Wednesday, 14 July 2021

July 14, 2021

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Mike Upstone!

250 years ago

The Mission San Antonio de Padua was founded by Franciscan friar Junípero Serrain in what is now Monterey County, California.

230 years ago


The Priestley Riots, a crackdown on religious dissenters in Birmingham, England, began with an attack on a house hosting a banquet in support of the French Revolution.

160 years ago

Born on this date
Kate M. Gordon
. U.S. political activist. Miss Gordon directed the 1918 campaign for women's suffrage in the state of Louisiana, the first such statewide effort in the American South. She died of a cerebral hemorrhage on August 24, 1932 at the age of 71.

140 years ago

Died on this date
William H. "Billy the Kid" Bonney, 21
. U.S. outlaw. A notorious cattle rustler who had killed two deputies, Billy the Kid was shot and killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett in New Mexico.

125 years ago

Born on this date
Buenaventura Durruti
. Spanish anarchist. Mr. Durruti was involved with various anarchist organizations and helped to coordinate armed resistance to Nationalist forces in Barcelona in the early months of the Spanish Civil War in 1936. While leading his militia in defense of Madrid, Mr. Durruti was shot on November 19, 1936, and died the next day at the age of 40.

120 years ago

Born on this date
Gerald Finzi
. U.K. composer. Mr. Finzi was best known for his choral works, including the cantata Dies natalis (1939). He died on September 27, 1956 at the age of 55, after a long battle with Hodgkin's disease.

110 years ago

Born on this date
Charlie Chamberlain
. Canadian singer. Mr. Chamberlain, a native of Bathurst, New Brunswick, was nicknamed "The Singing Lumberjack," and was known for his long association with fiddler Don Messer, being a featured performer on the television program Don Messer's Jubilee from 1957 until Mr. Chamberlain's death on July 16, 1972, two days after his 61st birthday.

Harry Atwood, an exhibition pilot for the Wright brothers, was greeted by U.S. President William Howard Taft after he landed his aeroplane on the South Lawn of the White House, having flown from Boston.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Leon Garfield
. U.K. author. Mr. Garfield wrote more than 30 books, and was best known for writing historical novels for children. He died on June 2, 1996 at the age of 74.

Geoffrey Wilkinson. U.K. chemist. Sir Geoffrey pioneered inorganic chemistry and homogeneous transition metal catalysis, and shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Ernst Otto Fischer "for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds." Sir Geoffrey died on September 26, 1996 at the age of 75.

Armand Gaudreault. Canadian hockey player. Mr. Gaudreault, a native of Saint-Félicien, Quebec, played left wing with the Boston Bruins (1944-45), scoring 15 goals and 9 assists in 44 regular season games and 2 assists in 7 playoff games. He played with the Hershey Bears of the American Hockey League (1945-48), but spent most of the rest of his career (1940-52) with the Quebec Aces of the Quebec Senior Hockey League, helping them win the Allan Cup in 1944. Mr. Gaudreault died in Quebec City on July 2, 2013, 12 days before his 92nd birthday.

Sixto Durán-Ballén Cordovez. President of Ecuador, 1992-1996. Mr. Durán-Ballén co-founded the Partido Social Cristiano (Social Christian Party) (PSC) in 1951, and was Ecuador's Minister of Public Works (1956-1960). He was Mayor of Quito (1970-1978), and ran unsuccessfully for President in 1979 and 1988. Mr. Durán-Ballén left the PSC and formed the Republican Union Party (PUR) in 1991, and was elected President in 1992. He modernized the country's economy, and presided over a victory against Peru in the Cenepa War (1995). Mr. Durán-Ballén represented Pichincha Province in the Chamber of Deputies (1998-2001), and was Ecuadorian Ambassador to the Court of St. James in London (2001-2003). He died in his sleep on November 15, 2016 at the age of 95.

Anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were convicted in Dedham, Massachusetts and sentenced to death for the 1920 murders of a shoe company's payroll master and guard.

80 years ago

U.K. Prime Minister Winston Churchill declared that British forces had achieved equality in the air with the Germans and could bomb Germany "month after month, year after year." The French government ratified the armistice ending the war in Syria, recognizing the United Kingdom's right to occupy the Levant states.

