Friday, 2 July 2021

July 1, 2021

700 years ago

Died on this date
María de Molina, 55-57 (?)
. Queen consort of Castile and León, 1284-1295. María, the daughter of the infante Alfonso of Molina and granddaughter of King Alfonso IX of León and Queen Berengaria of Castile, married the future King Sancho IV of Castile in 1282, and became queen consort upon his accession to the throne in 1284. He died in 1295 and was succeeded by their 9-year-old son Ferdinand IV. María acted as regent for King Ferdinand until about 1301; after his sudden death in 1312, she acted as regent for his son King Alfonso XI until her own death.

540 years ago

Born on this date
Christian II
. King of Denmark and Norway, 1513-1523; King of Sweden, 1520-1521. Christian II acceded to the thrones of Denmark and Norway upon the death of his father Hans. He reigned under the Kalmar Union, which united Denmark, Norway, and Sweden under a single monarch. King Christian attempted to maintain the Kalmar Union by waging war on Sweden (1518-1523), and succeeded in capturing the country in 1520, but the Stockholm Bloodbath--a massacre of leading Swedish civilians in November 1520--led to an uprising, and King Christian was deposed as King of Sweden in August 1521. He attempted reforms in Denmark in 1522 that incurred the wrath of the nobility and clergy, and he was deposed and exiled to the Netherlands. Christian II attempted to regain his thrones in 1531, but he was arrested and spent the rest of his life as a prisoner in the Netherlands, dying in Kalundborg Castle on January 25, 1559 at the age of 77.

250 years ago

Died on this date
Ferdinando Paer, 67
. Italian composer. Mr. Paer was known for his 55 operas, including Leonora (1804). He died on May 3, 1839 at the age of 67.

190 years ago

James Ross reached the Magnetic North Pole on the Boothia Peninsula in what is now Nunavut.

150 years ago

British Columbia entered Confederation as the sixth province; it kept its provincial government, while its debt was taken over by the federal government. There was also an undertaking to build a Pacific railroad.

Politics and government
The Parliamentary Library, today's Library of Parliament, was founded in Ottawa.

Economics and finance
Parliament made the decimal currency system uniform across Canada.

140 years ago

Manitoba's borders were expanded, taking land easterly from the District of Keewatin to the western boundary of Ontario.

General Order 70, the culmination of the Cardwell and Childers reforms of the British Army, went into effect.

The world's first international telephone call was made from St. Stephen, New Brunswick to Calais, Maine.

Economics and finance
The Toronto Stock Exchange moved into its first permanent headquarters at 24 King Street East; it was a boom year, with the price of a TSE seat as high as $4,000.

130 years ago

Economics and finance
The Dominion Bank Act went into effect in Canada.

125 years ago

Died on this date
Harriet Beecher Stowe, 85
. U.S. authoress. Mrs. Stowe, the daughter of Presbyterian minister Lyman Beecher and brother of clergyman Henry Ward Beecher, wrote 30 books of fiction and non-fiction, and was best known for the novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1851-1852), which also became a play, and helped to energize the anti-slavery movement in the northern United States. She moved to Jacksonville, Florida after the American Civil War, and died of what may have been Alzheimer's disease, 17 days after her 85th birthday.

120 years ago

Born on this date
Irna Phillips
. U.S. radio and television producer and writer. Miss Phillips created, produced, and wrote some of radio and television's soap operas, including The Guiding Light; As the World Turns; and Another World. She died on December 23, 1973 at the age of 72.

The French government enacted its anti-clerical legislation Law of Association, prohibiting the formation of new monastic orders without governmental approval.

110 years ago

Born on this date
Sergey Sokolov
. U.S.S.R. military officer and politician. Marshal of the Soviet Union Sokolov served in the border wars against Japan in the 1930s and against the Germans in World War II. He rose through the ranks, receiving numerous honours and reaching his highest rank in 1978. Marshal Sokolov was U.S.S.R. Minister of Defence (1984-1987), but was dismissed by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev as a result of German amateur aviator Matthias Rust's landing a small plane in Moscow's Red Square. Marshal Sokolov died on August 31, 2012 at the age of 101.

