over a section of the Somme line, facing the village of Courcelette, France.

Among the numerous major league doubleheaders was one between the Cincinnati Reds and Chicago Cubs at Weeghman Park in Chicago. The Cubs won the first game 3-0, as Mike Prendergast pitched a 4-hitter to win the pitchers' duel over Al Schulz. The second game marked the last game for two Hall of Famers, as Cincinnati manager Christy Mathewson made his only playing appearance with the Reds, taking the mound for his 25th career duel with Three Finger Brown. Both men pitched complete games, with the Reds winning 10-8. Mr. Mathewson pitched a 15-hitter and allowed 8 earned runs in picking up his 373rd career major league win, evening his record for the season at 4-4. He also batted 3 for 5 with a double and a run; they were his only hits of the season. Mr. Brown allowed 19 hits--at least 1 for every man in the Cincinnati lineup--and 9 earned runs to finish the season at 2-3. He batted 2 for 4 with 2 runs. Cincinnati catcher Ivy Wingo was 4 for 4 with 3 runs, while Chicago center fielder Cy Williams was 4 for 5 and Vic Saier hit a double and closed the scoring with a 3-run home run for Chicago in the 9th inning. It was the 647th major league game for Mr. Mathewson, the 493rd major league game for Mr. Brown.

75 years ago

A German submarine made the first attack against a United States ship, firing two torpedoes at the destroyer USS Greer. German artillery began shelling Leningrad.

Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King spoke at Mansion House in London as the guest of Lord Mayor Sir George Wilkinson and the Corporation of London. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was also in attendance. Mr. King said, in part:

The people of Canada will be quick to recognize that the honour which is being done me to-day is meant as an honour to all Canada...This City to-day is held in high honour above all the cities of the earth. The very name of London reverberates around the world like the sound waves of a great bell calling together all who love and cherish freedom. I am here to-day to tell the brave men and women of Britain that the call is being answered, and will continue to be answered in ever larger measure from across the sea. (Cheers.)

In this world struggle to thwart aggression and to end oppression Canada is at Britain's side. The United States of America is lending powerful support...

...I thank you, Prime Minister, for honouring this occasion by your presence. (Cheers.) To me is indeed a source of pride that, behind our relationship in the affairs of State at this time of war, there lies an unbroken friendship extending over more than a third of a century--a friendship kept warm by personal visits of one or the other to Britain or Canada...To-day I stand at your side, one with you in thought and purpose and determination, never more honoured than that long years of public service should have afforded me the opportunity so to represent before the world the proud position of Canada at the side of Britain. (Cheers.)...

...Mankind may well be grateful that here in Britain, a free man, who believes in the ultimate power of free men, has become the champion of the hosts of freedom. (Cheers.)...Of you, Mr. Churchill, history will record that, by your example and your leadership, you helped to save the freedom of the world. (Cheers.)...

...Canada's entry into war was the deliberate decision of a free people, by their own representatives, in a free Parliament.

Canada is a nation of the new world. As a nation of the new world, we placed ourselves freely at Britain's side because Britain's cause was the cause of freedom, not in this island alone, not in the British Empire alone, not in the old world alone, but everywhere in the world...

...We are fighting to defend democratic and Christian ideals. We believe that everything which free men value and cherish on this side of the grave is in peril in this war. The right of men, rich and poor, to be treated as men; the right of men to make the laws by which they shall be governed; the right of men to work where they will, at what they will; the right of womankind to the serenity and sanctity of the home; the right of children to play in safety under peaceful heavens; the right of old men and women to the tranquillity of their sunset; the right to speak the truth in our hearts; the right to worship, in our own way, the God in whom we believe. (Cheers.)...

...For the task that faces Britain and those who fight with her is, I verily believe, nothing less than the task of saving humanity.

In recent days, you and I, Prime Minister, have crossed the great "Northern Bridge" which stretches through Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland from the old world to the new...As I spanned those waters and islands, in the space of a single night, I had a new and more vivid sense of our nearness, in North America, to the heart of the world conflict...

...We know that it is not enough to garrison the bridge itself, unless we are prepared to defend this island, which is its eastern bridgehead. That is why the fighting men of Canada are here in growing numbers to share in a task which is our defence as well as yours...