The governments of the United States and Mexico announced that the U.S. had agreed to buy all of Mexico's surplus war commodities for 18 months, while Mexico would limit the export of such products to the Western Hemisphere. U.S. administration and congressional leaders agreed to support a resolution to extend the service of draftees for more than a year of service; they also agreed to drop a resolution authorizing the President to send draftees outside the Western Hemisphere.

Accused by Georgia Governor Eugene Talmadge of advocating racial equality in education, the University of Georgia Board of Regents dismissed Dr. Walter Cocking, Dean of the university's School of Education, and Dr. Marvin Pittman, President of Georgia Teachers College.

75 years ago

The first edition of The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care by U.S. pediatrician Dr. Benjamin Spock was published. The book, which reflected Dr. Spock's training in psychoanalysis, influenced child-rearing methods for what became known as the Baby Boom generation.

Politics and government
Provisional Italian President Enrico de Nicola swore in the first Republican government, led by Christian Democratic Prime Minister Alcide de Gaspari.

Ted Williams drove in 8 runs and scored 4, hitting 3 home runs--including a grand slam--and a single to lead the Boston Red Sox to an 11-10 win over the Cleveland Indians in the first game of a doubleheader before 31,581 fans at Fenway Park in Boston. Mr. Williams doubled and drew 2 bases on balls in the second game as the Red Sox won 6-4 to complete the sweep. Cleveland manager Lou Boudreau employed a shift in the second game in an attempt to stop Mr. Williams, moving 6 players to the right side of the infield, but the shift was useless against home runs.

Warren Spahn pitched an 8-hit complete game to win the pitchers' duel over Fritz Ostermueller as the Boston Braves beat the Pittsburgh Pirates 4-1 in the first game of a doubleheader before 17,414 fans at Forbes Field in Pittsburgh. Rip Sewell pitched a 7-hit complete game victory as the Pirates won the second game 5-2. Alvin Dark made his major league debut with the Braves, entering the game as a pinch runner for Don Padgett at first base with 2 out in the 9th inning.

Stan Musial hit a home run off Vic Lombardi to lead off the bottom of the 12th inning, giving the St.Louis Cardinals a 2-1 win over the Brooklyn Dodgers and a sweep of their doubleheader before 33,980 fans at Sportsman's Park in St. Louis. St. Louis starting pitcher Murry Dickson allowed 8 hits, and Mr. Lombardi 10, as they both pitched complete games. Enos Slaughter batted 3 for 4 with a homer and 4 runs batted in as the Cardinals won the first game 5-3.

70 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): If--Perry Como; Jo Stafford

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Too Young--Nat "King" Cole (Best Seller--4th week at #1; Disc Jockey--3rd week at #1; Jukebox--2nd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Too Young--Nat "King" Cole (4th week at #1)
2 Jezebel--Frankie Laine
3 How High the Moon--Les Paul and Mary Ford
4 On Top of Old Smoky--The Weavers and Terry Gilkyson
--Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra
5 Rose, Rose, I Love You--Frankie Laine
6 My Truly, Truly Fair--Guy Mitchell
--Vic Damone
7 The Loveliest Night of the Year--Mario Lanza
8 Mister and Mississippi--Patti Page
–-Dennis Day
9 Sound Off (The Duckworth Chant)--Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra
10 Mockin’ Bird Hill--Les Paul and Mary Ford

Singles entering the chart were Come On-A My House, with versions by Rosemary Clooney; and Kay Starr (#21); Josephine by Les Paul (#34); Vanity by Don Cherry (#36); and Because by Mario Lanza (#40).

The Molly Pitcher Handicap horse race in Oceanport, New Jersey became the first sports event to be televised in colour.

World events
A People's Court in Jihlava, Moravia sentenced seven Czechs, two of them Roman Catholic priests, to death for the murders of three Communist officials in Babice, Moravia. They were convicted as members of a group allegedly inspired by U.S. agents to carry out "terrorism, espionage, sabotage and murder."