World events
Germany despatched the gunship SMS Panther to Morocco, sparking the Agadir Crisis.

A proclamation removed the words Dei Gratia - by the Grace of God - from Canada's coinage.

Sod was turned on the Kettle Valley Railway at Penticton, British Columbia.

100 years ago

Born on this date
Seretse Khama
. Prime Minister of Bechuanaland, 1965-1966; President of Botswana, 1966-1980. Sir Seretse was a lawyer in the British protectorate of Bechuanaland who led his country's independence movement. He grew up in South Africa, but his marriage to a white woman in 1949 led to his exile from South Africa and Bechuanaland for several years. Sir Seretse founded the Bechuanaland Democratic Party in 1961, and became Prime Minister when the BDP won the 1965 general election. When the country gained its independence as Botswana in 1966, Sir Seretse became its first President. He instituted economic and legal reforms, and the country's circumstances improved dramatically. Sir Seretse died of pancreatic cancer on July 13, 1980, 12 days past his 59th birthday, after several years of declining health.

The last Red Mountain Railway train leaft Rossland, British Columbia. Crews began removing tracks on May 8, 1922.

The Philadelphia Phillies traded outfielder Casey Stengel, infielder Johnny Rawlings, and pitcher Red Causey to the New York Giants for outfielders Lance Richbourg and Lee King and infielder Goldie Rapp. Mr. Stengel was batting .305 with no home runs and 4 runs batted in in 24 games with Philadelphia in 1919, while Mr. Rawlings was hitting .291 with 1 homer and 16 RBIs in 60 games; Mr. Causey was 3-3 with an earned run average of 2.82 in 7 games with the Phillies. Mr. King was batting .223 with no home runs and 7 RBIs in 39 games with New York in 1921, while Mr. Rapp was hitting .215 with no homers and 15 RBIs in 58 games. Mr. Richbourg had yet to play a major league game in 1921.

90 years ago

Wiley Post and Harold Gatty became the first people to circumnavigate the globe in a single-engined monoplane aircraft.

United Airlines began service, as Boeing Air Transport.

Chuck Klein hit for the cycle and batted in 5 runs for the Philadelphia Phillies as they beat the Chicago Cubs 11-6 before 2,000 fans at National League Park in Philadelphia.

With 2 out and nobody on base in the bottom of the 7th inning, Ski Melillo and Goose Goslin drew consecutive bases on balls, and Red Kress followed with a single to score Mr. Melillo, giving the St. Louis Browns a 4-3 lead over the Washington Nationals before 2,500 fans at Sportsman's Park in St. Louis. A 90-minute rain delay ensued, and the game was then called, giving the Browns a win.

80 years ago

Commercial broadcasting in the United States began at 1:30 P.M. Eastern Time on WNBT (now WNBC), the National Broadcasting Company's flagship station, in New York. The first commercial, for which the Bulova watch company the station paid $9, was a 10-second spot showing a Bulova clock superimposed on a map of the U.S.A., with a voice saying, "America runs on Bulova time." The ad was followed by the live broadcast of the baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies from Ebbets Field in Brooklyn. Go here to see a list of the first day's programs. WCBW (now WCBS-TV), the Columbia Broadcasting System's flagship station, also located in New York, went on the air at 2:30 P.M.

Died on this date
W.J. Cash, 41
. U.S. journalist. Wilbur Joseph Cash, a native of South Carolina, was best known for his book The Mind of the South (1941). He wrote for The American Mercury and The Charlotte News, and often criticized Fascism and Nazism. Mr. Cash was in Mexico with his wife while he worked on a novel, and was found hanging by his necktie in the bathroom of their hotel room; he had told his wife the previous day that he thought he was being followed by Nazi spies. Mexican authorities ruled Mr. Cash's death a suicide, and cremated his body.

The German command announced the capture of the Latvian capital of Riga. U.S.S.R. authorities claimed that Finnish and German attacks against Murmansk and on the Karelian Isthmus toward Kexholm (Kaekisalmi) had been repulsed. The U.K. named General Sir Archibald Wavell commander-in-chief in India.

