Wednesday, 21 July 2021

July 21, 2021

1,480 years ago

Born on this date
. Emperor of China, 581-604. Wen, born Yang Jian, succeeded Jing on the throne, and established the Sui dynasty. He encouraged the spread of Buddhism, and reunified China in 589 after centuries of division since the fall of the Western Jin dynasty in 316. Construction of the Grand Canal began during Wen's reign. He died of an illness on August 13, 604, 23 days after his 63rd birthday, and was succeeded by his second son Yang.

225 years ago

Died on this date
Robert Burns, 37
. U.K. poet and lyricist. Mr. Burns was a pioneer of the Romantic movement, and is regarded as the national poet of Scotland. His birthday is celebrated annually by those of Scottish ancestry. Mr. Burns is probably best known for writing the song Auld Lang Syne. He died of a rheumatic heart condition, perhaps exacerbated by an allegedly intemperate lifestyle.

210 years ago

Born on this date
Robert Mackenzie, 10th Baronet Mackenzie
. U.K.-born Australian politician. Sir Robert moved to Sydney in 1832, and was an unsuccessful businessman. He represented Burnett in the Queensland Legislative Assembly (1860-1869), serving as Treasurer (1859-1862, 1867-1868) and Premier of Queensland (1867-1868). Sir Robert succeeded his late brother William as Baron Mackenzie in 1868; he returned to the family estate in Scotland, and died there on September 19, 1873 at the age of 62.

190 years ago

Belgium became independent from the United Netherlands, as Leopold I was proclaimed King of the Belgians.

160 years ago

Born on this date
Perry Werden
. U.S. baseball player. Mr. Werden, whose birth year is recorded as 1865 in some sources, began his career as a pitcher, breaking into the major leagues with the St. Louis Maroons of the Union Association in 1884. He posted a 12-1 record with a 1.97 earned run average in 16 games, leading the UA in winning percentage and helping the Maroons win the pennant in the league's only season. An arm injury forced Mr. Werden to move to first base, where he played with the Washington Nationals (1888); Toledo Maumees (1890); Baltimore Orioles (1891); St. Louis Browns (1892-1893); and Louisville Colonels (1897), batting .282 with 26 home runs and 439 runs batted in in 693 major league games. He led the National League in 1893 with 29 triples. Mr. Werden played at least 1,100 games in 18 minor league seasons from 1884-1908. His greatest success and popularity came with the Minneapolis Millers of the Western League (1894-1896, 1899); American League (1900); and American Association (1902). Mr. Werden led the WL with 43 home runs in 1894 and 45 in 1895; his totals were aided by short distances to the outfield walls of Athletic Park in Minneapolis, but his 1895 total stood as a professional baseball record for a single season until Babe Ruth hit 54 homers for the New York Yankees in 1920. Mr. Werden tied for the American League lead in home runs (9) in the AL's only season as a minor league. He was a master of the hidden ball trick and was one of the most colourful and entertaining players of his day, although his hot temper sometimes got the better of him. After years of heaping abuse on umpires as a player, Mr. Werden became an umpire in the American Association (1906-1907); Northern League (1913); and Dakota League (1920-1921). He died of a heart attack on January 9, 1934 at the age of 68 or 72.

Union and Confederate troops clashed outside Manassas, Virginia in the First Battle of Bull Run, the first major engagement of the U.S. Civil War.

140 years ago

At the first National Acadian Convention taking place in Memramcook, New Brunswick, the Feast of Assumption (August 15) was chosen as National Acadian Day, affirming the uniqueness of Acadian culture as descending not from Canada, but from France.

130 years ago

Born on this date
Julius Saaristo
. Finnish javelin thrower. Mr. Saaristo won several Finnish national championships in the 1910s. At the 1912 Summer Olympic Games in Stockholm, he won a gold medal in the two-handed javelin throw, and a silver medal in the conventional javelin throw. Mr. Saaristo died of throat cancer on October 12, 1969 at the age of 78.