Guatemala banned all public meetings "likely to affect public order." General Manuel Fuentes, refugee leader of the oppositon to President Jacobo Arbenz, denied in San Salvador that his movement was responsible for current Guatemalan disorders.

Morocco's new Nouaceur Air Base for U.S. bombers and fighters began operations.

Iran cancelled all contracts of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, offering the country's oil to customers on a cash-and-carry basis.

U.S. President Harry Truman proclaimed parts of Kansas and Missouri a disaster area after the worst Midwestern flooding on record left 500,000 people homeless, 40 dead, and up to $1 billion in property damage.

Auto racing
José Froilán González of Argentina won the British Grand Prix at Silverstone Circuit in Northamptonshire, England, giving Ferrari its first Formula One victory. Fellow Argentine Juan Manuel Fangio finished second, and Luigi Villoresi, driving another Ferrari, was third.

Horse racing
Citation, with Steve Brooks up, won the $100,000 Hollywood Gold Cup Handicap at Hollywood Park in Inglewood, California to become the first horse to top $1 million in total earnings. It was Citation's last race.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Temptation--The Everly Brothers

On television tonight
The Lawless Years, starring James Gregory, on NBC
Tonight's episode: Ginny

Died on this date
Leo Nickerson; Peter Ralphs, 9; Ronald Gilley, 8; Christopher Rowe, 8
. Canadian accident victims. Mr. Nickerson, a leader with the Cub scout St. Albert Pack No. 2, was killed along with the three boys when a squall suddenly struck them while they were swimming in shallow water in Lake Wabamun at Camp of the Grey Goose at Fallis, Alberta. About 20 boys were swimming at the time, and Mr. Nickerson rescued some, but died trying to rescue others.

The English translation of Pope John XXIII's encyclical Mater et Magistra (Mother and Teacher) was published.

Economics and finance
Bank of Canada Governor James Coyne resigned over fiscal policy differences with Prime Minister John Diefenbaker; the “Coyne Affair” led to new policies, lessening central bank interference by the government of the day.

Calgary (0-1) 16 @ Edmonton (1-0) 24

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Chirpy Chirpy Cheep Cheep--Middle of the Road (4th week at #1)

Politics and government
A lefitst coalition government headed by Prime Minister Olafur Johannesson took office in Iceland.

40 years ago

Former Edmonton Trappers' shortstop Todd Cruz was given a conditional discharge and nine months' probation after pleading guilty to attempted breaking and entering. Mr. Cruz, who had joined the team in May on an injury rehabilitation assignment from the Chicago White Sox, had played both games of a doubleheader on May 18--hitting a home run in the second game--but had been found inside the downtown Hudson's Bay Company store early on May 19 with several watches strapped to his arms. Mr. Cruz told the court that he had been upset at being separated from his wife and children in Detroit and had had too much to drink after the doubleheader, and didn't remember breaking into the store. Judge Dean Saks believed his story. The plea bargain was heavily criticized, since Mr. Cruz had in fact broken into the store and had taken the watches. When I mentioned the case to Judge Saks, he said, "I wish I'd never heard of that case...but we're paid to take the heat."

Four city workers in Edmonton drowned in an underground tunnel when a sewer line ruptured during a violent rainstorm. The accident took place at 71 St. and 68 Ave.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): I Wanna Sex You Up--Color Me Badd

#1 single in Switzerland: Wind of Change--Scorpions (5th week at #1)

Austria's Top 10 (Ö3)
1 Wind of Change--Scorpions (2nd week at #1)
2 The Shoop Shoop Song (It's in his Kiss)--Cher
3 Bobby Brown--Frank Zappa
4 Gypsy Woman (La Da Dee La Da Da)--Crystal Waters
5 Jesus Loves You--Bow Down Mister
6 The One and Only--Chesney Hawkes
7 Fading Like a Flower (Every Time You Leave)--Roxette
8 Senza una donna (Without a Woman)--Zucchero & Paul Young
9 Last Train to Trancentral--The KLF
10 Ring Ring Ring (Ha Ha Hey)--De La Soul

Singles entering the chart were Losing My Religion by R.E.M. (#12); Eh Mama by Beat 4 Feet featuring Kim Cooper (#22); and The Motown Song by Rod Stewart with the Temptations (#30).

