Sunday, 25 July 2021

July 25, 2021

1,010 years ago

Died on this date
Ichijō, 31
. Emperor of Japan, 986-1011. Ichijō, born Kanehito-shinnō, acceded to the throne shortly after his 6th birthday, upon the abdication of Emperor Kazan. Emperor Ichijō loved literature and music, but was largely controlled by his mother and court officials. He abdicated on July 16, 1011, the day after his 31st birthday in favour of his cousin Sanjō, and died just nine days later.

760 years ago

Constantinople was recaptured by Nicaean forces under the command of Alexios Strategopoulos, re-establishing the Byzantine Empire.

550 years ago

Died on this date
Thomas à Kempis, 90-91
. German clergyman. Thomas Hemerken was a Roman Catholic priest who was a member of the pietistic movement Devotio Moderna. He was best known as the author of De Imitatione Christi (The Imitation of Christ) (ca. 1418-1427), which became the most-widely read Christian devotional work.

230 years ago

Died on this date
Isaac Low, 56
. American politician. Mr. Low was a merchant in New York City who initially supported the American patriot cause, and was a delegate from New York to the First Continental Congress in 1774 and the New York Provincial Congress in 1775. He advocated a moderate approach to relations with Britain, and became a Loyalist after the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Mr. Low was imprisoned for treason in New Jersey, but was freed after intervention by George Washington. Mr. Low emigrated to England in 1783 and died there.

190 years ago

Died on this date
Maria Szymanowska, 41
. Polish-born musician and composer. Mrs. Szymanowska was a prominent concert pianist, touring Europe from 1815 through the 1820s before settling in St. Petersburg. She wrote about 100 piano pieces, as well as songs and small chamber works. Mrs. Szymanowska died of cholera during an epidemic in St. Petersburg.

160 years ago

Died on this date
Jonas Furrer, 56
. President of the Swiss Confederation, 1848-1849, 1852, 1853. Mr. Furrer, a member of the Radical Party, was elected to the Grand Council in 1834, and was President in 1837 and 1839. He was President of the Swiss Diet in 1845, and was one of the first seven members elected to the Federal Council in 1848. Mr. Furrer held several cabinet posts in addition to his three terms as President, and was in his fourth term as Minister of Justice and Police at the time of his death.

The United States Congress passed the Crittenden–Johnson Resolution, asserting that the aim of the American Civil War was to "preserve the Union;" the measure was repealed five months later.

150 years ago

Politics and government
Manitoba Lieutenant Governor Adams Archibald negotiated Treaty No. 1 in southern Manitoba with the Swampy Cree and Chippewa (Ojibway), agreeing to pay $3 per Indian for the area of approximately 10,376.5 square miles.

Anthony Musgrave left British Columbia before the return from Ottawa of Joseph Trutch, his successor and the first lieutenant governor of the province. Mr. Musgrave was B.C.'s last colonial governor.

125 years ago

Born on this date
Elizabeth MacKintosh
. U.K. authoress and playwright. Miss MacKintosh wrote novels under the name Josephine Tey and plays under the name Gordon Daviot. She was best known for the novel The Daughter of Time (1951), a detective work investigating the role of Richard III of England in the death of the Princes in the Tower. Miss MacKintosh's best-known play was probably her first, Richard of Bordeaux (1932). She died of liver cancer on February 13, 1952 at the age of 55.

Jack Perrin. U.S. actor. Mr. Perrin began appearing in silent movies in 1917, and was best kown for starring in low-budget Westerns in the 1930s. He appeared in small roles in several television programs in later years, and died of a heart attack on December 17, 1967 at the age of 71.

120 years ago

Born on this date
Ruth Krauss
. U.S. authoress. Miss Krauss wrote several collections of poetry, but was known for more than 40 books for children, most notably The Carrot Seed (1945). She died on July 10, 1993, 15 days before her 92nd birthday.

110 years ago

Bobby Leach survived a drop over Niagara Falls in a steel barrel; he spent 23 weeks in hospital recovering from injuries.

The Carillon and Grenville Railway, the last remaining broad gauge (5'6") line in North America, was abandoned. The portage railway opened October 25, 1854, and was later acquired by the Canadian Northern Railway as part of its new Montréal to Ottawa line.

Fire destroyed much of downtown Grand Forks, British Columbia.

80 years ago

Died on this date
John Ford, 78
. U.S. politician and judge. Mr. Ford sat in the New York State Senate from 1896-1900 and on the New York Supreme Court from 1907-1932. He founded the Clean Books League, and died three days before his 79th birthday.

The Soviet Air Force attacked the Romanian ports of Constante and Sulina.