125 years ago

At the movies
John Green showed the first Canadian display of Thomas Edison's Vitascope at the Ottawa Electric Railway Company's West End Park near the intersection of Holland Avenue and Carling Avenue in Ottawa. 1,200 spectators enjoyed a magic show, following by a series of short films. The hit of the evening was The Kiss (1896), a brief film featuring Canadian actress May Irwin and actor John Rice, co-stars of the popular Broadway play The Widow Jones, from which the film was an excerpt.

Born on this date
Sophie Bledsoe Aberle
. U.S. anthropologist. Dr. Aberle was known for her work among the Pueblo people of the southwestern United States from the 1930s through the 1950s. She was one of the first two women appointed to the National Science Board in 1951. Dr. Aberle died in October 1996 at the age of 100.

Politics and government
Arthur Hardy was sworn in as Premier of Ontario, replacing the retiring Sir Oliver Mowat. Mr. Hardy also replaced Sir Oliver as leader of the Ontario Liberal Party.

110 years ago

Born on this date
Marshall McLuhan
. Canadian media scholar. Born in Edmonton, raised in Winnipeg, and resident in Toronto, Dr. McLuhan coined the term "global village" and became famous for his phrase "The medium is the message" and variations thereof. His best-known book was Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964). Dr. McLuhan made a memorable cameo appearance as himself in the movie Annie Hall (1977). He died in Toronto on December 31, 1980 at the age of 69, 15 months after suffering a stroke.

Olivier-Elzéar Mathieu was appointed the first Roman Catholic Bishop of Regina.

90 years ago

On television today
The Columbia Broadcasting System made its first broadcast, on New York station W2XAB. Ted Husing was master of ceremonies, and guests included singer Kate Smith, composer George Gershwin and New York City Mayor Jimmy Walker.

80 years ago

German bombers pounded Moscow for the first time. The U.S.S.R. announced that dictator Josef Stalin was "now officially the commander-in-chief of the Red Army."

The Bolivian government announced that Germany had given the Bolivian charge d'affaires 72 hours to leave Germany in retaliation for the ouster of German Minister to Bolivia Ernst Wendler.

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in a special message, asked Congress to extend the one-year service of draftees, National Guardsmen, and reserve officers. He said that demobilization "would be a tragic error." The U.S. Office for Civilian Defense reported a highly successful opening day in its nine-day aluminum collection drive.

75 years ago

Died on this date
Gualberto Villarroel López, 37
. 46th President of Bolivia, 1943-1946. Major Villaroel took power as de facto President of Bolivia in a coup in 1943 that toppled General Enrique Peñaranda. Major Villaroel proclaimed himself a constitutional president in 1944 and instituted economic reforms, but was suspected of Fascist sympathies. Protests from workers led to a government crackdown, and hostilities escalated into a nationwide revolt that culminated in rebels taking control of the Plaza Murillo in La Paz, the location of the Palacio Quemado (Palace of Government). Major Villaroel resigned, but was assassinated anyway; his body was thrown over the balcony into a public square and hung from a lamppost. The opposition took control of the government for the next six years.

The New York Herald Tribune listed The Hucksters by Frederic Wakeman as the bestselling non-fiction book, and The Egg and I by Betty MacDonald as the bestselling non-fiction book.

Politics and government
The ruling Republican People's Party gained a large majority of seats in Turkey's first multiparty parliamentary elections.

Auto racing
Elbert Booker set a big-car world speed record of 21.35 seconds on a half-mile track in Dayton, Ohio.

70 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in Australia (Kent Music Report): If--Perry Como; Jo Stafford (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in the U.S.A. (Billboard): Too Young--Nat "King" Cole (Best Seller--5th week at #1; Disc Jockey--4th week at #1; Jukebox--3rd week at #1)

U.S.A. Top 10 (Cash Box)
1 Too Young--Nat "King" Cole (5th week at #1)
2 Jezebel--Frankie Laine
3 My Truly, Truly Fair--Guy Mitchell
--Vic Damone
4 How High the Moon--Les Paul and Mary Ford
5 On Top of Old Smoky--The Weavers and Terry Gilkyson
--Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra
6 The Loveliest Night of the Year--Mario Lanza
7 Rose, Rose, I Love You--Frankie Laine
8 Mister and Mississippi--Patti Page
–-Dennis Day
9 Sound Off (The Duckworth Chant)--Vaughn Monroe and his Orchestra
10 Mockin’ Bird Hill--Les Paul and Mary Ford

Singles entering the chart were I Won't Cry Anymore by Tony Bennett (#32); There's No Boat Like a Rowboat by Perry Como (#36); and Black Ball Ferry Line by Percy Faith and his Orchestra (#37). There's No Boat Like a Rowboat was the other side of There's a Big Blue Cloud (Next to Heaven), which charted at #29.