...That the United States was to share in keeping this northern bridge was the best of news...

...We, in Canada, were greatly heartened when, three years ago, the President, after referring to the Dominion of Canada as a part of the sisterhood of the British Empire, declared that the people of the United States would not stand idly by if domination of Canadian soil were threatened by any other Empire. I reciprocated at once by recognizing Canada's responsibility to do what lay within her power to prevent attacks through our territory upon the United States. These declarations were the starting point of our agreement for joint defence.

To-day, fortunately, we are witnessing the birth of still wider arrangements for joint defence between the British Empire and the United States. Your declaration, Prime Minister, that in the Far East, Britain would stand at the side of the United States, is a sure sign of the deepening interdependence of the free world...

...Much is being said about a new world order to take the place of the old world order when the war is at an end. If that new order is not already on its way before the war is over, we may look for it in vain. A new world order cannot be worked out at some given moment and reduced to writing at a conference table. It is not a matter of parchments and of seals. That was one of the mistaken beliefs at the end of the last War. A new world order to be worthy of the name is something that is born, not made. It is something that lives and breathes; something that needs to be developed in the minds and the hearts of men; something that touches the human soul. It expresses itself in good will and in mutual aid. It is the application, in all human relationships, of the principle of helpfulness and of service. It is based not on fear, on greed, and on hate, but on mutual trust and the noblest qualities of the human heart and mind. It seeks neither to divide nor to destroy. Its aim is brotherhood, its method cooperation.

While the old order is destroying itself, this new relationship of men and nations has already begun its slow but sure evolution. It found expression when Britain determined to put an end to aggression in Europe; when other nations of the British Commonwealth took their place at the side of Britain, and when the United States resolved to lend its powerful aid to the nations which are fighting for freedom. It has found its latest expression in the Atlantic Charter. All these factors are combining to create one great brotherhood of freedom-loving peoples. It must now be wholly clear that if a new world order based upon freedom is to assume some definite shape, this can only be effected through the leadership of the British Commonwealth of Nations and the United States of America working in wholehearted cooperation toward this great end. (Cheers.) On such a foundation of unity of purpose and effort, all free peoples may well hope to build an enduring new world order.

A new heaven and a new earth--are not these, in very truth, what we seek to-day? A heaven to which men and women and little children no longer will look in fear, but where they may gaze again in silent worship and in thankfulness for the benediction of the sun and the rain; an earth no longer scarred by warfare and torn by greed, but where the lowly and the humble of all races may work in ways of pleasantness and walk in paths of peace.

And the sea no longer will be the scene of conflict, nor harbour any menace; it, too, will gladden the hearts of men as it unites, in friendly intercourse, the nations of the world.

Then...shall all men's good
Be each man's rule, and universal Peace
Lie like a shaft of light across the land.
And like a lane of beams athwart the sea,
Thro' all the circle of the golden year."

This new heaven, this new earth, is the vision which, at this time of war, unites, inspires, and guides Britain, Canada, and other nations of the British Commonwealth, the United States, and our Allies in all parts of the world. No lesser vision will suffice to gain the victory. No lesser service to humanity will hold the faith and win the gratitude of mankind. (Loud cheers.)
The Times, September 5, 1941, pp. 5-6.

The poem from which Mr. King quoted is The Golden Year by Alfred, Lord Tennyson.

Mr. Churchill rose to propose the toast of "The Lord Mayor." He spoke in praise of Mr. King and the Canadian war effort, and concluded his remarks with:

Canada is the linchpin of the English-speaking world. Canada, with close relations of friendly, affectionate intimacy with the United States on the one hand, and with her unswerving fidelity to the British Commonwealth and the Motherland on the other, is the link which joins together these great branches of the human family, a link which, spanning the oceans, brings the continents into their true relation and will prevent in future generations a division between the proud and once happy nations of Europe and the great countries which have come into existence in the new world. (Cheers.) The Times, September 5, 1941, p. 6.

Mr. Churchill's words were quoted, approximately, in the movie The Scarlet Claw (1944), when Basil Rathbone, playing Sherlock Holmes, delivered a tribute to Canada at the end of the film.