U.S. Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles wired the foreign ministers of Peru and Ecuador, urging them to stop their border conflict so that the U.S.A., Argentina, and Brazil could aid in mediating the dispute.

The German Transocean Press Service was convicted of failing to register in the United States as an agent of the German government, and was fined $1,000.

Radio Corporation of America announced the development of a high-voltage electron microscope, making it possible to magnify objects 100,000 times.

Enoch Johnson, Republican Party leader of Atlantic County, New Jersey, was found guilty of evading payment of $38,716 in federal income taxes on money he received from the numbers racket.

Economics and finance
The U.S. ordered a freeze on all Japanese assets in the United States; Chinese assets were also frozen, at Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek's request, "to prevent the liquidation...of assets obtained by duress or conquest."

Over 3,000 Panamanian and Latin American workers in the Gatun area of the Canal Zone fought against labourers imported from the West Indies.

Reuben Fine retained his U.S. Chess Federation open title, defeating George Sturgis in St. Louis.

Lefty Grove (7-4) went the distance for his 300th and last career major league win, allowing 12 hits and 5 earned runs, as the Boston Red Sox beat the Cleveland Indians 10-6 before 10,000 fans at Fenway Park in Boston. Jim Tabor hit 2 home runs for the Red Sox, and Ted Williams hit a 2-run homer to break a 6-6 tie. Al Milnar (8-13) took the loss for the Indians in relief of Mel Harder.

The New York Yankees scored 5 runs in the 4th inning and 3 in the 8th as they blanked the Chicago White Sox 8-0 before 8,109 fans at Yankee Stadium. Spud Chandler (3-3) pitched a 3-hit shutout without striking out a batter, while Tommy Henrich and Charlie Keller each hit 3-run home runs. All 8 runs were unearned.

The Philadelphia Athletics scored 6 runs in the 7th inning and 3 in the 8th as they defeated the Detroit Tigers 11-5 at Shibe Park in Philadelphia. The Tigers scored 4 runs in the top of the 8th.

The Boston Braves scored 3 runs in the 1st inning and 5 in the second as they coasted to an 8-0 win over the St. Louis Cardinals before 22,933 fans at Sportsman's Park in St. Louis. Jim Tobin (7-5) pitched a 3-hit shutout, while Paul Waner hit his first home run of the season, a 3-run blast in the 2nd inning.

75 years ago

At Club 500 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis staged their first show as a comedy team.

Chinese Nationalist forces drove the Communists northward from the Nanking-Shanghai area in the province of Kiangsu.

As part of Operation Crossroads, the United States detonated an atomic bomb underwater in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll; it was the first such test to take place underwater, falling in the midst of 75 warships and sinking 10.

An Anglo-American cabinet committee proposed a division of Palestine into Jewish and Arab sectors, with overall control resting with British authorities, which would directly administer Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and the Negev.

A mob of 20 white men forced four Negroes out of acar near Monroe, Georgia and killed them for allegedly stabbing a white man.

Politics and government
U.S. President Harry Truman named Jesus Pinero as Governor of Puerto Rico, succeeding Rexford Tugwell.

The governments of Canada and the United Kingdom announced a trade agreement calling for the sale of 600 million bushels of Canadian wheat to Britain for the next four years.

A U.S. War Department report affirmed that defective mortar shells had killed American combat soldiers, but denied that faulty parts were made by the armaments firm under investigation in the Senate. U.S. House of Representatives Military Affairs Committee Chairman Andrew May (Democrat--Kentucky) claimed that he was unable to attend the Senate war profits inquiry due to a heart attack, after previously agreeing to testify.

Economics and finance
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Japan General Douglas MacArthur approved a plan to decentralize economic power in Japan by liquidating the zaibatsu combines.

U.S. President Truman "reluctantly" signed the bill extending the Office of Price Administration through June 30, 1947, stating that he would call a special session of Congress if this new law failed to stem inflation. Mr. Truman issued an executive order shifting the Office of Economic Stabilization to the Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion, making John Steelman temporary stabilization chief.

70 years ago

On the radio
Pete Kelly's Blues, starring Jack Webb, on NBC
Tonight's episode: Little Jake

As Korean truce talks resumed, Communist delegates accepted the U.S. position that foreign troop withdrawal could be postponed until "after establishment of a cease-fire and armistice in Korea." U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur, addressing the Massachusetts State legislature in Boston, assailed the "ineptitude of our leaders" in foreign and domestic affairs, and claimed that current Korean truce talks were the same as the field negotiations which he was fired for proposing.