British troops protecting the Kurdish population in Iraq began to pull out amid fears of reprisal from Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein.

Canadian Defence Minister Marcel Masse confirmed the shutdown of the Goose Bay, Labrador military base in 1995, if European nations no longer needed it for test flights.

Meg Mallon, who had not won on the L.P.G.A. tour for four seasons, shot a final round of 67 to win the United States Women's Open at Colonial Country Club in Fort Worth, Texas by 2 strokes over Pat Bradley. The victory came two weeks after Ms. Mallon had outduelled Ms. Bradley to win the L.P.G.A. championship.

Kip Gross became the losing pitcher in 2 games in different leagues, 1,100 miles apart. Starting for the Cincinnati Reds that day, he was the losing pitcher, falling to 2-1, as the Reds lost 10-6 to the Pittsburgh Pirates before 42,573 fans at Riverfront Stadium in Cincinnati. Meanwhile, the Nashville Sounds of the Pacific Coast League, for whom Mr. Gross had pitched before being called up to Cincinnati, lost to the Denver Bears in the completion of a game in Denver that had been suspended by rain on May 15. Mr. Gross had started that game on the mound for the Sounds, and was the pitcher of record when the game was completed.

The Kansas City Royals (6) and Detroit Tigers (3) combined for 9 home runs as the Royals won 18-4 before 33,202 fans at Tiger Stadium. Brian McRae hit 2 home runs, including a grand slam, and drove in 6 runs for the Royals, while Mike Macfarlane also hit a pair of homers and drove in 5 runs. The Royals amassed 21 hits.

The Chicago White Sox scored 5 runs in the 3rd inning and 3 in the 4th as they overcame an early 1-0 deficit and routed the Milwaukee Brewers 15-1 before 31,345 fans at County Stadium in Milwaukee. Paul Molitor's home run leading off the bottom of the 1st inning was the only hit off Jack McDowell (11-4), who allowed just one other baserunner, when he walked Franklin Stubbs with 1 out in the 5th.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Tha Crossroads--Bone Thugs-N-Harmony (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Coco Jamboo--Mr. President (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Killing Me Softly--The Fugees

#1 single in Scotland (OCC): Killing Me Softly--The Fugees (7th week at #1)

Died on this date
Jeff Krosnoff, 31
. U.S. auto racing driver. Mr. Krosnoff was a rookie with the Championship Auto Racing Teams (CART) circuit who participated in 11 races, with a best finish of 15th at Belle Isle, Michigan. On lap 93 of the 95-lap Molson Indy in Toronto, Mr. Krosnoff's car touched wheels with the car of Stefan Johansson and became airborne. The resulting crash split Mr. Krosnoff's car in two, sending the cockpit section across the track, and killing him instantly. Gary Arvin, a volunteer track marshal from Calgary, was also killed when hit by the right front wheel of Mr. Krosnoff's car.

Concert promoter Mark Drost shut down the three-day Eden music festival at Mosport Raceway in Bowmanville, Ontario early, citing safety concerns in having 30,000 fans leave after dark. In fact, there were so many gate crashers that Mr. Drost didn't have enough money to pay many of the bands performing on the final day. 55,000 people had turned up to hear 61 bands, including the Tragically Hip, the Goo Goo Dolls, and Spirit of the West.

The Irish Republican Army denied responsibility for a bomb that destroyed a hotel in Enniskillen, Northern Ireland.

Economics and finance
An Industry Canada report looked at the continuing high rate of consumer bankruptcies, despite an apparent economic recovery. A record 65,432 Canadians declared personal bankruptcy in 1995, and officials predicted a higher total for 1996.

Auto racing
Adrian Fernandez recorded his first career win with the CART circuit; he was leading the Toronto Molson Indy when the race was red-flagged because of the fatal accident involving Jeff Krosnoff. Alex Zanardi finished second.

Saskatchewan (2-2) 24 @ Hamilton (3-0) 27

20 years ago

Six days of crisis talks aimed at saving the Northern Ireland peace process ended in deadlock.

10 years ago

Calgary (2-1) 21 @ Winnipeg (2-1) 20

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