U.S. shiops began escorting British convoyes for part of the trip across the Atlantic Ocean. The U.S. State Department revealed that the first cargo of aviation gasoline for the Soviet Air Force had reached Vladivostok aboard the U.S. tanker L.P. St. Clair.

The Italian government of Duce Benito Mussolini banned all foreign newspapers from Italy.

Economics and finance
The U.S. Senate voted to lower the indivudual income tax exemption in the pending tax bill to $1,500 for married people and $750 for single people.

11 major American oil companies agreed to make maximum use of all available railraod tank cars to end the gasoline shortage along the East coast of the United States.

Atley Donald was the winning pitcher as the New York Yankees beat the Boston Red Sox 6-3 before 13,088 fans at Fenway Park in Boston to clinch the American League pennant, the earliest clinching date in major league history. The Yankees' record stood at 91-45, 20 games ahead of the second-place Chicago White Sox and 20 1/2 games ahead of the Red Sox.

The Cleveland Indians scored 3 runs in the top of the 10th inning and withstood a 2-run rally in the bottom of the inning to defeat the Detroit Tigers 7-6 before 4,317 fans at Briggs Stadium in Detroit. Bob Feller pitched a complete game for his 22nd win of the season.

Rip Sewell allowed just 1 hit and Vince DiMaggio drove in 2 runs with a double and scored a run as the Pittsburgh Pirates blanked the Cincinnati Reds 4-0 before 1,720 fans at Forbes Field in Pittsburgh in a game that was called because of rain with 1 out in the bottom of the 5th inning.

Claude Passeau pitched a 5-hitter to win the pitchers' duel over Lon Warneke as the Chicago Cubs blanked the St. Louis Cardinals 3-0 in the first game of a doubleheader at Wrigley Field in Chicago. The Cubs won the second game 4-3 in 10 innings to complete the sweep.

70 years ago

A revival of The Front Page, starring Lew Parker, Arnold Moss, George Lyons, and Olive Deering, opened at the Royale Theatre on Broadway in New York. The play had been a big hit in its original presentation in 1928.

The Chinese Foreign Ministry disclosed that the country had suffered $30-40 billion in damage during eight years of war with Japan, and claimed 40% of Japanese reparations.

Politics and government
The French Constituent Assembly approved a bicameral parliament consisting of a National Assembly with legislative powers and an Advisory Council.

Leftist Gabriel Gonzalez Videla defeated Conservative Eduardo Cruz in the Chilean presidential election, but did not win a majority in the four-way race, leaving Congress to choose between the top two candidates.

Louis St.-Laurent was appointed Secretary of State for External Affairs in the cabinet of Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King.

Democrats in New York nominated U.S. Senator James Mead as the party's candidate to oppose incumbent Governor and Republican candidate Thomas Dewey in the November election.

10,000 New Jersey truck drivers began a sympathy strike to support the wage demands of 15,000 striking New York Teamsters.

60 years ago

In Cairo, Egyptian President Gamal Nasser outlined Egypt's views on control of the Suez Canal to Australian Prime Minister Robert Menzies, expressing opposition to the U.S. proposal for international control of the canal, but not categorically rejecting negotiations on the canal's future.

King Hussein of Jordan asked Syrian President Shukri el-Kuwatly and Lebanese President Camille Chamoun to confer with him on coordination of policy to counter Egypt's growing domination of smaller Arab states.

Politics and government
Maltese Prime Minister Dom Mintoff began talks in London on the island's integration into the United Kingdom and an annual subsidy.

50 years ago

On television tonight
The first annual Jerry Lewis MDAA Labor Day Telethon began broadcasting over independent station WNEW in New York. The event, which raised funds for the Muscular Dystrophy Association of America, took place at the Americana Hotel in New York.