A U.S. federal grand jury in New York handed down contempt of Congress citations for gambling bosses Frank Costello, Joe Adonis, and Frank Erickson, who had refused to andwer questions before the Senate Crime Investigating Committee in March 1951.

Dr. Morris Fishbein reported the development of an X-ray machine that made it possible to take an X-ray picture of the whole human body without danger.

British-operated Iraq Petroleum Company agreed to an equal division of profits with the Iraqi government.

Economics and finance
U.S. Agriculture Secretary Charles Brennan arrived in Belgrade to investigate Yugoslavia's food situation for possible U.S. aid.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Norway (VG-lista): Hello Mary Lou/Travelin' Man--Ricky Nelson (3rd week at #1)

Died on this date
Carlton Molesworth, 85
. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Molesworth pitched 4 games with the Washington Senators (1895), posting a record of 0-2 with an earned run average of 14.63, batting .143 (1 for 7). He played 17 seasons in the minor leagues (1895-1915), mainly as an outfielder. Mr. Molesworth played with (1906-1911, 1914-1915) and managed (1908-1922) the Birmingham Barons of the Southern Association, compiling a record of 1,098-977. He managed the Columbus Senators of the American Association (1923-1925), and then worked as a scout for the Pittsburgh Pirates through the 1947 season. Mr. Molesworth died after several years of declining health.

U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in a televised address from the White House, said: "We cannot and will not permit the Communists to drive us out of Berlin--either gradually or by force. For the fulfillment of our pledge to that city is essential to the morale and security of West Germany, to the unity of western Europe, and to the faith of the entire world...So long as the Communists insist that they are preparing to end by themselves unilaterally our rights in West Berlin and our commitments to its people, we must be prepared to defend those rights and those commitments. We will at all times be ready to talk, if talk will help. But we must also be ready to resist with force, if force is used against us. As part of a long-term buildup in U.S. strength "to meet a worldwide threat," Mr. Kennedy said he was asking Congress for additional increases in armed forces spending and manpower, was ordering draft calls doubled and tripled, and requesting Congressional authorization to recall to service certain reserve units; extend tours of duty; and activate some Air Transport and Air National Guard squadrons.

Ottawa (2-0) 28 @ Montreal (0-1) 19
Toronto (2-0) 28 @ Calgary (0-2) 17

Roger Maris hit 2 home runs in each game for the New York Yankees as they swept a doubleheader from the Chicago White Sox 5-1 and 12-0 before 46,240 fans at Yankee Stadium. Clete Boyer also homered twice in the second game, while Mickey Mantle homered for the Yankees in the first game, giving him 38 home runs on the season to 40 for Mr. Maris. Whitey Ford (18-2) and Bill Stafford (9-4) were the respective winning pitchers.

Dick Donovan (7-8) pitched a 5-hitter to outduel Jack Kralick (9-6) and led off the 3rd inning with a home run to open the scoring for the Washington Senators as they edged the Minnesota Twins 2-1 before 20,600 fans at Metropolitan Stadium in Bloomington.

Wayne Causey scored from third base on a wild pitch as pinch hitter Dick Howser drew a base on balls, climaxing a 3-run 8th inning for the Kansas City Athletics as they came from a 2-0 deficit to defeat the Cleveland Indians 3-2 before 6,568 fans at Municipal Stadium in Kansas City. The Indians loaded the bases with 1 out in the 9th, but relief pitcher Gerry Staley iinduced Bubba Phillips to ground into a 1-2-3 double play to end the game.

Pinch hitter Bob Sadowski and Ed Yost hit consecutive run-scoring singles with 2 out in the bottom of the 9th inning to give the Los Angeles Angels a 5-4 win over the Detroit Tigers before 8,316 fans at Wrigley Field in Los Angeles. The Tigers had taken a 4-3 lead on a 2-run home run by Bill Bruton with 2 out in the top of the 9th. Manny Montejo, the second of four Detroit pitchers, allowed 1 hit and no runs in 2 innings in his first major league game, striking out 3 batters and walking none.

The San Francisco Giants scored 7 runs in the 8th inning and 4 in the 9th as they beat the Pittsburgh Pirates 16-7 before 18,698 fans at Forbes Field in Pittsburgh. Harvey Kuenn and Matty Alou each had 4 hits and 4 runs batted in for the Giants. Mr. Alou entered the game in left field in the bottom of the 1st inning as a substitute for his brother Felipe, who was injured in a play at second base after singling in the top of the inning.