King George VI presented new colours to New Brunswick's Carleton and York Regiment, at Caterham, Surrey, England. His Majesty reminded the regiment that wherever they were called to fight, they will be "fighting on the very soil of New Brunswick."

The Japanese government announced that Germany, Italy, Slovakia, Romania, Croatia, Spain, and Bulgaria had recognized the Chinese government in Nanking led by Wang Ching-wei.

Politics and government
The Argentine Senate voted unanimously to approve the Havana Congress plan for the American republics to take over and administer any European possession in the Western Hemisphere that might become a target of aggression.

The Unemployment Insurance Act came into effect in Canada; the Unemployment Insurance Commission was established.

In the game that was televised on WNBT, Stan Benjamin singled home Hal Marnie and Danny Litwhiler in the top of the 10th inning to give the Philadelphia Phillies a 6-4 win over the Brooklyn Dodgers before 3,339 fans at Ebbets Field in Brooklyn.

Johnny Mize batted 4 for 5 with a double, home run, 3 runs, and 5 runs batted in to lead the St. Louis Cardinals over the Pittsburgh Pirates 11-7 at Forbes Field in Pittsburgh.

Joe Dimaggio extended his hitting streak to 44 games, tying the major league record set by Willie Keeler of the Baltimore Orioles in 1897, as the New York Yankees swept a doubleheader from the Boston Red Sox 7-2 and 9-2 before 52,832 fans at Yankee Stadium. Mr. DiMaggio hit 2 singles in the first game and a single in the 1st inning of the second game, which was fortunate, because the second game was called after 5 innings because of rain and darkness. Mr. DiMaggio's brother Dom, playing center field for the Red Sox, hit a home run in the first game.

Jeff Heath batted 4 for 4 with 2 doubles, 2 runs, and a run batted in , while winning pitcher Al Milnar batted 3 for 4 with a 3-run home run and 2 runs as the Cleveland Indians beat the St. Louis Browns 10-6 before 4,484 fans at Sportsman's Park in St. Louis. Mr. Milnar was the winning pitcher despite allowing 11 hits, 6 bases on balls, and 6 runs--all earned--in 7.1 innings.

75 years ago

Hit parade
U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 The Gypsy--The Ink Spots (7th week at #1)
--Dinah Shore
--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
2 Prisoner of Love--Perry Como
--The Ink Spots
3 They Say it's Wonderful--Perry Como
--Frank Sinatra
4 Laughing on the Outside (Crying on the Inside)--Dinah Shore
--Andy Russell
--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
5 Hey! Ba-Ba-Re-Bop--Tex Beneke with the Glenn Miller Orchestra
--Lionel Hampton and his Orchestra
6 Cement Mixer (Put-ti Put-ti)--Alvino Rey and his Orchestra
--Charlie Barnet and his Orchestra
7 I'm a Big Girl Now--Sammy Kaye and his "Swing and Sway" Orchestra
8 Doin' What Comes Natur'lly--Dinah Shore and Spade Cooley and his Orchestra
--Jimmy Dorsey and his Orchestra
9 Sioux City Sue--Bing Crosby and the Jesters
10 All Through the Day--Frank Sinatra
--Perry Como

Singles entering the chart were On the Alamo by Benny Goodman and the Music Hall Orchestra (#20); Air Mail Special (Part 1) by Lionel Hampton and his Orchestra (#26); Something Old Something New by Frank Sinatra (#28); and Who Told You That Lie? by Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra (#31).

On the radio
The Casebook of Gregory Hood, starring Gale Gordon, on MBS
Tonight's episode: Murder in Celluloid

Oklahoma! was given its 1,405th performance, setting a record for musicals on Broadway in New York.

Despite U.S.S.R. objections, defense witnesses at the Nuremberg trial of accused Nazi war criminals testified about the Katyn Forest massacre of 11,000 Polish officers, which they blamed on the Soviets.

An atomic bomb was detonated over the Bikini atoll, sending a cloud 30,000 feet into the air and destroying five test ships, including a Japanese cruiser. 10% of the experimental animals exposed to radiation from the bomb died immediately.