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Non si puo' morire dentro--Gianni Bella (9th week at #1)

#1 single in the Netherlands (Veronica Top 40): Dancing Queen--ABBA

#1 single in the U.K.: Don't Go Breaking My Heart--Elton John and Kiki Dee (7th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): You Should Be Dancing--Bee Gees

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 You Should Be Dancing--Bee Gees
2 Play That Funky Music--Wild Cherry
3 Don't Go Breaking My Heart--Elton John and Kiki Dee
4 You'll Never Find Another Love Like Mine--Lou Rawls
5 I'd Really Love to See You Tonight--England Dan & John Ford Coley
6 Let 'Em In--Wings
7 (Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty--K.C. and the Sunshine Band
8 A Fifth of Beethoven--Walter Murphy and the Big Apple Band
9 Afternoon Delight--Starland Vocal Band
10 Lowdown--Boz Scaggs

Singles entering the chart were I Only Want to Be with You by the Bay City Rollers (#71); Satin Sheets by the Bellamy Brothers (#82); Beth by Kiss (#87); The Best Disco in Town by the Ritchie Family (#90); The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald by Gordon Lightfoot (#91); Love of My Life by Gino Vannelli (#92); Queen of My Soul by Average White Band (#94); Nadia's Theme (The Young and the Restless) by Barry DeVorzon and Perry Botkin, Jr. (#96); It's Only Love by ZZ Top (#98); Brand New Love Affair by Jigsaw (#99); and Free Spirit by Atlanta Rhythm Section (#100). Beth was the other side of Detroit Rock City, which had entered the chart a week earlier; the two songs were listed together. Nadia's Theme (The Young and the Restless) had originally appeared under the title Cotton's Dream in the movie Bless the Beasts and Children (1971), and was the theme for the television soap opera The Young and the Restless before being used to accompany ABC's telecasts of highlights of Romanian gymnast Nadia Comaneci's gold medal-winning performances at the 1976 Summer Olympic Games in Montreal. Brand New Love Affair was originally the B-side of Sky High, which had been a hit in the fall of 1975.

Canada's top 10 (RPM)
1 Don't Go Breaking My Heart--Elton John and Kiki Dee (3rd week at #1)
2 You'll Never Find Another Love Like Mine--Lou Rawls
3 Baby, I Love Your Way--Peter Frampton
4 A Fifth of Beethoven--Walter Murphy and the Big Apple Band
5 Play That Funky Music--Wild Cherry
6 You Should Be Dancing--Bee Gees
7 Kiss and Say Goodbye--The Manhattans
8 This Masquerade--George Benson
9 A Little Bit More--Dr. Hook
10 I'd Really Love to See You Tonight--England Dan & John Ford Coley

Singles entering the chart were Into the Mystic by Jackson Hawke (#95); Stay with Me by Charity Brown (#96); Castles in the Air by Ramez (#97); Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether by Alan Parsons Project (#98); Down to Liverpool by Liverpool (#99); and Can You Do It by Grand Funk (#100).

U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and South African Prime Minister John Vorster began three days of talks in Zurich on majority rule for South Africa.

Horse racing
Billy Haughton, driving the 3-year-old trotter Steve Lobell, won the Hambletonian Classic, harness racing's crown jewel, in an exhausting fourth-heat raceoff in scorching weather at the Du Quoin State Fairgrounds in Illinois. The horse collapsed in his stable after going into shock, but was revived.

Calgary (1-0) 14 @ Manitoba (0-1) 13
Saskatchewan (1-0) 21 British Columbia (0-1) 20

30 years ago

Died on this date
Hank Greenberg, 75
. U.S. baseball player and executive. Mr. Greenberg was a first baseman and outfielder with the Detroit Tigers (1930, 1933-1941, 1945-1946) and Pittsburgh Pirates (1947), batting .313 with 331 home runs and 1,274 runs batted in in 1,394 games. He led the American League in home runs four times and in runs batted in four times. Mr. Greenberg is probably best remembered for hitting 58 home runs in 1938, falling two short of the major league record for a single season set by Babe Ruth of the New York Yankees in 1927. Mr. Greenberg helped the Tigers win the World Series in 1935 and the AL pennant in 1940, but entered the United States Army in May 1941 and wasn't discharged until midway through the 1945 season, when he helped the Tigers win another World Series. Mr. Greenberg was the general manager of the Cleveland Indians from 1949-1957 and the Chicago White Sox from 1959-1961. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1956. Mr. Greenberg was the first popular Jewish star in American team sports, and was inducted into the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame in 1979; Jewish American Hall of Fame in 1991; and National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame in 1996.