Communist delegates requested a four-day suspension of Korean truce talks to consider their position on the issue of foreign troop withdrawal.

Eritrean officials reported that 1,087 Ethiopian terrorists in Eritrea had surrendered during a month-long amnesty ending July 18.

The U.S. House of Representaitves passed a new Defense Production Act, extending economic controls for 12 months. Viewed as an important defeat for the anti-inflation efforts of the administration of President Harry Truman, the measure permitted a 20% increase in rents over mid-1951 levels; limited new price rollbacks on farm products; and relaxed curbs on consumer and real estate credit.

Politics and government
Jose Maria Gil Robles, exiled Spanish monarchist leader and adviser to Spanish pretender Don Juan, charged in Lisbon that the Spanish cabinet was "more Nazi and anti-democratic than ever." Generalissimo Francisco Franco had shuffled his cabinet two days earlier to make a cabinet more acceptable to the United States.

Dental researchers reported in the Journal of the American Dental Association that a sugarless chewing gum containing furqadroxyl cut tooth decay by slowing bacteria growth.

Robin Roberts (12-8) pitched a 4-hit shutout as the Philadelphia Phillies blanked the Chicago Cubs 5-0 before 5,515 fans at Shibe Park in Philadelphia. The Cubs, with a record of 35-45, fired Frankie Frisch as manager and replaced him with Phil Cavaretta.

Bob Elliott batted 4 for 4 with a base on balls, home run, double, 5 runs, and 3 runs batted in to help the Boston Braves defeat the Pittsburgh Pirates 11-6 before 3,263 fans at Braves Field. Vern Bickford (10-7) pitched an 11-hit complete game victory, walking 8 batters and allowing 6 earned runs.

Jackie Robinson led off the bottom of the 9th inning with a single and scored from third base on a bases-loaded single by pinch hitter Wayne Terwilliger to give the Brooklyn Dodgers a 3-2 win over the St. Louis Cardinals before 18,660 fans at Ebbets Field in Brooklyn. Don Newcombe (13-4) pitched a 10-hit complete game victory.

60 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Well I Ask You--Eden Kane

On television tonight
The Lawless Years, starring James Gregory, on NBC
Tonight's episode: Little Augie

Born on this date
Happy Birthday, Garland Grayston!

With the 15-minute suborbital Mercury-Redstone 4 mission, Gus Grissom became the second American in space. On splashdown, the hatch of his spacecraft--nicknamed Liberty Bell 7--accidentally blew, and water began pouring in. Mr. Grissom got out and began sinking as the recovery helicopter tried to rescue the spacecraft. Finally, the rescue crew realized what was happening and abandoned the spacecraft to rescue Mr. Grissom. Liberty Bell 7 was retrieved 38 years later.

Prime Minister John Diefenbaker opened the federal government-built town of Inuvik, Northwest Territories, on the Mackenzie River delta, to replace Aklavik as the central town of the district, which was menaced by flood and erosion. Inuvik's economy was centred on oil and gas exploration in the valley and on the Beaufort Sea.

Hamilton (0-1) 9 @ Edmonton (2-0) 17

The St. Louis Cardinals sold veteran pitcher Mickey McDermott to the Kansas City Athletics. He was 1-0 with an earned run average of 3.67 and 4 saves in 19 games, and was batting .071 with 3 runs batted in in 22 games with St. Louis in 1961.

The Cincinnati Reds traded pitcher Orlando Peña and cash from the Jersey City Jerseys of the International League to the IL's Toronto Maple Leafs for pitcher Ken Johnson. Mr. Peña had appeared in 28 games with Jersey City in 1961, while Mr. Johnson was 0-4 with a 10.61 ERA in 6 games with Kansas City and 5-5 with a 4.34 ERA in 19 games with Toronto.