At the Paris conference of foreign ministers, U.S.S.R. Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov agreed to the French proposal for a Yugoslav-Italian boundary already accepted by the U.S.A. and U.K.

World events
The Uruguayan government announced that it had put down a plot against the government led by former Air Force chief Colonel Esteban Christi.

U.S. and U.K. troops quelled disturbances in Trieste after three days of Yugoslav-Italian rioting had left 2 dead and 60 injured.

British authorities in Palestine discovered a Zionist arms cache at Meshek Yagur after a three-day search of 27 settlements.

At the espionage trial of U.S.S.R. Lieutenant Nikolai Redin, U.S. Navy Commander John McQuilkin said that the United States had withheld the latest types of radar and gunfire control equipment from the Soviet Union.

United Nations Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Herbert Evatt appointed a subcommittee to draft an international nuclear control plan.

International Business Machines demonstrated an electronically-operated Chinese typewriter that typed 5,400 characters horizontally or vertically.

Economics and finance
U.S.S.R. authorities reduced prices on consumer goods by an average of 40%.

U.S. Fair Employment Practices Commission Chairman Malcolm Ross gave his final report to President Harry Truman, stating that only the forces of law could stop job discrimination against minorities, as the FEPC was going out of existence.

George Fazio won the Canadian Open, shooting an even par 70 and finishing 1 stroke ahead of Dick Metz in an 18-hole playoff at Beaconsfield Golf Club in Beaconsfield, Quebec. First prize money was $2,000.

70 years ago

On the radio
Mr. Moto, starring James Monks, on NBC
Tonight's episode: Project 77

North Korea and Communist China broadcast messages agreeing to begin truce talks with U.S. representatives and suggesting the Kaesong area on the 38th Parallel as the site for the meetings.

World events
The Army Air Force and police put down a revolt in Bangkok by Navy and Marine soldiers, believed to be the result of perennial rivalry between military factions in Thailand.

Brazil and West Germany established diplomatic relations.

Politics and government
The United Kingdom granted a new constitution to Nigeria with expanded provisions for home rule.

Under an executive order signed by U.S. President Harry Tuman, the Panama Railroad Company became the Panama Canal Co. and took over all of the canal's physical properties.

Bob Feller (11-2) of the Cleveland Indians pitched his third career major league no-hitter as the Indians edged the Detroit Tigers 2-1 in the first game of a doubleheader before 42,891 fans at Municipal Stadium in Cleveland. The Tigers scored an unearned run in the 4th inning on 2 errors, a stolen base, and a fly ball to the outfield. Bob Cain (6-6) was the losing pitcher, allowing just 6 hits. The Indians completed the sweep with a 2-0 win in the second game, with Bob Chakales (3-2) pitching the 4-hit shutout.

Elmer Valo hit 2 home runs in the first game and another in the second game to help the Philadelphia Athletics sweep a doubleheader from the Washington Nationals 10-7 and 3-2 before 6,346 fans at Shibe Park in Philadelphia.

Minnie Minoso led off the bottom of the 11th inning with a home run to give the Chicago White Sox a 2-1 win over the St. Louis Browns in the first game of a doubleheader before 27,572 fans at Comiskey Park in Chicago. Ned Garver (10-4) pitched a 2-hitter for the Browns as they won the second game 3-1.

Roy Campanella drew a base on balls to lead off the bottom of the 3rd inning, Cal Abrams walked with 2 out, and Pee Wee Reese tripled them home with the Brooklyn Dodgers' only hit as they shut out the Philadelphia Phillies 2-0 before 18,074 fans at Ebbets Field in Brooklyn. Don Newcombe (11-4) pitched a 7-hit shutout to win the pitchers' duel over Russ Meyer (5-6), who allowed just 1 hit in 7 innings.

Bobby Thomson's 3-run home run with 1 out in the top of the necessary scoring for the New York Giants as they beat the Boston Braves 4-1 before 5,985 fans at Braves Field. Larry Jansen (10-6) pitched a 7-hitter to outduel Warren Spahn (8-7).