Ottawa (2-8) 10 @ British Columbia (8-2) 40

The Lions forced 6 turnovers and made 6 sacks as they routed the Rough Riders before 40,091 fans at B.C. Place Stadium in Vancouver. B.C. wide receiver Merv Fernandez, who hadn't played since July 3 because of a broken hand, caught a touchdown pass on his first play in two months.

Claude Brochu was appointed Chief Executive Officer of the Montréal Expos.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Sweden (Topplistan): (Everything I Do) I Do it for You--Bryan Adams (4th week at #1)

Died on this date
Charlie Barnet, 77
. U.S. musician. Mr. Barnet was a jazz saxophonist and bandleader whose hit recordings included Skyliner, Cherokee, and Scotch and Soda. He was married 11 times, with the last marriage lasting 33 years.

Tom Tryon, 65. U.S. actor and author. Mr. Tryon starred in movies such as I Married a Monster from Outer Space (1958) and The Cardinal (1963), but had greater success as an author of horror and mystery novels such as The Other (1971) and Harvest Home (1973). He died of stomach cancer.

Dottie West, 58. U.S. singer-songwriter. Mrs. West, born Dorothy Marsh, was one of the most popular country singers from the mid-1960s through the early 1980s. She achieved three #1 singles on the Billboard country chart as a solo artist and two more in duets. Mrs. West recorded with several male singers, most notably Kenny Rogers from 1978-1983. Mrs. West died several days after suffering internal injuries while being driven at high speed to a concert date.

Ottawa (4-5) 20 @ British Columbia (5-4) 24

Doug Flutie threw 3 touchdown passes as the Lions overcame an early 10-0 deficit to defeat the Rough Riders before 28,107 fans at B.C. Place Stadium in Vancouver.

The eight-man Committee for Statistical Accuracy announced that a no-hit game was one of 9 innings or more in which one team had failed to get a hit. Among those removed from the list of no-hitters were those that had gone fewer than 9 innings, Jim Maloney's game in 1965 when he pitched 10 no-hit innings before giving up a hit and losing in the 11th, and Harvey Haddix's performance in 1959 when he pitched 12 perfect innings before giving up 2 hits and losing in the 13th. The 1917 game in which Babe Ruth was ejected after walking the first batter and Ernie Shore retired the baserunner and the remaining 26 batters was no longer listed as a perfect game for Mr. Shore, but as a combined no-hitter for Messrs. Ruth and Shore. The committee also listed Roger Maris as the sole holder of the record for home runs in a single season; his 61 homers in the 162-game season of 1961 had been listed separately from Babe Ruth's 60 homers in the 154-game season of 1927.

Infielders Shane Turner and Tommy Shields each played all nine positions for the Rochester Red Wings of the International League in their season-ending 8-0 win over Syracuse.

20 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): Wannabe--Spice Girls (2nd week at #1)

The Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission awarded broadcast licences for 23 new channels, including a new History and Entertainment Network; CHUM Ltd. of Toronto received 6 licences.

The United States launched 44 cruise missiles at targets south of Baghdad in an effort to curb the invasions of Iraqi forces into Kurdish territory.

The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) attacked a military base in Guaviare, starting three weeks of guerrilla warfare in which at least 130 Colombians are killed.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Steve Irwin, 44
. Australian zoologist and television host. Mr. Irwin hosted several documentary television series, the best known of which was The Crocodile Hunter (1996-2004). He was attempting to film a stingray for another series when the stingray suddenly lashed out with its tail, piercing Mr. Irwin's heart and causing him to bleed to death.

Edmonton (3-7) 23 @ Calgary (7-4) 44
Toronto (6-5) 40 @ Hamilton (2-10) 6

Henry Burris passed for 310 yards and Joffrey Reynolds rushed for 96 yards and 2 touchdowns as the Stampeders beat the Eskimos before 35,744 fans at McMahon Stadium in the annual Labour Day game. Calgary scored 24 points in the 2nd quarter.

Toronto quarterback Damon Allen passed former Edmonton Eskimo and National Football League great Warren Moon for career passing yards as a professional as the Argonauts routed the Tiger-Cats before 28,891 fans at Ivor Wynne Stadium.

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