Johnny Blanchard's pinch-hit grand slam with 2 out in the top of the 9th inning enabled the New York Yankees to defeat the Boston Red Sox 11-8 before 32,186 fans at Fenway Park in Boston. Roger Maris hit his 36th homer of the season and Mickey Mantle followed with his 37th for the Yankees in the 1st inning.

Jose Valdevielso stole second base with 2 out in the bottom of the 9th inning and scored on an infield single by Lenny Green to give the Minnesota Twins a 4-3 win over the Cleveland Indians before 17,100 fans at Metropolitan Stadium in Bloomington. The Indians had tied the game when Bubba Phillips led off the 9th with a home run.

George Thomas batted 4 for 4 with a hit by pitch, base on balls, 3 runs, and 3 runs batted in, and Albie Pearson added 4 hits, 2 runs, and 2 RBIs to help the Los Angeles Angels beat the Washington Senators 16-5 before 6,252 fans at Wrigley Field in Los Angeles.

Tony Gonzalez hit a solo home run with 1 out in the bottom of the 10th inning to give the Philadelphia Phillies a 4-3 win over the Chicago Cubs before 5,413 fans at Connie Mack Stadium in Philadelphia.

Joe Cunningham batted 3 for 5 with a home run and 4 runs batted in to help the St. Louis Crdinals rout the Los Angeles Dodgers 10-1 before 13,922 fans at Busch Stadium in St. Louis. Curt Simmons (5-7) pitched a 7-hit complete game victory.

50 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in the U.K. (New Musical Express): Chirpy Chirpy Cheep Cheep--Middle of the Road (5th week at #1)

Saskatchewan (1-3) 10 @ Winnipeg (3-1) 17

30 years ago

The Albuquerque Dukes won their ninth straight game, improving their record for the season to 68-26, as they beat the Edmonton Trappers 11-8 in a Pacific Coast League game before 3,334 fans at Renfrew Park in Edmonton. Kevin Keefe (4-1); who relieved starting pitcher Brian Holton, was the winning pitcher; reliever Juan Agosto (4-7) took the loss. Ron Roenicke hit his 12th home run of the season for the Dukes; Rod Allen hit his 8th for the Trappers, and Gary Holle added his 17th and second in as many games.

30 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): I Wanna Sex You Up--Color Me Badd (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Gypsy Woman (She's Homeless)--Crystal Waters

Austria's Top 10 (Ö3)
1 Wind of Change--Scorpions (3rd week at #1)
2 Bobby Brown--Frank Zappa
3 The Shoop Shoop Song (It's in his Kiss)--Cher
4 Gypsy Woman (La Da Dee La Da Da)--Crystal Waters
5 Jesus Loves You--Bow Down Mister
6 Sailing on the Seven Seas--OMD (Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark)
7 Fading Like a Flower (Every Time You Leave)--Roxette
8 Senza una donna (Without a Woman)--Zucchero & Paul Young
9 Last Train to Trancentral--The KLF
10 The One and Only--Chesney Hawkes

Singles entering the chart were More than Words by Extreme (#22); Sit Down by James (#27); and Love is a Wonderful Thing by Michael Bolton (#28).

Died on this date
Paul Warwick, 22
. U.K. auto racing driver. Mr. Warwick was killed in a crash at Oulton Park in Cheshire, England. He was leading the race and was posthumously awarded the victory, clinching the 1991 British Formula 3000 championship.

Ian Baker-Finch won the British Open at Royal Birkdale Golf Club in Southport, England with an 8-under-par score of 272, 2 strokes ahead of fellow Australian Mike Harwood. First prize money was £90,000.

25 years ago

Hit parade
#1 single in New Zealand (RIANZ): Tha Crossroads--Bone Thugs-N-Harmony (5th week at #1)

#1 single in Austria (Ö3): Coco Jamboo--Mr. President (6th week at #1)

#1 single in Switzerland: Killing Me Softly--The Fugees (2nd week at #1)

#1 single in Scotland (OCC): Wannabe--Spice Girls

Died on this date
Herb Edelman, 62
. U.S. actor. Mr. Edelman was a character actor in 20 movies and numerous television programs in a career spaning more than 30 years, and was mainly known for comic roles. He co-starred in the television comedy series The Good Guys (1968-1970), and had recurring roles in St. Elsewhere (1984-1988) and The Golden Girls (1985-1992), receiving two Emmy Award nominations for the latter. Mr. Edelman died of emphysema.