Paul Minner (4-6) pitched a 2-hitter and batted 2 for 4 with a run batted in to lead the Chicago Cubs over the Cincinnati Reds 7-0 in the first game of a doubleheader before 18,408 fans at Crosley Field in Cincinnati. Pinch hitter Roy Smalley doubled home Randy Jackson and advanced to third base on an error by second baseman Connie Ryan, and pinch runner Jack Cusick scored on a fly ball to center field by pitcher Dutch Leonard in the top of the 11th inning as the Cubs broke a 5-5 tie and won the second game 7-5 to complete the sweep.

With 2 out and nobody on base in the bottom of the 12th inning, Stan Musial drew a base on balls, stole second base, and scored on a double by Billy Johnson to give the St. Louis Cardinals a 5-4 win over the Pittsburgh Pirates before 21,195 fans at Sportsman's Park in St. Louis.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): Travelin' Man/Hello Mary Lou--Ricky Nelson

#1 single in Italy: Il mondo di Suzie Wong--Nico Fidenco (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in West Germany (Media Control): Wheels (Vier Schimmel, ein Wagen)--Billy Vaughn and his Orchestra (6th week at #1)

#1 single in the U.K. (Record Mirror): Runaway--Del Shannon (2nd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Quarter to Three--U.S. Bonds
2 Moody River--Pat Boone
3 Raindrops--Dee Clark
4 The Boll Weevil Song--Brook Benton
5 Travelin' Man--Ricky Nelson
6 Stand by Me--Ben E. King
7 Running Scared--Roy Orbison
8 Tossin' and Turnin'--Bobby Lewis
9 Those Oldies But Goodies (Remind Me of You)--Little Caesar and the Romans
10 Yellow Bird--Arthur Lyman Group
--[Lawrence Welk and his Orchestra]

Jan and Dean's version of Heart and Soul was now listed, but not charted, with the Cleftones' version at #19,. Singles entering the chart were Together (#74)/Too Many Rules (#88) by Connie Francis; Last Night by the Mar-Keys (#76); Pretty Little Angel Eyes by Curtis Lee (#78); I've Got News for You by Ray Charles (#79); What a Sweet Thing that Was (#87)/A Thing of the Past (#98) by the Shirelles; The Charleston by Ernie Fields (#91); I've Got a Notion by Marv Johnson (#93); Take a Fool's Advice by Nat King Cole (#95); Don't Bet Money Honey by Linda Scott (#99); and One Summer Night by the Diamonds (#100). Don't Bet Money Honey was the other side of Starlight, Starbright, which had yet to chart.

Vancouver's Top 10 (CFUN)
1 Hats Off to Larry--Del Shannon (2nd week at #1)
2 Daydreams--Johnny Crawford
3 I'm Gonna Knock on Your Door--Eddie Hodges
4 Fallen Idol--Ken Lyon
5 Don't You Sweetheart Me--Bobby Curtola
6 Quarter to Three--U.S. Bonds
7 Sea of Heartbreak--Don Gibson
8 Dum Dum--Brenda Lee
9 Classmate--The Beau-Marks
10 Heart and Soul--Jan and Dean

Singles entering the chart were Bobby by Neil Scott (#27); Judy (LP track) by Elvis Presley (#31); Too Many Rules by Connie Francis (#34); Baby Face by Bobby Vee (#38); I Just Don't Understand by Ann-Margret (#42); Johnny Willow by Fred Darian (#43); Time by Jerry Jackson (#45); Somebody Nobody Wants by Dion (#46); Let's Twist Again by Chubby Checker (#47); What a Sweet Thing that Was by the Shirelles (#49); and Ticonderoga by the Saturday Knights (#50).

Vancouver's Top 10 (CKWX)
1 Hats Off to Larry--Del Shannon (2nd week at #1)
2 Quarter to Three--U.S. Bonds
3 Sea of Heartbreak--Don Gibson
4 Fallen Idol--Ken Lyon
5 I'm Gonna Knock on Your Door--Eddie Hodges
6 Daydreams--Johnny Crawford
7 Heart and Soul--Jan and Dean
8 Dum Dum--Brenda Lee
9 Never on Sunday--The Chordettes
10 Barbara-Ann--The Regents

Singles entering the chart were Together/Too Many Rules by Connie Francis (#28); Wooden Heart by Joe Dowell (#34); Tossin' and Turnin' by Bobby Lewis (#37); Shake Shake Sherry by the Flairs (#39); and Sermonette by Earl Grant (#40).