Lou Burdette (12-6) pitched a 2-hitter to outduel Ken Hunt (9-7), who allowed 5 hits in a complete game, as the Milwaukee Braves shut out the Cincinnati Reds 2-0 before 21,442 fans at County Stadium in Milwaukee. Hank Aaron hit a solo home run with 1 out in the bottom of the 4th to open the scoring, and Mr. Burdette singled home Lee Maye with 2 out in the 7th to provide an insurance run.

50 years ago

Died on this date
Leroy Robertson, 74
. U.S. composer. Dr. Robertson taught at Brigham Young University (1925-1948) and the University of Utah (1948-1962). He wrote piano, organ, and string works, as well as Mormon hymns, and was best known for Oratorio from the Book of Mormon (1953).

40 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Italy (Hit Parade Italia): Enola Gay--OMD (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Flanders (Ultratop 50): Only Crying--Keith Marshall (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Ireland: The Streets of New York--Wolfe Tones

#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Ghost Town--The Specials (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (BMRB): Ghost Town--The Specials (3rd week at #1)

Netherlands Top 10 (De Nederlandse Top 40)
1 One Day in Your Life--Michael Jackson
2 Chequered Love--Kim Wilde
3 Caribbean Disco Show--Lobo
4 Rio--Maywood
5 Only Crying--Keith Marshall
6 Going Back to My Roots--Odyssey
7 You Drive Me Crazy--Shakin' Stevens
8 How 'bout Us--Champaign
9 More Stars--Stars on 45
10 Stand & Deliver--Adam and the Ants

Singles entering the chart were No Me Hables by Juan Pardo (#26); Your Love by Lime (#31); Malaika by Boney M. (#32); Cantara Pepe by the Press (#33); and Als Ik Jou Niet Had by Mieke (#35).

U.S.A. Top 10 (Billboard)
1 The One that You Love--Air Supply
2 Bette Davis Eyes--Kim Carnes
3 Jessie's Girl--Rick Springfield
4 Theme from "Greatest American Hero" (Believe it or Not)--Joey Scarbury
5 Elvira--The Oak Ridge Boys
6 I Don't Need You--Kenny Rogers
7 Slow Hand--Pointer Sisters
8 You Make My Dreams--Daryl Hall & John Oates
9 Boy from New York City--The Manhattan Transfer
10 Hearts--Marty Balin

Singles entering the chart were Stop Draggin' My Heart Around by Stevie Nicks (with Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers) (#57); Step by Step by Eddie Rabbitt (#65); Hold on Tight by Electric Light Orchestra (#67); The Beach Boys Medley by the Beach Boys (#76); You Could Take My Heart Away by Silver Condor (#78); Square Biz by Teena Marie (#82); For Your Eyes Only by Sheena Easton (#83); General Hospi-Tale by the Afternoon Delights (#84); Heavy Metal (Takin' a Ride) by Don Felder (#85); You're Mine Tonight by Pure Prairie League (#86); I'm in Love by Evelyn King (#88); Chloe by Elton John (#89); and Summer '81 Medley by the Cantina Band (featuring Lou Christie) (#90). The Beach Boys Medley was a compilation of brief excerpts from a number of the band's Capitol Records singles from 1962-1966. For Your Eyes Only was the title song from the latest James Bond movie.

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Jessie's Girl--Rick Springfield
2 The One That You Love—Air Supply
3 Elvira--Oak Ridge Boys
4 Theme from "Greatest American Hero" (Believe it or Not)--Joey Scarbury
5 Bette Davis Eyes--Kim Carnes
6 I Don't Need You--Kenny Rogers
7 You Make My Dreams--Daryl Hall & John Oates
8 Slow Hand--Pointer Sisters
9 Stars on 45--Stars on 45
10 Boy from New York City--The Manhattan Transfer

Singles entering the chart were Stop Draggin' My Heart Around by Stevie Nicks (with Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers) (#59); Hold on Tight by Electric Light Orchestra (#62); The Beach Boys Medley by the Beach Boys (#76); You Could Take My Heart Away by Silver Condor (#81); A Woman in Love (It's Not Me) by Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers (#83); General Hospi-Tale by the Afternoon Delights (#84); For Your Eyes Only by Sheena Easton (#85); Heavy Metal (Takin' a Ride) by Don Felder (#86); Chloe by Elton John (#87); I'm in Love by Evelyn King (#88); Some Days are Diamonds (Some Days are Stone) by John Denver (#89); and Tempted by Squeeze (#90). .