72 hours of torrential rain in the Chicoutimi/Charlevoix region of Quebec ended. Flooding and landslides killed 10 and left 10,000 homeless, with an estimated $365 million in damage.

Cyclist Clara Hughes won Canada's first medal at the Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta, taking the bronze in the women's road race in a time of 2:36.44; Jeannie Longo of France won gold, and Italian Imelda Chiappa the silver, just holding off Miss Hughes. It was the first ever medal for Canada in Olympic women's cycling. Curtis Myden swam to a Canadian and Commonwealth record, winning the bronze medal in the 400-metre individual medley, finishing in 4:16:28 seconds, about .7 of a second better than his previous personal best. Tom Dolan of the United States won the gold, and teammate Eric Namesnik the silver.

Tom Lehman won the British Open at Royal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club in Lytham St Annes, England with a 13-under-par score of 271, 2 strokes ahead of Ernie Els and Mark McCumber. First prize money was £200,000.

Free agent centre Wayne Gretzky signed a 2-year contract with the New York Rangers for $8 million plus incentives. He had split the 1995-96 season between the Los Angeles Kings and St. Louis Blues, scoring 15 goals and 66 assists in 62 games with the Kings, and 8 goals and 13 assists in 18 regular season games, and 2 goals and 14 assists in 13 playoff games with the Blues.

Ferguson Jenkins, Gaylord Perry, Rod Carew, Tony Lazzeri, and Bill Veeck were inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York. Mr. Jenkins, a native of Chatham, Ontario, was the first Canadian to be so honoured.

20 years ago

At the conclusion of a fireworks display on Okura Beach in Akashi, Hyōgo, Japan, 11 people were killed and more than 120 injured when a pedestrian footbridge connecting the beach to JR Asagiri Station became overcrowded, and people leaving the event fell down in a domino effect.

Saskatchewan (2-1) 12 @ British Columbia (1-2) 7

Mark DeRosa led off the bottom of the 10th inning with a home run off Graeme Lloyd (7-3), who had just entered the game, to give the Atlanta Braves a 2-1 win over the Montreal Expos before 46,363 fans at Turner Field in Atlanta.

The Los Angeles Dodgers scored 5 runs in the 1st inning, 6 in the 6th, and 9 in the 8th as they routed the Colorado Rockies 22-7 before 43,011 fans at Coors Field in Denver. The Rockies scored 5 runs in the 2nd; the score remained 5-5 after 4 innings and 6-6 after 5.

The Toronto Blue Jays score 2 runs in the top of the 9th inning to break a 3-3 tie as they beat the New York Yankees 5-3 before 55,264 fans at Yankee Stadium. The Yankees had runners on first and second bases with 2 out in the bottom of the 9th, but Billy Koch struck out Jorge Posada to end the game.

Scott Spiezio tripled with 2 out and nobody on base in the top of the 10th inning and Bengie Molina followed with a run-scoring single to break a 5-5 tie as the Anaheim Angels edged the Baltimore Orioles 6-5 before 47,234 fans at Oriole Park at Camden Yards.

10 years ago

Died on this date
Elwy Yost, 86
. Canadian broadcaster. Mr. Yost, a native of Weston, Ontario, worked at several occupations before joining the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in the 1960s as a panelist, and later hosting television programs such as Passport to Adventure (1965-1967). He then worked with the educational network TVOntario, presenting movies on weeknights on Magic Shadows (1974-1988?) and Saturday Night at the Movies (1974-1999). Mr. Yost died in West Vancouver, where he spent his later years.

The U.S. space shuttle program ended with the landing of space shuttle Atlantis at Cape Canaveral, Florida to conclude the 13-day mission STS-135, with a four-member crew commanded by Christopher Ferguson.

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