Died on this date
Louis-Ferdinand Céline, 67
. French physician and author. Dr. Céline practiced medicine before turning to writing, with his best-known work being the novel Voyage au bout de la nuit (Journey to the End of the Night) (1932). He became a pamphleteer on behalf of the Axis powers, and was imprisoned in Denmark for more than a year after World War II. Dr. Céline returned to France in 1951 after being granted amnesty, and died of a ruptured aneurysm.

National Boxing Association world light heavyweight champion Harold Johnson (65-8), fighting as a heavyweight, won a 10-round decision over Eddie Machen (37-4-1) at Convention Hall in Philadelphia.

Mickey Wright won the Women's U.S. Open at Baltusrol Golf Club in Springfield, New Jersey.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in France (IFOP): Here's to You--Joan Baez (4th week at #1)

Died on this date
William Lawrence Bragg, 81
. Australian-born U.K. physicist. Sir William and his father William Henry Bragg shared the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics "for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-ray."

Learie Constantine, 69. Trinidadian-born U.K. cricketer, politician, and diplomat. Mr. Constantine began his cricket career in his native Trinidad and Tobago in the 1920s, and played professionally in England from 1929-1938. He became a lawyer in 1954 and advocated for racial equality. Mr. Constantine returned to Trinidad and Tobago in 1954 and became a founder of the People's National Movement, subsequently serving as Minister of Communications. He was Trinidad and Tobago's High Commissioner to the United Kingdom (1961-1964), and was influential in the passage of the Race Relations Act 1965. Mr. Contantine was knighted in 1962 and created a life peer as Baron Constantine in 1969, two years before his death from a heart attack. He was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame in June 2021.

Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau opened the $2.5-million museum for aboriginal artifacts at the University of British Columbia campus in Vancouver. The museum was a gift from Canada to honour the centennial of B.C.'s entry into Confederation.

The National Gallery of Canada mounted Joyce Wieland's True Patriot Love; it was the NGC's first solo exhibition devoted to the work of a living Canadian woman artist.

Politics and government
The 182-year-old U.S. Post Office Department was officially replaced by the new semi-independent U.S. Postal Service.

40 years ago

Hit parade
Austria's Top 10 (Ö3)
1 Stars on 45--Stars on 45
2 Making Your Mind Up--Bucks Fizz
3 Hands Up (Give Me Your Heart)--Ottawan
4 Video Life--Bilgeri
5 Per Elisa--Alice
6 The Farmer's Daughter--Fleetwood Mac
7 Angel of the Morning--Juice Newton
8 Agadou--Saragossa Band
9 In the Air Tonight--Phil Collins
10 Jealous Guy--Roxy Music

Singles entering the chart were The Farmer's Daughter; Agadou; Bette Davis Eyes by Kim Carnes (#12); and Seven Tears by Goombay Dance Band (#20).

Died on this date
George Voskovec, 76
. Czech-born U.S. actor. Mr. Voskovec, born Jiří Wachsmann, began his career with the Osvobozené divadlo (Liberated Theater) in Prague, but fled to the United States in 1939 as his homeland was facing the possibility of German invasion. He appeared in more than 70 movies as a character actor, and was perhaps best known as the 11th juror in 12 Angry Men (1957). Mr. Voskovec died of a heart attack.

The Beach Boys performed at the Civic Center in Huntington, West Virginia.

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that candidates for federal office had an “affirmative right” to go on national television. The ruling limited a TV network’s right to determine when political campaigns begin and who may buy time.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Japan (Oricon Singles Chart): Anata ni aete yokatta (あなたに会えてよかった)--Kyōko Koizumi (4th week at #1)

#1 single in Finland (Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland): Pienestä pitäen--Juice Leskinen (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Wind of Change--Scorpions (5th week at #1)

Died on this date
Michael Landon, 55
. U.S. actor. Mr. Landon, born Eugene Orowitz, was known for co-starring in the television series Bonanza (1959-1973); Little House on the Prairie (1974-1983); and Highway to Heaven (1984-1989). He died of pancreatic cancer.