U.S.A. Top 10 (Record World)
1 Theme from "Greatest American Hero" (Believe it or Not)--Joey Scarbury (2nd week at #1)
2 The One that You Love--Air Supply
3 Elvira--The Oak Ridge Boys
4 Jessie's Girl--Rick Springfield
5 Bette Davis Eyes--Kim Carnes
6 I Don't Need You--Kenny Rogers
7 Medley--Stars on 45
8 Slow Hand--Pointer Sisters
9 Boy from New York City--The Manhattan Transfer
10 Hearts--Marty Balin

Singles entering the chart were Stop Draggin' My Heart Around by Stevie Nicks (with Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers) (#46); Hold on Tight by Electric Light Orchestra (#49); Step by Step by Eddie Rabbitt (#63); I'm in Love by Evelyn King (#79); The Beach Boys Medley by the Beach Boys (#81); You Could Take My Heart Away by Silver Condor (#85); General Hospi-Tale by the Afternoon Delights (#86); A Woman in Love (It's Not Me) by Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers (#87); Tempted by Squeeze (#88); Some Days are Diamonds (Some Days are Stone) by John Denver (#90); and Send for Me by Atlantic Starr (#95).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 Gemini Dream--The Moody Blues (2nd week at #1)
2 Arc of a Diver--Steve Winwood
3 Boy from New York City--The Manhattan Transfer
4 A Life of Illusion--Joe Walsh
5 Jessie's Girl--Rick Springfield
6 You Make My Dreams--Daryl Hall & John Oates
7 Modern Girl--Sheena Easton
8 Winning--Santana
9 In the Air Tonight--Phil Collins
10 Slow Hand--Pointer Sisters

Singles entering the chart were Urgent by Foreigner (#23); Who's Crying Now by Journey (#26); and The Break Up Song (They Don't Write 'Em) by the Greg Kihn Band (#28).

Hundreds of people protesting the visit of the Springboks rugby team from South Africa invaded Rugby Park in Hamilton, New Zealand, forcing the cancellation of the match against Waikato.

The McDonald Royal Commission condemned illegal Royal Canadian Mounted Police activities against Québec separatists and other dissidents, and recommended a civilian agency to take over security work.

Toronto (0-4) 13 @ Hamilton (3-1) 57
Ottawa (1-3) 17 @ British Columbia (3-0) 31

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Ireland (IRMA): (Everything I Do) I Do it for You--Bryan Adams (4th week at #1)

Died on this date
Lazar Kaganovich, 97
. U.S.S.R. politician. Mr. Kaganovich was a Bolsehevik Communist who helped Josef Stalin seize power in the Soviet Union, and remained loyal to him. Mr. Kaganovich played a large role in the Ukrainian famine of 1932-1933, and even refused to defend his brother, also a Communist, when he was accused of disloyalty. Mr. Kaganovich gradually lost influence within the Communist Party after the death of Mr. Stalin in 1953, and was expelled from the party in 1961. He was the last surviving Old Bolshevik.

Winnipeg (1-2) 16 @ Toronto (3-0) 30
Edmonton (2-1) 36 @ British Columbia (2-1) 37

Edmonton kicker Ray Macoritti missed 2 field goal attempts in the last minute, enabling the Lions to escape with a victory over the Eskimos at B.C. Place Stadium in Vancouver.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Killing Me Softly--The Fugees (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Denmark (Nielsen Music Control & IFPI): Killing Me Softly--The Fugees (2nd week at #1)

World events
In a military coup in Burundi, Pierre Buyoya, a Tutsi, deposed President Sylvestre Ntibantunganya, a Hutu.

Toronto-based publisher Coach House Press announced that it would cease operations, blaming Ontario government cutbacks. It reopened in 1997 with a focus on electronic editions.

Canadian swimmer Curtis Myden won his second bronze medal of the Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta, in the 200-metre men's individual medley.

Edmonton (3-2) 34 @ Ottawa (1-4) 18

Danny McManus completed 17 of 36 passes for 406 yards and touchdowns of 27 yards to Eddie Brown and 16 yards to Shalon Baker as the Eskimos defeated the Rough Riders at Frank Clair Stadium. Eric Blount rushed 8 yards for the other Edmonton TD, while Frank Jagas, in his fifth and last game as an Eskimo, added 3 converts, 4 field goals, and a single. Mr. Brown caught 4 passes for 159 yards, while teammate Marc Tobert caught 4 for 128--including a 60-yard gain--for the first 100-yard game of his CFL career. Edmonton defensive back Darian Hagan had a 73-yard interception return.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Michael Cacoyannis, 89
. Cypriot-born Greek film director. Mr. Cacoyannis worked in radio and theatre in England before moving to Greece in the early 1950s. He directed 17 movies, and was best known for Zorba the Greek (1964).

Politics and government
Jack Layton, Leader of the Opposition in Canada, took a medical leave of absence, and an interim leader of the New Democratic Party was appointed.

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