The U.S. cable Courtroom Television Network--better known as Court TV--began broadcasting at 6:00 A.M. Eastern Time.

The Warsaw Pact was officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague.

U.S. President George H.W. Bush nominated federal appeals court judge Clarence Thomas to the U.S. Supreme Court.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Spain (PROMUSICAE): Seven Days and One Week--B.B.E.

#1 single in Norway (VG-lista): Killing Me Softly--The Fugees (3rd week at #1)

#1 single in Germany (Media Control): Killing Me Softly--The Fugees

Canada's Top 10 (RPM)
1 You Learn--Alanis Morissette
2 Give Me One Reason--Tracy Chapman
3 Ahead by a Century--The Tragically Hip
4 The Only Thing that Looks Good on Me is You--Bryan Adams
5 Fastlove--George Michael
6 Everything Falls Apart--Dog's Eye View
7 Old Man & Me (When I Get to Heaven)--Hootie & the Blowfish
8 Flood--Jars of Clay
9 You Still Touch Me--Sting
10 Killing Me Softly--The Fugees

Singles entering the chart were Jerk by Kim Stockwood (#84); Lack of Water by the Why Stone (#88); 6th Avenue Heartache by the Wallflowers (#90); Tha Crossroads by Bone Thugs-N-Harmony (#93); I Can Hear You by Carolyn Arends (#96); and How Deep is Your Love by Take That (#98).

Died on this date
William T. Cahill, 84
. U.S. politician. Mr. Cahill, Republican, represented New Jersey in the United States Houose of Representatives from 1959-1970, and was Governor of New Jersey from 1970-1974. He died six days after his 84th birthday.

Steve Tesich, 53. Serbian-born U.S. screenwriter. Mr. Tesich, born Stojan Tešić, moved to the United States with his family at the age of 14. He was best known for writing the screenplay for Breaking Away (1979), for which he won an Academy Award. Mr. Tesich died in Sydney, Nova Scotia following a heart attack.

Margaux Hemingway, 42. U.S. supermodel. Miss Hemingway, a granddaughter of writer Ernest Hemingway, was on the covers of various magazines in the mid-1970s, and signed a $1-million contract with Fabergé as the spokesmodel for Babe perfume. Her personal life was a mess, and she committed suicide with an overdose of phenobarbital, the day before the 35th anniversary of the suicide of her grandfather.

France announced its decision to ban asbestos; the decision was preceded by the publication of a report by the National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSRM).

Unemployment Insurance in Canada became Employment Insurance, with a tightening of rules on collecting benefits.

The Winnipeg Jets officially moved to Phoenix to become the Coyotes.

20 years ago

Died on this date
Nikolay Basov, 78
. U.S.S.R. physicist and politician. Dr. Basov shared the 1964 Nobel Prize in Physics with Alexander Prokhorov and Charles Townes "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser–laser principle." He became a member of the Soviet of the Union of the Supreme Soviet in 1974.

Jean-Louis Rosier, 76. French auto racing driver. Mr. Rosier was the son of Formula One driver Louis Rosier. They combined to win the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1950, with the elder Mr. Rosier driving all but 2 laps. Jean-Louis Rosier died of a cerebral hemorrhage.

10 years ago

Married on this date
Prince Albert II of Monaco and South African swimmer Charlene Wittstock were married in a civil ceremony in the Throne Room of the Prince's Palace. A religious ceremony took place the next day.

Politics and government
A three-week Minnesota state government shutdown began after legislators could not agree on a budget.

Toronto-based Nortel Networks Corp. auctioned off 6,000 patents to a consortium that included Apple, Research In Motion Ltd., and Microsoft for U.S.$4.5 billion in cash; the former Canadian technology giant's fall involved the biggest patent sale in history.

Winnipeg (1-0) 24 @ Hamilton (0-1) 16

Toronto (1-0) 23 @ Calgary (0-1) 21

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